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photographers are only permitted to work for two hours in the day (from seven to nine o'clock in the morning), a restriction which will probably make the production of good negatives out of the question. These remarks appear to me to be well founded; it is possible that they have already occurred to some of the readers of the PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS. While giving them publicity on this occasion, I think it right to express my opinion that in laying down these rules the executive has only had the object of providing itself with a weapon against any attempt at abuses of the privileges accorded, and that as there is no intention of applying in all their rigour the prohibitive clauses of the regulations that I have just pointed out, there is, I believe, no reason to be frightened at these restrictions. ERNEST LACAN.
THE PORTRAIT. BY WM. HEIGHWAY.
THE appreciative mind of the artist, keenly alive to the beauty of nature, finds the greatest gratification in the delineation of the human face. His the task to honestly and fearlessly portray, whether it be the sweet, winsome face of the innocent girl; the rugged countenance of the man, every line speaking of strength, resolution, and energy; or the front of age, wrinkled-scarred, perchancewith its seams, lines, and furrows, the tracery in which the Great Artist has written the story of a life.
The artist has here to depict not so many features that go to make up a face, but the character written thereon, to catch a reflection of the spirit which has modelled those features into what they are.
Would you try to transform awkwardness into grace, old age into youth, coarseness into refinement?
Why, then, if you succeed, your success is failure, because it is not true and fitting.
You have of course heard the old adage-" It is impossible to place an old head on young shoulders," but it is more ridiculous to try to place a young head on shoulders bent with age, or that of an Apollo on an almost wornout body.
It would be a palpable fault-nay, worse, it would be a ridiculous mistake-at which the most juvenile old gentleman that dodders down Regent Street, or suns himself in Piccadilly, would smile in derision.
It may be but the expression of an undefined seling that there is something within more than the ordinary eye can see-a refinement, grace, beauty-in a word, a better and nobler self, the which the soul of the artist ought to respond to.
But this is an entirely separate thing from the vulgar wish to be made pretty at the expense of truth.
The response to the true wish is the recognition of one noble soul of another, an inspiration; and answering that appeal worthily is only possible to the artist; but to pander to the mean and false desire is unworthy, impossible.
Try to recognize that there is in many instances a higher and truer beauty than appears on the surface, and you are helping in the grand work of making man better and nobler.
Is this too great a thing for the artist to do? I think not! But even should it be, the lesson has still its weight as being that of securing success in portraiture.
Let your aims soar into the realms of the ideal. If you go up like a rocket only to come down like a stick, I don't believe you will be any worse for your journey, or that your bruises will be very serious. But I don't believe in any such catastrophe befalling you.
Don't underrate the power of your art. Yours it is to discover and render the best to the highest and noblest life.
We want more of culture, of feeling, of inspiration in the portrait of the camera; without it nothing but poverty and unsympathy can be expected.
Failing the better qualities shown in the works of painters, photography must ever be an unworthy relative to art; but these qualities brought into play, photography must take a very grand position.
It is not to say these things can never be, because some productions of the camera evidence how much is attainable-and who shall place a limit on possibilities?
DIRECT INK PRINTING FROM GLASS NEGATIVES.
BY HANS BRAND.*
To make negatives capable of being printed from they must be coated with a solution of chromatized gelatine, but only after they are perfectly dry. By this means a film. But it is well known that when such negatives are layer of chromatized gelatine is deposited over the collodion
We may have our standard of beauty, and recognize it only in symmetry, softness, and smoothness-the well-exposed in diffused light the lines become broader than liking of childhood and youth; but there is beauty also of maturity and age, and if we cannot appreciate this, depend upon it there is something wrong with us.
If this is recognized and properly esteemed, there will be no danger of any attempt at falsification in the portrait, no refining and botching to correct nature's work.
they should be, because the light, even with thin films, can act sideways. In order to obviate this I tried to form a film of chromatized gelatine in that of the collodion negative, and I was fortunate enough to be completely successful. The method that I adopted was to fix the negative If any misguided inan or woman be dissatisfied with the wash it with water, and while still wet to immerse it in a immediately it was taken, without first drying, then to face nature has ordained he or she should carry, it is not dilute solution of chromatized gelatine. When dry, the for us to make our art a vehicle for falsehood. The indi-surface was quite dull, without any sign of gelatine upon viduality of that face ought to be more precious than the smooth unwrinkled thing the photographer may be able to produce as a likeness.
