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nexion with this subject. It is matter of surprise to us, and will be to many others, what right they have to such a place, in preference to Chalmers.
In answering the infidel objection to the credibility of the Mosaic account that mankind sprang originally from one pair, we looked for some reference to Dr. Prichard's researches in this department. It is well known that no writer has investigated it with equal ability. But instead of him, appears Count Buffon, along with some others whose names are not worthy to be mentioned in connexion with the subject.
In speaking of the deluge, Mr. Horne says, 'No fact that ever occurred in the world is so well attested both by natural and civil history.' And again: the Hebrew historian's relation is confirmed by the fossilised remains of animals belonging to a former world, which are found in every quarter of the globe.' (vol. i. p. 148.) Thirty or forty years ago this might have been written; but it should be expunged at the present day. Dr. Buckland, in his 'Bridgewater Treatise,' while holding the opinion that a recent inundation of the earth is shown by geology, doubts whether its identity with the Noachian deluge can be made out. The arguments against the identity of the two deluges, (the historical and the geological,) appear to us,' says Professor Hitchcock, rather to preponderate.' When real geologists hesitate, Mr. Horne, who is no geologist, should have erased a few pages, beginning with § vii. p. 148, and belonging to the preceding half century.
In the section relating to the interpretation of types, (vol. ii. p. 527,) we meet with frequent allusions to bishops, such as Marsh, Van Mildert, Hurd, Chandler, Warburton; but no reference is made to the works of two writers, who, though not belonging to the Episcopal church, have written more ably on the subject than they all. Dr. W. L. Alexander, in his 'Connexion and Harmony of the Old and New Testaments,' and Mr. Fairbairn in his Typology,' are unnoticed; yet whoever wishes to study the subject, will have recourse to them in preference to all others.
Enough of this disheartening work. We have written with perfect conscientiousness, and with full conviction of the justice and truthfulness of our remarks on the general character of the work before us; and however much our judgment may vary from the opinion of those perfunctory men who have never studied the subjects, or from the views of popularityseeking journalists, every statement that has been made can be amply substantiated.
Art. IV. Twenty-four Years in the Argentine Republic; embracing the Author's Personal Adventures, with the Civil and Military History of the Country, and an Account of its Political Condition, before and during the Administration of Governor Rosas; his Course of Policy; the Causes and Character of his Interference with the Government of Monte Video, and the Circumstances which led to the Interposition of England and France. By Col. J. Anthony King. 8vo. London: Longman and Co.
WE have been deeply interested in the perusal of this volume. It is full of the romance of real life, and combines in a very unusual degree the charm of personal adventure, with the importance which attaches to the strife of parties and the progress of political life. The author is an American, and writes with the predilections of his republic; but there is an expansiveness and liberality in his sentiments which wins regard, and goes far to secure our confidence. The volume is so crowded with incident, and that too of a character so deeply tragical, that on a first inspection we were somewhat incredulous. A closer examination, however, and the enquiries we have instituted, have served to remove suspicion and to establish our faith in the authenticity of the narrative. The appearance of such a work is specially opportune at the present moment, when French and British statesmen are interposing to check the ravages of war, and to secure to some members of the Spanish American family the benefits of independence and tranquillity. There is a manifest necessity,' says Colonel King, 'for information respecting the Argentine republic at the present moment, not merely for the satisfaction of the public mind, but also for the use both of European and American statesmen.' No man, probably, is so qualified to supply this information as the author, as he resided in the republic during many years, was actively engaged in its military operations, and as a foreigner was free from those prejudices to which a native would be liable.
The object of the work is to 'present an array of historical facts connected with the establishment of the Argentine republic, Bolivia, and Uruguay,' and this is done, for the most part, in connexion with the personal adventures of the author. There is, therefore, a vividness in the impressions conveyed, a graphic power in the delineations furnished, which fixes attention, and ministers largely to the knowledge of the reader. The mind never flags, we feel that we are in the presence of an eyewitness, are listening to one who is recounting what he has seen and done, and whose discourse is enlightened by an acquaintance with higher principles and forms of government than those of the country in which he is an actor.
In 1817 the author, then a youth of fourteen years of age, left his native city, New York. Though not expressly stated, we gather from the narrative, that he did this without the sanction of his friends. He was, however, pennyless, and on arriving at Baltimore, the necessity of the case induced him to ship himself on board the brig Wycoona, of the destination of which he was entirely ignorant. It was all one to me!' he remarks, 'I had foolishly left my home, and was too proud to return.' This vessel proved to be a privateer, about to engage in the service of the Buenos-Ayrean government, but after a tedious voyage of sixty days, he and three others were put on shore at the capital, as unfit for service. No allowance,' he tells us, 'was made for my services during the voyage, and, with my wardrobe tied in a little bundle, I once more found myself homeless, and friendless, in a strange land, among a people with whose language and customs I was unacquainted, and the prospect of starvation staring me in the face.' This was a sufficiently appalling condition, yet the elasticity of youth kept him from despair. He obtained a situation in a fancy and perfumery store, which he retained for some months, and ultimately left, with the consent of his employer, to enter the army of the republic. He was entrusted with a commission, and was soon ordered to join General Ramarez, under whom his first battle was fought. It was a sanguinary encounter, in which, as in all the other actions recorded, the loss of life was far greater in proportion to the numbers engaged, than is usual in European warfare. Indeed, we may remark in passing, that the ferocity and carnage on these occasions were terrible. We know nothing like them in modern times. European battles are mere child's play compared with them. The worst passions of the human breast are allowed free play, and each party in its turn seeks the extermination of the other. In the present case, the army of Ramarez was victorious, and fully availed itself of the licence conceded
on such occasions.
