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It has remained for certain amateurs here in England very recently to show that objects upon the surface of the Sun which escaped many of the earlier solar observers can be observed at any time when the conditions are favourable with a very small instruinent indeed. For example, Mr. Buss and Captain Daunt, and, I believe, some others, have been observing the Sun with such instruments, and have been able to see upon the disk dark regions in which the Dg line is strengthened, which I think have never been recorded before in a systematic way. Observations of the dark D, line upon the face of the Sun were formerly mentioned as unusual and rather remarkable phenomena, and certainly, so far as I have ever seen in the literature of the subject, the dark hydrogen flocculi were never recognised upon the Sun by the earlier spectroscopists; but they are seen, at times at least, by those gentlemen to whom I have referred. This I can make quite certain from my own knowledge, because on one occasion, when Mr. Buss had described one of the very peculiar dark hydrogen flocculi-flocculi of this type appear very much darker than the ordinary ones photographed daily with the spectroheliograph-I looked up our photographs of that date, and there was the image recorded by the spectroheliograph precisely as it had been described. So that if I had previously been a little doubtful as to the possibility of seeing these objects with such an equipment, I gave up all doubt after having made that comparison.* One might say that it would hardly be practicable to observe such phenomena in any satisfactory way with a large telescope. A small one is very much more advantageous for work of this kind. As soon as possible we are going to set up a small equatorial for the purpose of seeing these objects and comparing them with our photographs, after having derived the knowledge of the possibility of observing them from the work done by these men in England. But we will not undertake systematic work in this field, as I hope the valuable observations now in progress here will be continued. No records are made with the spectroheliograph of the D, image of the Sun at present. We have tried experiments, but so far they have not been successful. We ought to be able to photograph the Sun through the D, line, but we have not done it yet. The only existing records are those made by the members of the British Astronomical Association. These observations should be made in conjunction with other solar observations, as in fact is being done at the present time. The characteristics of the hydrogen lines are being observed at the same time that these D images are being recorded, so that any relationship between the two may be discovered. I cannot dwell upon this very interesting subject. There is a great opportunity here for further work of high importance.


I must now pass to the question of sun-spot spectra. I need hardly tell those who are present that observations of sun-spot

As I understand the matter, only the more conspicuous dark flocculi can be observed visually.

spectra made visually are sometimes far more valuable than those which can be made by photographic methods. Take, for example, the lines in the green region of the spectrum. This photograph will suffice to show them. Here is the b group in the spectrum of a sun-spot and also in the spectrum of the photosphere. We see in the spot a large number of fine lines, long ago observed by Young and Maunder, and now being studied with great care. All of these fine lines shown by a powerful instrument photographically can be seen visually with a small spectroscope attached to a 6-inch or probably a 4-inch telescope, and many other phenomena which cannot be photographed at all can be seen with a similar equipment. There is a certain advantage in observing such spectra with a larger telescope, provided that the spot under consideration is a small one. But if the spot is a fairly large one (and hitherto no one has had time to observe the spectra of small spots systematically), I think there is no advantage whatever in having a large telescope to form the image of the Sun on the slit of the spectroscope; it is merely a question of having an image of moderate dimensions upon the slit, and after that the spectroscope does the work. So that, so far as the spots actually under observation are concerned, a small telescope is quite as satisfactory as a large one for visual work on their spectra.

I will return in a moment to the question of the relative advantages of the photographic and the visual method of observing spot spectra; but I want to point out in passing that the 40-inch telescope has certain very definite advantages for work on the Sun. If one wishes to observe the spectrum of the chromosphere, for example, the advantages of great focal length immediately become apparent. The width of the spectroscope slit is essentially constant; the chromospheric arc must have a certain linear width on the slit in order to permit the base of the chromosphere to be observed; and consequently the spectrum of the chromosphere, as seen with the 40-inch telescope, is a remarkable sight, showing thousands of lines which do not come out with a small focal image of the Sun.