It is very sorrowful and shameful that we pander to such stupid whims. There is more of nobility, of beauty, in the most rugged, "ugly" face ever made, than there can be in the most beautifully retouched and polished thing of the photographer's contriving.
Why not at once get a nicely modelled barber's block, all blankly expressionless and woodeny, and photograph
that for such sitters?
(Mind, this is no tirade against retouching, but a little protest against perversion and untruth; for which the photographer is, in many cases, only responsible in a secondary degree, as an aider and abetter.)
Perhaps it is natural for us to desire to seem better than we are-it may be one of the yearnings of our imperfect nature, a dissatisfaction which is rather pathetic than absurd,
it; the collodion film had, notwithstanding, absorbed sufficient chromate and gelatine to be capable of printing from
The best method of obtaining these plates with what may be called a typographical collodion film is as follows:First take an ordinary, but not an intense, negative on an albumenized plate-glass plate, fix it at once, wash it, and then plunge it into the gelatine solution, which should be prepared in the following way:-4.5 parts of gelatine are allowed to soak and swell up in water, the excess of fluid is poured off, and the remaining gelatine dissolved in 50 parts of distilled water; then a solution of 5.5 parts of ammonium bichromate in 100 parts of water are added, and the whole is heated to 75° C. In this bath the plate must remain for about five minutes. When large plates are used, the solution may be flowed over them, taking care to wash them rapidly with warm water beforehand. In this case
too, it is necessary to repeat the coating with chromatised gelatine several times. After the plate has taken up sufficient quantity of the solution it is placed in a horizonta position and heated over a spirit lamp. Should fumes come off, the plate must be held upright for a minute or two, and again laid horizontal, and further heated until it is quite dry. It should not be made hotter than the hand can bear when passed over the reverse side.
For negatives of this kind the time of exposure cannot be accurately determined by the eye, nor can it be measured by the ordinary photometer. I overcame this difficulty by first well wiping the prepared negative on the reverse side, and then laying on the film side a small piece of albmenized or chromatized paper, exposing the whole in a frame on the reverse side to the light By aid of this simple expedient the action of the rays of light can easily be watched, so that places which are too dark can be covered, and all the other artifices used which are common in silver printing. Commonly a black support is employed to avoid the reflection of light, but in this process, as I have described it, reflection need not be feared, notwithstanding the white albumenized paper, for the silver chloride absorbs all the rays of light.
As soon as all the finest lines of the image are distinctly visible, the ammonium chromate must be washed out by dipping the plate into cold water; the plate can then be dried, and placed in the hands of the printer. The finest rollers must be used for printing. When the plate is damped I would recommend that a little gum arabic be dabbed on the edge, and rubbed over the surface of the picture. As regards the production of the negative, I should observe that it is not every collodion which will take up the chromatized gelatine; there are collodions which will not absorb the gelatine at all, so that a layer of chromatized gelatine merely is obtained on that of the collodion. The lithium collodion, prepared by Kurz, of Wernigerode, is best adapted for this purpose. Probably the lithium salt in this collodion plays no unimportant part in the reaction, but I have not had an opportunity of making experiments on this point.*
LIGHT AND SHADE IN PORTRAITURE.
it behoves us to use the reflectors as carefully as possible.
PRIMITIVE RETOUCHING. SIR,-In reply to a few questions I asked in the NEWS some time ago, relative to retouching, I was favoured with a series of interesting and elaborate articles from the pen of Mr. Norman May, which proclaimed the gentleman to be thoroughly conversant with that art; yet-if I may be so bold as to say so-I could not but fear that, should any unlucky amateur (young in the mysteries of our art) beco ne too suddenly aware of the huge array of " necessities therein proclaimed requisite for retouching alone, he would immediately die of spontaneous combustion, commit suicide, or, taking the most hopeful view of his case, he would certainly at once and for ever renounce everything connected with photography. I might except, perhaps, his dreams, which would, I have no doubt, be fraught with scenes wherein he was pounced by innumerable stumps, swallowed by hosts of cuttle-fish, or, may be, coated with spirits of turpentine, then rolled in powdered blacklead. Or his visions might take a more sublime turn, and, borrowing the "wings" of his face, he might soar to scenes made bright by the light on the eye," and his soul being "touched" with the surrounding beauties, who knows but he might, in his ambition, long to become a retouching pencil, and strive to "spot out" the stars?