It is not our object to acquaint our readers with the disgusting details of South American warfare, neither can we follow the personal history of Colonel King without occupying much more space than other claims permit. Our object will be best attained by presenting our readers with such extracts as, while they illustrate the nature of his work, will give the clearest insight into the condition of the country, and the character of the rulers who exercise a paramount influence over its destinies. Keeping this in mind, we shall pay little attention to consecutive narrative, but shall cull from various parts of the volume such passages as best suit our purpose.
Flying from one of the murderous conflicts in which it was
his fortune to engage, Colonel King narrates an incident that speaks volumes as to the temper of the people. The habits of old Spain are, in this respect, but too faithfully copied by its American descendants. The analogy should be kept in mind in justice to the latter, and to prevent partial and hasty conclusions respecting the influence of forms of government. Such atrocities have recently been perpetrated in the Peninsula, and are clearly apart both from monarchy and republicanism. Their origin must be searched for in other and deeper causes. On the occasion we refer to, the fugitives being overtaken by a superior force, and being worn out by fatigue and want of provisions and water, determined, after a brave resistance, on offering to capitulate. Captain Boedo was their messenger, and what followed will be best described in our author's words :
The brave and beloved Captain Boedo, of whom I have before spoken, was selected as our messenger for the occasion; and he left the breastwork just as a large body of Echagua's troops had commenced a movement towards us. Seeing the flag, they halted at a distance of about three hundred yards. Boedo met them, delivered his message, and was instantly brought out in front of their column, bis hands were tied behind him, and without further ceremony, he was shot before our eyes! This murder was instantly followed by a headlong assault, and at the same time arose from our retreat the agonizing yell of hopeless vengeance. The cold-blooded act of cruelty and perfidy rendered most of our companions almost frantic with rage, and they fought with such desperation and slaughter, that our enemies were once more forced to retire, and with them, to our astonishment, some forty of our own men rushed from the enclosure, and attempted to cover their desertion in the general retreat; few, however, accomplished their design, for they were a close mark, and the carbines of our indignant troops brought many of them to a disgraceful death. Another council was now called: the sufferings of the whole body had become intense, officers and men had become perfectly desperate, and it was resolved, that rather than stay there, dying inch by inch, we would make a sortie, and fall upon the sabres of our enemy. General Ramarez, the good, the brave man, was alone in opposition to this measure. 'Gladly,' said he, 'would I give my own life as a hostage for such gallant fellows, would such an act appease yon bloody monster.' His words were interrupted at this moment by the discovery that our barricade was on fire, whether by accident or design I know not, but the flames rose and crackled so fiercely among the dry timbers and wood-work of the carts, that to stay them was impossible. The whole body rushed forth; and in an instant we were fighting for life on every hand, the enemy having completely hemmed us in, in a common centre. During the fray I received a blow upon my breast from the butt end of a musket, which fractured my ribs, and felled me to the ground. In attempting
to rise, I was instantly seized by two men, and on looking about me, I discovered several of our friends prisoners like myself, and among them General Ramarez.
The fight lasted but a few moments, yet the ground was strewn about me with the dead and dying, for so long as a man had been found in the attitude of resistance, he was put to the sword. Poor Ramarez! his fate we all knew. No ceremony was required by these butchers; and without trial, or even the calling of a council to give his death the colour of an execution, as soon as the skirmish was over, he was led before the little remnant of his own army, his arms pinioned, a guard at his side, and a file of soldiers following in his Clasping my hands to heaven, I whispered a prayer for his soul. No word was spoken; but as the brave man knelt before his murderers, he cast upon me a long, an earnest look, which I shall never forget, and at the next instant fell dead before me. The butchery of the gallant officer was accomplished, but the hellish purpose of his murder was not appeased. The lifeless head of Ramarez was severed from his body on the spot, and, as I afterwards learned, was sent as a trophy through the seditious towns of the republic.
The prisoners were now all stripped of their clothing, expecting momentary death,-an expectation not at all allayed by the repeated assurance of our captors, that they would 'shoot us by and by.' The merchandise of the caravan, which Ramarez had ordered to be held sacred to its owners, was now taken possession of by the soldiers of Echagua; the prisoners were placed under an escort, and we left the place of blood, not knowing at what moment we should be called upon to join our lost comrades in eternity.'-pp. 32-35.
On another occasion, when flying before a superior and vic. torious enemy, Colonel King and his companions found refuge amongst the Chiriviones Indians, of whom he gives a highly favourable description, the bright colouring of which is probably, in some measure, attributable to the security and repose they furnished. The manner of their reception was characteristic, and the treatment received, merited a better return than was made by one of the fugitives :
'As we neared the towns,' (says Col. King), 'which we had seen at a distance, we saw occasional plots of growing corn, and flocks of sheep; and finally encountered a small body of warriors, each armed with a short spear, and with no covering, except a cloth about the loins. The only ornament which they wore was singular enough, a button fastened so as to cover the hollow of the under lip, by passing the eye of the button through the lip near the roots of the teeth, and securing it with some small object on the inside; this every man wore. Their complexion was of a clear, light copper colour, and their features and forms regular and symmetrical. By this band, who kept at a respectful distance, we were notified to halt; and, without a word or sign further than that, they immediately dispatched a messenger to