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that understood and taught genuine Christianity. But with how much more energy will they concur in imprecating the total destruction from the face of the earth of that complication of error and priestcraft, which even such a man as Sir T. More could not defend, without renouncing whatever was noblest in his character, without rancour in the exercise of argument, and oppression in the exercise of power.
The fourth section, on the engraved portraits of Sir T. More,' will be very acceptable and useful to the collector. It enumerates about forty, distinguishes the kind of engrav Ing in each, mentions (where kuown) the artists' names, and pronounces on the merit of the execution, both in point of mere workmanship, and with respect to the greater or less resemblance to the one or two early and original portraits, reputed of highest authority. Many of them are named but to be marked as of no value. Some are mentioned with great praise. But we cannot understand why no one of those the most applauded was copied for the present work. The portrait here given is a very elegant print, but it presents a countenance exceedingly different from those which even Mr. D. accounts probable likenesses; nor is its authority made out in a manner at all satisfactory, for we are told that an engraving by Elstracke, anno 1535, has served in some degree as a model to the one prefixed to the present edition of the Utopia. p. cxxi.-We should consider this as the least respectable, though it cannot have been the least laborious part of our editor's inquiries concerning More. The only thing worth ascertaining was, whether any one of the older prints was really engraved from Holbein's painting, and in which of the modern and generally attainable portraits that engrav ing is most faithfully imitated. And then that best authorized old engraving should have been carefully copied for the present publication.-There can be no doubt that if Sir Thomas could have foreseen, when on the scaffold, the re searches that would be made, almost three centuries afterwards, by a clergyman, after all the pretended and completely differing likenesses of the visage that was about to be dissevered, some satiric observation on such an employment would have been added to the memorable witticisms of that hour.
The fifth section, of the length of 40 pages, is a catalogue raisonné of the editions and translators of the Utopia, well worthy of the rank which Mr. D. holds among bibliographers, In this list he gives, of course, peculiar distinction to the translation into Englyshe by Raphe Robynson, citizein and goldsmythe of London, at the procurement, and earnest re quest of George Tadlowe citizein and haberdassher of the
same citie. Imprinted at London by Abraham Vele, dwelling in Paul's churcheyarde, at the sygne of the Lambe.' He informs us that this work, which he has tried to surround with so many more attractions than it ever had before, instead of letting it rest in the oblivion to which it had very properly subsided, was inscribed to the minister Cecil, in an epistle containing such apologies and critical laws as the following.
• But now I fear greatly that in this my simple translation, through my rudeness and ignorance in our English tongue, all the grace and pleasure of the eloquence, wherewith the matter in Latin is finely set forth, may seme to be utterly excluded and lost and therefore the frutefulness of the matter it selfe much peradventure diminished and appayred. For who knoweth not, whiche knoweth any thing, that an eloquent style setteth forth and highly commendeth a meane matter? Whereas on the other side, rude and unlearned speche defaceth and disgraceth a very good matter. According as I harde ones a wise man say. A good tale evel tolde were better untold, and an evell tale well tolde nedeth none other sollicitous. This thing I well pondering and wayinge with me self, and also knowing and knowledging the barbarous rudenes of my translation, was fully determined not to have put it forth in printe, had it not bene for certein frendes of myne, and especially one, whom above al other I regarded, as a man of sage and discret witte, and in worldly matters by long use well experienced, whoes name is George Tadlowe, an honest citizein of London, and in the same citie well accepted, and of good reputation, at whoes request and instance I first toke upon my weake and feble shoulders the heavie and weightie bourdein of this great enterprice. p. clx.
. In a preface to the second edition the translator gives such an account of the first, as may serve to satisfy any reasonable man to live tolerably content without the possession of either the first or the last.
• Wherefore I wente the more sleightlye through with it, propoundynge to myselfe therein rather to please my sayde frendes judgemente, than mine owne. To the meannesse of whose learninge I thoughte it my part to submit and attemper my stile. Lightlie therefore I overran the whole woorke, and in short tyme, with more hast then good spede, I broughte it to an ende. But as the Latin proverbe sayeth: "The hastye bitche bringeth furth blind whelpes"-For when this my worke was finished, the rudeness thereof showed it to be done in post haste. How be it, rude and base though it were, yet fortune so ruled the matter that to imprintinge it came, and that partly against my wyll Howbeit, not being hable in this behalfe to resist the pitthie persuasions of my frendes, and perceaving none other remedy but that furth it shoulde, 1 comforted myselfe for the time, only with this notable saying of Terence, &c.' p. clxvi.
This, without doubt, was all affectation, and very clumsily managed; but might very fairly have been accepted by the present editor, as a dispensation from the duty of helping back
the forgotten performance into public notice. Notwithstanding, however, these disparaging expressions of the performer, and the utter uselessness of the present re-appearance of the work, it certainly was a respectable thing in its time, as, on the whole, a tolerably clear interpretation of the original, and in language deemed by its first readers not inelegant. Its leading faults are prolixity, and too much liberty taken in changing the subordinate particularities of the thought, the translator being much too often content, as indeed almost all translators are, with giving the merely general meaning of the original sentences. The quaintness, too, in which Raphe Robinson seems to have gone quite the full length of the age he lived in, contrasts strangely with the pure classical grace of the original.