Here we have, then, an illustration of the advantages for certain purposes of considerable focal length. I think it is not so much a question of the telescope's aperture here, because we must not forget, in thinking of the optics of this question, that the brightness of the spectrum (for constant purity) is quite independent of the linear or the angular aperture of the object-glass that forms the image of the Sun on the slit of the spectroscope.* Perhaps it is well to bear in mind that the brightest solar spectrum one can get is obtained without any telescope whatever to form an

* When the focal length of the collimator is limited (as is usually the case in a spectroscope attached to an equatorial telescope), an increase in the angular aperture of the telescope permits the linear aperture of the spectroscope, and consequently the resolving power and the brightness of the spectrum, to be increased up to a limit fixed by the size of the grating_available. With a colostat telescope, however, the same conditions do not obtain, since the aperture of the spectroscope can be increased by merely increasing the focal length of the collimator.

image on the slit, but merely with a collimator of suitable angular aperture. But a large solar image is frequently advantageous, and an equatorial telescope of great focal length is necessarily an expensive instrument. The aperture in the case just mentioned is less important than the focal length; but even if the aperture were only 6 inches and the focal length unchanged, the tube must still be 64 feet long, and the mounting would cost no less than the mounting of the Yerkes telescope. So if we wish to have an instrument of great focal length, and yet keep down the expense to a reasonable figure, we must use a telescope of a different type. There are many other reasons why we should wish to use a fixed telescope for certain kinds of solar work, although I should be the last to admit that the 40-inch telescope is not an almost perfectly satisfactory machine of its kind. It has, as we have seen, inconveniences and disadvantages for some classes of work, but in other fields its superior qualities become more and more striking day after day as the observer learns to appreciate them. I only wish we could afford to have such a telescope (or even a much smaller equatorial refractor) on Mount Wilson, as it would be of great service for many purposes.

Now let us consider some of the possibilities of the fixed telescope; and let me show, for purposes of comparison, a picture on the screen of the Snow telescope which is now employed at Mount Wilson. Here is a colostat, with mirror 30 inches in diameter. After passing to a second mirror the light is reflected to a concave mirror of 60 feet focal length, which sends it back and forms a large image of the Sun within a laboratory. This is a very simple instrument indeed. The first cœlostat we set up on Mount Wilson was a small one used by the Yerkes Observatory party at the eclipse of 1900, and it was not originally arranged for work of this kind; so we simply built a wooden support for a second mirror, and with the aid of a 6-inch objective of 60 feet focal length we made a telescope which served admirably for our solar work until this one was put up on the mountain.

The next photograph shows the spectrograph used with the Snow telescope. It is of the Littrow or auto-collimating type, with slit and plate-holder at one end of a long tube and lens and grating at the other. Light from the solar image, after passing through the slit, falls on the lens 18 feet (its focal length) distant. The rays, thus rendered parallel, then strike the grating and are returned to the lens, which forms an image of the spectrum on the photographic plate, just above the slit (the grating being tipped back a little). Such an outfit (fixed telescope and spectrograph) is an extremely simple thing to build in inexpensive form. Colostats, for example, are common nowadays for eclipse work. One might have a colostat with a mirror only 6 inches in diameter and a second mirror about 4 inches in diameter, and then perhaps a telescope lens of 4 inches aperture and 40 feet focal length. Such an instrument as that, which could be very cheaply built indeed, would give a large solar image, adapted for many kinds of solar work.