With all due respect to Mr. May, who, I understand, explained to us all he knew of retouching, and not all he practised, I consider that when such a variety of articles is deemed essential to make a picture, it is either a fresh negative or manipulator that is required. I have patiently waded through the ocean of mixtures at various times recommended, including shellacs, Canada balsam, resin, cuttle-fish, gum arabic, gum dammar, and various other gums, but I have found that these compounds required a greater proportion of "gumption" than any of them contained; and as I did not feel competent to supply that article to the extent necessary, I invariably returned to my primitive starting point, and, at last, in despair of dition of the negative varnish. I found that best results finding anything better, I gave more attention to the conwere always to be obtained when this was near the bottom of the bottle, and consequently thickest, so I purchased some treacle-like painters' white hard varnish, and diluted it until about twice the consistency of that mostly used by photographers. This I have used ever since, and with an ordinary Faber's H or HB pencil, I obtain most satisfactory results, and experience a feeling of contentment, while retouching, that I have hitherto not felt in fact, I feel quite enthusiastic in its favour, and hail it the troubled waters of compounds. as a haven of rest after being so long tossed about upon
perienced, but, on the other hand, for the inexperienced; it is on well-lighted heads that I am about to deal. To get softness and the proper amount of light and shade depicted without the aid of retouching requires practice and taste, we all are aware. Light the person so as to allow the ridge of the nose to be the lightest portion; allow your light to fall on the sitter at about an angle of 45°; use a tissue paper or white muslin head-screen-the latter, of course, being the most serviceable. The head-screen can be attached to the head-rest, and can be lowered or raised to get the best effect; it has a wonderful influence in softening the light overhead. Of course it must be moved out of the range of the portrait. Likewise use a side-screen (mine is covered with blue calico, the dead colour being outside, which I find gives me exceedingly soft shades). Follow these rules, and very little retouch- the varnish film alone, unless, indeed, we press on so We generally find the pencil yield too light a touch upon ing will be required, providing your bath and chemicals heavily that we are kept constantly upon the verge of work harmoniously. What is more abominable than to see more abominable than to see lunacy by the frequent breaking off of the lead. With the false lights put in as we often do? Again, we must re-spiritual agency, however, that I "summons to mine aid,” member that we are sacrificing the likeness by doing so. Again, what is more beautiful than to see the true light and may state, for the re-assurance of my too literal readers, that no such troubles arise, nor, indeed, do ghosts either. I shade depicted with the truthfulness of the portrait? We the soft bed formed by the thickness of this varnish, while all know that diffused light plays the greatest part in the being still hard enough to refrain from producing the photographic image, and reflected light the least; therefore smallest amount of injury by its adhesiveness, yet seems to • Besides the well known fact that the compounds of the halogens with absorb the pencil, and allow of a variety in the strength of the metals have a considerable effect in producing a more or less liquid touch that is truly pleasant. So simple a plan as this must collodion, it is probable that in the case under consideration the quality of surely be known and worked by many photographers. Still, the pyroxyline is a factor of some importance.-Editor of the Photographische I do not ask forgiveness for alluding to it; rather is it
slightly to their discredit for not giving the subject venti-Surely the ways of the Post Office people are past lation through the pages of the NEWS, which are ever so finding out.-I am, dear sir, your obedient servant, kindly placed at our service for that and similar purposes. And surely the silent blessings of their less fortunate brethren would have been sufficient compensation for the trouble, if trouble it can be called, of making the method known.
It may be thought that its very simplicity has caused it to be ignored, as many persons consider that nothing can be really good without it owns a large amount of complication. Thus they endeavor to improve upon the primitive with something that contains an evil; then, instead of returning to their starting point, and branching off in another direction, always keeping within a certain radius, they endeavour to correct the "something" with another obnoxious decoction, which, in turn, requires regulating; and this proceeding is too often continued until we obtain these undesirable mixtures like the printing bath of old, when nit. of potash, nit. mag., and some half dozen more ingredients were introduced, each one to check some action of the other.