It probably cannot be ascertained to what extent Sir T. More did really judge the scheme, unfolded in his romance, a practicable theory of human polity. It seems quite impossible a man, so well acquainted with human nature and with business, could have expected any thing else than immediate destruction to a state, from laying the basis of its economy in common property. Nor could a number of things in the detail of institutions and customs have been introduced for any graver purpose, than that of surprising or confounding the readers with an excess of contrast with the actual state of society. Various parts, however, are palpably meant as a most serious censure of that actual state, and a project of such changes as ought to be adopted, though he knew well enough they never would. Allowing the full value of these specific political lessons, we should be inclined to conjecture that less advantage has been rendered to society by the particular instructions conveyed in the Utopia, the Oceana, and other such works, than by that more general effect by which such works have contributed to keep the theory of government within the acknowledged rights of free popular discussion. It has always been the very natural desire of the holders of political power, that the constitution and authority of government should be regarded by the people as something awfully sacred, something which it is a species of impiety to suggest, or even to think, it may be possible to change into a better form than the existing one. This pernicious superstition has prevailed in no small degree, even in spite of all the counteracting causes but that it has not prevailed much more completely, has been partly owing to the daring of a succession of ingenious men, who have presumed to exhibit in fictitious forms, but with many significant practical bearings and applications, schemes of policy directly upsetting and reversing those actually esta blished in the country in which they wrote.
One remarkable particular in the polity of Utopia has been numberless times adverted to with regret by the admirers of More, as furnishing so strong a condemnation of his own pirit and conduct toward the protestants in the latter part of his life, the freedom of religious faith, to the full length (which is of the very essence of that freedom) of endeavouring to make proselytes. We transcribe a few sentences of this old translation.
For this is one of the antientest laws among them: that no man shall be blamed for reasoning in the maintenance of his own religion. For king Utopus, even at the first beginning, hearing that the inhabitants of the land were, before his coming thither, at continual dissention and strife among themselves for their religions-as soon as he had gotten the victory-first of all, he made a decree, that it should be lawful for every man to favour and follow what religion he would; and that he might do the best he could to bring other to his opinion, so that he did it peaceably, gently, quietly, and soberly; without hasty and contentious rebuking and inveighing against other. If he would not by fair and gentle speech induce them into his opinion, yet he should use no kind of violence, and refrain from seditious and displeasant words.' This law did king Utopus make, not only for the maintenance of peace, which he saw through continual contestation and mortal hatred, utterly extinguished; but also because he thought this decree would make for the furtherance of religion; whereof he durst define and determine nothing unadvisedly' 'And this surely he thought a very unmeet and foolish thing, and a point of arro gant presumption, to compel all other, by violence and threatenings, to agree to the same that thou believest to be true.' Vol. II. p. 199.
There is a good deal of entertainment, and some instruction, in the numerous notes introduced by Mr. D. under the text and at the end of the second volume.
Art. III. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London for the Year 1809. Part. II. (Concluded from p. 243.)
XIX. On expectorated Matter. By George Pearson, M. D. F. R. S. Read June 15, 1809..
Dr. Pearson makes the following arrangement of the varieties of expectorated matter the basis of his inquiry.
1. The jelly-like semitransparent kind, of a bluish hue, excreted in the healthy state. 2. The thin mucilage-like transparent matter, sø copiously expectorated in bronchial catarrhs., 3. The thick opaque straw coloured, or white and very tenacious matter, coughed up in a great variety of bronchial pulmonary affections, especially in that of tubercles. 4. Puriform matter secreted without any division of continuity, or breach of surface of the bronchial membrane, very commonly occurring in pulmonary consumptions. 5 The matter which consists of opaque viscid masses, together with transparent fluid, or the second sort above stated, with nodules of the third or fourth kind. 6. Puż
from the vomice of tubercles. 7. Pus from vomica by simple inflammation of the lungs, and without tubercles.'
The agents employed in the different experiments were, caloric, alcohol, sulphuric ether, water, and acetous acid; and from the action of these substances the Dr. draws the following inferences.-1. The different varieties of expectorated matter do not differ in their composition, but merely in the relative proportion of their component parts. 2. They consist principally of albumen, and water holding in solution several saline and earthy substances, the usual proportion of animal matter being from five to six per cent. 3. The usual saline substances are, muriat of soda, potash, phosphat of lime, probably phosphat of ammonia, carbonat of lime, a sulphat, vitrifiable matter (supposed to be silica), and oxide of iron, the last six being in exceedingly minute quantity. 4. The difference in the consistency of expectorated matter, is owing to the proportion of albumen in each. 5. The thicker the matter, the smaller in general is the proportion of saline impregnation. 6. Each of the human fluids contains neutralized potash. 7. The saline matter, especially the potash and muriat of soda, is in much less proportion in pus, than in expectorated secretion. 8. It is more probable that the circulating and secreted fluids are impregnated with potash, than with soda, the former being taken in with our food, while the latter is only employed in a state of combination with an indestructible acid. 9. Expectorated matter belongs to the class of coagulable fluids, and not to the gelatinizable or mucous fluids. 10. Expectorated matter, especially of the opaque soapy kind, is full of globules, which are scarcely destructible, except by those agents which destroy charcoal. The utility of Dr. Pearson's researches has been much less than the ingenuity, and the ingenuity much less than the trouble.
XX. On the Attractions of homogeneous Ellipsoids. By James Ivory, A. M. Communicated by Henry Brougham, Esq. F. R. S. Read June 15, 1809.
Mr. Ivory is, we believe, the author of two ingenious papers in the Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions, one on the solution of cubic equations, and the other exhibiting a new and universal solution of Kepler's problem. The paper now before us is calculated to place him among our best mathematicians. It is not, however, susceptible of regular abridgement, on which account we cannot describe it so particularly as we could wish. The following extract will be interesting to all our mathematical readers.
1. The theory of the figures of the planets involves in it two distinct researches. In the first of these, it is required to determine the fores