Let me show you in the next slide how we build our spectrographs in actual practice. This is the most powerful spectrograph in use in the laboratories of the Solar Observatory. Here is a little slit I bought from Hilger, the last time I was in London, for a few shillings. All other parts of the spectrograph, except a lens and grating, are of wood, built in a few hours by a carpenter.* The wooden support for slit aud plate-holder stand on a concrete pier, and close an opening through a partition which forms one end of a narrow dark room. Eighteen feet from the slit, within the dark room, is another concrete pier. A sliding wooden support, carrying a lens, and a simple wooden mounting for the grating, stand on this pier, and complete the spectrograph. Owing to the scarcity of gratings, we are fortunate in being able to use one loaned by Professor Ames, of Johns Hopkins University. If we had no reflecting grating, we could buy a replica very cheaply from Thorp, or Wallace, or Ives,† which would give quite as good photographs as we obtain now (though the exposures would be longer, because of the smaller aperture). They might even be better, because our photographs of spot-spectra (made with the similar spectrograph of the Snow telescope) are not what they ought to be, or what I hope they will subsequently become. They would not stand comparison for a moment, so far as perfection of definition is concerned, with those magnificent photographs of the solar spectrum made by Mr. Higgs in the centre of Liverpool, under conditions which would ordinarily be called very bad even for a crowded city, with tram-cars constantly passing in front of the house. With a spectrograph of his own construction (except the grating), Higgs made the finest photographs of the solar spectrum ever produced; superior, as Rowland would have said, to the best photographs made by himself at the Johns Hopkins University. It is obvious that something other than an expensive instrument is required to make a good photograph. Mr. Higgs has the ability, which others may acquire, to obtain superb definition and exquisite photographs with very simple apparatus indeed.

With a spectrograph of 1 inch aperture and 10 feet focal length, used with a fixed telescope of 4 inches aperture and 40 feet focal length, one would be in a position to make good photographs of the spectra of sun-spots.

What, then, are the relative advantages of visual and of photographic work? The next slide shows some photographs. The upper one is the spectrum of the Sun and the lower one is that of a spot. These photographs are better than visual observations for the determination of the wave-lengths of unknown lines in spot spectra, simply because you can measure the position of a line on

* Except the plate-holder, which is of a standard make.

+ As these are not reflecting gratings, the auto-collimating spectrograph might in this case give way to one in which a separate camera lens is used. With the angular aperture here considered, well-made simple lenses would obviously serve perfectly well for collimator and camera, the photographic plate being set at the angle required to bring a sufficient range of spectrum into focus.

the photograph to much better advantage than you can do it visually at the telescope. They are also better for the determination of the relative intensities of the lines, especially the fainter ones. But when you have said that, you have said almost everything that can be said for the photographs, and you have left out of account many of the very important advantages of visual observation. These photographs represent the integrated spot spectrum, as it were. Even with a large image of the spot on the slit of the spectrograph (and you realise here that the principal point of our great focal length is to have a large image of the spot on the slit), we cannot as yet satisfactorily record minute differences in the spectrum corresponding to small details in the spot. If we wish to study these very important differences in the spot, we must do so, at present at any rate, by visual means. For example, Mr. Newall, your President, told me the other day that he had found the spectrum of the outer edge of the penumbra of a spot to have the same characteristic strengthening of the lines that is observed in the umbra, which is a very difficult thing to explain from the standpoint of the hypothesis I have been favouring of late, viz. that the principal cause of the change of the relative intensities of lines in a spot is reduced temperature of the vapours in the umbra. I knew nothing about that; I had not been observing the spot spectrum visually for many years, and in our photographs this phenomenon is not recorded. You see, then, in such a case the decided advantage of visual observatious. 1 might go on to speak of other advantages. For example, suppose there were a sudden change in the spectrum due to an eruption; the chances that one would get a photograph just at that time are small, whereas visual observations necessarily occupy a considerable period of time, during which eruptions might be detected.* Even a few results might be of extreme importance, and would probably be wholly missed in the photographs. Again, the extension of certain lines outside of the spot upon the photosphere is not recorded at all in our photographs, because of the method we usually employ of excluding from the plate all light except that which comes from the umbra, and perhaps part of the penumbra. We ordinarily get no trace of these extensions, but perhaps the conclusions drawn from the study of such phenomena may have much to do with the final views as to the nature of the spots themselves.

To mention only one other thing, the reversals of spot lines which have been seen by some observers have not been photographed with our present apparatus. Whether they can be photographed in the future remains to be seen. But, without going into this subject of spot spectra any more in detail, you will certainly agree that the visual observer has a superb opportunity, which the photographic observer cannot by any possibility take away from him.

It is, of course, desirable to take photographs as often as possible, since a photographic record of a marked change in the spectrum, if fortunately obtained, may be much more valuable than the results of a few visual ob servations made hastily.

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