I will not now transgress further upon the patience of my readers, but, with the leave of our indulgent Editor, I should like shortly to dedicate a few words to the manipulation of negatives. LYDDELL Sawyer.
SENDING NEGATIVES THROUGH THE POST. DEAR SIR,-I wonder how all those ladies and gentlemen who advertise in your columns that they will retouch negatives giving entire satisfaction, &c., and asking for a negative upon which they may perform to be sent as a specimen, and promptly returned, have the said negatives sent? Surely, any one wishing to send a negative in order to see the kind of work done, does not make up a railway parcel of it. He would probably do what I, in my innocence, did; viz., carefully pack it up in sawdust and paper, enclosing the whole in a small wooden box, address it, and write "glass" on the outside, and pay the full postal charge, and look out in the course of a couple of posts to see the parcel come back. And, no doubt, all would go well if you only refrain from writing "glass" on the outside. Doing that puts the Post Office officials in a frightful state of alarm; they seize the parcel, open it as though it were an infernal machine, and examine the contents. In my case the seizure and subsequent opening simply discovered the picture of a most unassuming young man, with no hair on his face, and altogether mild and inoffensive in appearance. But mark the result. After waiting several weeks, and writing for information (none of which, by the way, was given), I ultimately get a letter "On Her Majesty's Service," saying the parcel addressed so-and-so is in the hands of the Post Office officials. I am further informed that I have no right to send through the post anything whereby the safety of the "department" is imperilled, or anything that may cause danger to the officials or to the contents of the mail bags. All this upon a printed form; but interlined in writing I am given to understand that I am at liberty to recover this dangerous parcel by payment of so much registration fee, and by personally calling for same. What does it all mean? Had I left out writing "glass" upon the direction, it would have gone all right. Or does it mean that I ought to have registered the dangerous" parcel? I can't say. The only thing of which I have anything like direct knowledge is, that if you label a parcel going by rail "glass, with care," that is the sign for the contents to be smashed. Pay the full postal charge on a negative carefully packed, and with "glass" written on the outside, and that is the sign for the officials to seize and open the same, keeping it about for sundry weeks, and, just when you have come to the conclusion that the whole thing is lost, you get a notice saying you can have your parcel back by personally calling for it, and paying for the privilege.
J. B. C. [It is probable, as our correspondent supposes, that if he had not written the word "glass" outside his parcel, it would have been delivered in due course. But as glass is one of the prohibited articles which postmasters are enjoined to examine and detain, he invited the scrutiny and detention. See British Postal Guide.-ED.]
PERMANENCY IN SILVER PRINTS.
trying to rouse up the fraternity in the profession. What
[Silver prints may be made more durable by exercising care and precision with known methods. We think it is mischievous to hope for some recondite method of securing permanency. But remember, that so long as silver spoons tarnish, so long will silver prints be liable to change by the action of various forms of atmospheric agency.-ED.]
CHARACTER OF EMPLOYERS.
DEAR SIR, -I Consider it a good proposal of "A Photographer" that employers should furnish to applicants for situations a specimen of the class of work they wish for, also carte of self, and any particulars likely to prevent mutual disappointment.
I once travelled a great distance, and found I was expected to produce good work under a cucumber light. A hole had been pushed through the top of an attic, and the light placed thereon. This occurred in a first-class town, and about the last place one would be likely to expect to meet with such a patent arrangement.
An acquaintance of mine, a few days ago, was brought from a distance, and on arrival at his destination informed, with the greatest coolness, that the situation was filled: this was a case of great hardship.
and treatment are to be had from the leading houses. In I do not agree with "Photographer " that the best pay my experience, the middle-class photographers, and those who have added photography to another business, are always better to deal with, and more willing to accord some little credit to an assistant for any good work he may do.—I am, dear sir, yours truly, AN OPERATOR.
Proceedings of Societies.
MANCHESTER PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY.
The PRESIDENT said it was in contemplation to have an exhi-
Mr. LUND showed some prints on Durand's paper, printed by himself (Mr. Lund) in December last, and toned on the 5th May. The tones were satisfactory.
