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the Channel Islands, in company with Edmund Scrape, another persecuted minister, in order to assist in framing their platform of ecclesiastical discipline. The form thus prepared was soon afterwards published, with the title, The Ecclesiastical Discipline observed and practised by the Churches of Jersey and Guernsey, after the Reformation of the same by the Ministers, Elders, and Deacons, of the Isles of Jersey, Guernsey, Sark, and Alderney; confirmed by the authority, and in the presence of, the Governours of the same Isles, in a Synod holden at Guernsey, the 28th of June, 1576, and afterwards revived by the said Ministers and Elders, and confirmed by the said Governours, in a Synod holden in Jersey, the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 17th days of October, 1577.' This explicit title sufficiently refutes the angry censure of Heylin, in his History of Presbyterianism, that Cartwright and Scrape, 'the great ringleaders of the Puritan faction,' 'imposed' this discipline upon the churches of the Channel islands.

It is painful to reflect that Cartwright's anxiety to return home should have been at last converted into a stern necessity by the inroads of disease. Equally, if not more so, is it that his letters to the lords of the Council and to Lord Burghley, letters in which he pleaded that he had lived some years separated from his native country, the greatest part of which he had spent in the ministry of the church of England, though in a foreign land,'-that he must of necessity return for the recovery of his health,'-and that there were those who watched to apprehend him, with a view to cast him into prison; whereas, he had laboured to the uttermost while abroad to show himself peaceable,' though backed by the powerful intercession of Lords Leicester and Burghley, should have failed of success. Not only did the Queen harden her proud heart against the suffering exile, but when, acting on the advice of his physicians, he braved the threatened danger, and, after a second absence of eleven years, came back, worn out with sickness and the desire of home, only as he thought to die, he no sooner landed on his native shores, than he was seized by the orders of Aylmer, the prelate of London, and cast into prison! He was indeed released after several months' imprisonment; but it was only in consequence of the most urgent remonstrances addressed both to the queen and Whitgift, (who had by this time become Archbishop of Canterbury), by Lord Burghley, and Sir Francis Knollys; and when this boon was granted, it was only on sufferance during the good pleasure of his old antagonist, before whom he was compelled to appear and receive as a favour, what he was entitled to as of right.

Some time before Cartwright's return to England, he had

been solicited from several quarters to refute the Rhemish Testament. From the first circulation of this insidious work in England, it had excited the gravest apprehension; so much so, that Elizabeth had endeavoured to induce Beza to write against it. Beza, however, had assured her, with a noble modesty, that there was among her own subjects one who was better qualified than himself for the difficult service, and named Cartwright. In consequence of this recommendation, Walsingham had, in 1583, not only written to Cartwright on the subject, but had sent him a hundred pounds towards the purchase of books and other necessaries, promising at the same time further assistance. Pressing requisitions to the same effect were also addressed to him by the ministers of the city of London, of Suffolk, and other places. At length, therefore, he was persuaded to undertake the work. It is not in our power to extract any of Mr. Brook's narrative in reference to it, though very interesting. It must suffice to say, that the progress of it was most vexatiously suspended by Whitgift's interference, and that though the preface was printed separately, at Edinburgh, in 1602, under the patronage of James vI., the refutation itself, not wholly completed at Cartwright's death, remained unpublished till 1618. It was then, says our author, 'printed at Leyden, in Holland, by Mr. William Brewster, the worthy elder of Mr. Robinson's church, who was there engaged in printing several years, but not without annoyance from English intolerance.' (p. 267.) Cartwright had proceeded with it as far as the fif teenth chapter of the Revelation, and the wanting portion was supplied from the notes of Dr. Fulke on the remaining chapters.

If the labours of this great man were thus impeded, it will not surprise us to find his person again under restraint. We regret we have not more room for the subsequent details of Cartwright's life. Appointed by his friend the Earl of Leicester, the first master of his hospital at Warwick, an hospital founded in 1585, for the reception of twelve indigent 'brethren,' with a master, and enjoying also the kind countenance and protection of the Earl of Warwick, he entered on the duties of his residence with a hopeful prospect of relief from future disturbance. But his unrelenting enemies could not let him rest. Branded with suspicion and opprobrium, he was again arraigned before his ecclesiastical superiors, sitting in the court of Star Chamber or high commission, was separated from his friends, and again imprisoned, from October, 1590, till the spring of 1592. His manner of life, when permitted to pursue his own course without molestation, is thus described :

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Mr. Cartwright, conscious of his solemn responsibility, consecrated himself to the service of God, and could not relinquish the exercise of his public ministry; and, having entered on the charge of the hospital, he resumed his beloved work, and preached without license, being exempt from prelatical jurisdiction. His stated employment was to pray with the brethren of the hospital twice a-day, to catechise them twice a-week, and to preach at the parish church once on the Lord's day. He did not, however, confine himself to those exercises which were required by his noble patron; but, as a faithful steward of the Lord, he embraced every opportunity of usefuluess to his fellow-creatures. He was not a mercenary hireling, nor a loiterer in the vineyard of Christ, but a zealous and faithful labourer, preaching several times every week, in addition to the exercises of the hospital; to which he was stimulated not from any earthly reward, but from a generous and ardent desire to promote the welfare of souls. He preached at St. Mary's church every Saturday afternoon; on which occasions he went through a great part of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes with singular judgment and profit.''-pp. 237, 238.

The closing days of this laborious confessor were worthy of the life of toil which had preceded them. Having preached the Lord's-day preceding his departure, from Ecclesiastes xii. 7, Then shall the dust return to the earth, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it.-'

The Tuesday morning following, he spent two hours prostrate on his knees in humble and importunate prayer to God; and this, it would seem, was the last time of his holding communion with God on earth. The season was peculiarly solemn, interesting, and profitable. He beheld the glory of the Lord and the power of his love, and experienced remarkable transports of joy. Having finished his devotions, he informed Mrs. Cartwright that he had found unutterable comfort and happiness, and that God had given him a glimpse of heaven' before he was called to enter that blessed state; and he was enabled to exclaim, 'I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day.' In a few hours, the earthly house of his tabernacle was dissolved, and his happy spirit entered on the joy of its Lord. Mr. Cartwright died, triumphing in the Redeemer, December 27, 1603, aged sixty-eight years.'-p. 437.

His remains were deposited in St. Mary's church, Warwick; and on that mournful occasion, his beloved friend, Mr. John Dod, preached his funeral sermon.

It would be unjust to Mr. Brook to mutilate the faithful and judicious abstract which he has given of Cartwright's character; and we have great pleasure in referring our readers to it. Our author's proper admiration for his hero has not blinded

him to the deficiency which even Cartwright's principles exhibit in reference to the universal claims and character of religious liberty. Mr. Brook justly observes that Cartwright 'powerfully defended the cause of ecclesiastical reform, and from reasons which no arguments could resist, he proved the unscriptural character of the episcopal establishment, together with its multiplied abuses and oppressions; but instead of carrying out the principle of freedom to its legitimate extent, he sought to obtain another kind of establishment, which must have been founded on legislative and compulsory enactment.' (pp. 438, 439). We must not, however, be indifferent to the emancipation which Cartwright achieved, or the sacrifices by which the achievement was accompanied, and Mr. Brook is not so.

In thanking the author for his interesting and instructive volume, we may properly mention the pains and diligence with which he has collected the materials relating to his subject, which lie scattered in many scarce and expensive works. In this he has rendered a useful service to the student of ecclesiastical biography, and to the general reader. We must at the same time acknowledge that this service would have been much greater had he quoted his authorities with greater care. In abridging and extracting from the numerous sources of information which he has used, he has not always stated the exact thing which his alleged authority had stated; and, though we believe him to be quite incapable of intentional perversion, he has sometimes so mixed up his own impression of facts, related by previous writers, with the extracts he has taken from them, as to convey a wrong idea of their statements and views. To interweave proofs in the form of broken clauses taken from other writers, is a very difficult undertaking when historical fairness is regarded, and requires consummate literary skill. That our author has been less attentive to the style of his work than modern taste requires must also be admitted. If besides this he has interrupted the historical narrative with too frequent reflections, and if in these reflections there is more repetition than was altogether necessary, it must on the other hand be conceded, that his reflections usually refer to great principles, and principles which need to be inculcated upon society. Mr. . Brook has our sincere thanks for his labours, and we hope that his volume will have a wide circulation.


Art. VIII.-Forest and Game-law Tales. By Harriet Martineau. 3 vols. London: Moxon.

AMONG the numerous definitions of 'the animal man,' we almost wonder that some learned sage has not characterized him as a 'hunting animal.' Certain it is, that from the jungles of the east, to the prairies of the farthest west; from the days of Nimrod to our own, no pursuit has been so universal. Turn to the earliest Egyptian sculptures,-there is the hunter and his bow; or to the mouldering rock bas-reliefs, which once overlooked some proud Assyrian city,-there is the hunter and his bow. Pass on to the more graceful forms of Grecian and Roman art, still the same figure, the same instrument, meets the eye. Open that crumbling volume of rude Saxon illuminations, there are the sports of the merry greenwood,' as our forefathers so emphatically called the wide forest, depicted with a spirit which shows how the painter delighted in his task; open the gorgeous folio, resplendent with gold and purple, of a later period, and the most highly finished pictures are those of the royal chace.

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Society advances; printing comes forth to aid the fierce conflict of new opinions with the old; but that worm-eaten little volume, more precious, worm-eaten as it is, than many a tome, written in gold, and bound in ivory,-tnat rarest specimen of early printing, the 'Boke of Seynt Albans.' What does it treat of?-hunting, hawking, and all the terms, 'longynge thereunto.' How numerous are the treatises, in choice black letter, on this very subject; how many the poems in its 'laud and praysing; and how filled are the memoirs and the autobiographies, French and English, with reminiscences of this most universal of all pastimes. The gorgeous and stately court of Versailles followed this royal sport, even until monarch and nobles alike became hunted ones; and its fascinations were so great among us, that we have on record, that a degenerate Englishman, actually prepared for the chace, on the very morning when the noblest spirits of England were marshalled on the field of Naseby.

Now, so universal a pursuit must, of necessity, possess strong attractions; and, we think, therefore, that many writers in opposing the game laws, have done injury to their cause by overlooking this. In truth, it is the fascination of the sport that in past times created the deer stalker, and in the present day renders the calling of the poacher, as much his 'delight, on a shiny night,' as his profit; and thus, when the Grantley Berkeleys talk about the sports of gentlemen,' it is as well to remind them, that these sports address themselves with equal force to the sympathies of the commoners.

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