Mr. W. J. CHADWICK exhibited a pair of lanterns of new design,
one feature of which was that they had no chimney. He (Mr. Chadwick) also exhibited a new oxygen retort.
The meeting, which was well attended for the season, was then adjourned.
PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY IN ST. PETERSBURG.
AT the second meeting of the Photographic Section of the Imperial Polytechnical Society, which took place on Friday, May 10, Mons. LEVITSKY read a paper upon his "Experience with Herr Warnerke's Emulsion." His opinion was that the process required a great deal of practice in the development of the picture, and although Herr Warnerke seemed to use the solutions like toys, still it was only by long experience that he could do so with such precision. This difficulty would no doubt prevent any but amateurs from availing themselves of the emulsion process as it now stood. Mons. Levitsky also showed a negative of himself taken by Herr Warnerke, which he stated had become more intense, and gave harder prints than when it was first taken; this he was at a loss to account for, as it was fixed with cyanide of potassium. The COMMITTEE then reported the results of the trial of emulsion plates at Herr Clasen's. The plates were prepared in their presence with an emulsion made by Herr Clasen, and were developed with ordinary iron developer almost as quick as in the ordinary wet process; the negatives, which were very good, were exposed simultaneously with plates prepared with 'Herr Warnerke's emulsion, the former ninety and thirty seconds, the latter eight minutes and three-quarter minutes respectively. In using his emulsion in a wet state, Herr Clasen dips the exposed plate into a weak negative bath previous to developing. This, he said, was not necessary for the dry plates.
Some prints, 9 by 6, were handed round for inspection, from a negative taken in Mons. Denier's studio, on the 23rd ultimo, of a group of ten persons placed at distances varying from four to ten paces from the camera (time, twenty-five seconds, slightly over-exposed). The lens used was a 2" portrait, supplied with Mons. Baldrieff's invention for increasing the perspective power of lenses without sensibly reducing their rapidity (a patent is being applied for). The print was quite a marvel, the figures in the last plan being quite as sharp as those in the foreground, and perfectly free from distortion.
The PRESIDENT, Gen. Birkin, brought for inspection a fine collection of splendid views, 12 by 8, taken by himself, of Kiev and its neighbourhood, which elicited general admiration from those present.
The SECRETARY, Mons. Srezneffsky, informed the members that the Committee had agreed to subscribe for the following journals and annuals:-Photographic News, British Journal, Photographic Journal, Philadelphia Photographer, Bulletin de la Societe Francaise, Journal de Photographie, Bulletin de l'Assocration Belge, Year-Book of Photography, British Journal Almanac, Photo Mosaics, Annuaire du Journal de Photographie, Photographisches Jahrbuch.
Talk in the Studio.
RAPID DRY PLATES.-Mr. W. Wainwright, jun., writes to say that the gelatine emulsion negative he showed at the last Photographic meeting was from emulsion prepared by Bennett's formula by Mr. Mawdesly.
NEW FOREIGN PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY.-M. C. Chesterman is good enough to forward us intimation of the formation of a new society in St. Petersburgh, devoted to photography and its applications, and sends us items of its proceedings, which will be found on another page.
AN UNSATISFACTORY RE-SITTING.- A Newburyport paper says that a photographer, who had a fussy customer the other day, tried a trick of the craft upon her by going through all the motions without any plate in the camera, and then showing the Victim one of the proofs of a former sitting, a plan which very often works satisfactorily, but in this case with no very great success. "I think that's one of my first pictures," says the lady. "I guess not," replied the picture man; "I could hardly have misplaced them." "Oh! but I know it is," replied the positive original; "I've changed my necktie since that one was taken." The artist subsided.
A. F. P.-The matt-silver stains of which you complain are old and familiar troubles to the photographer, common in warm weather. The chief cause is the character of the collodion, which you will find is horny and repellent. A soft, spongy film absorbs a good proportion of solution, and keeps moist; whilst the horny repellent film behaves quite oppositely: the solution on the surface, instead of flowing in an even wave, collects in little pools and streams, and these, becoming condensed by evaporation, deposit stains of matt metallic silver the moment the developer touches them. The best remedy is a change or modification of the collodion. When the collodion gets riper, you will get rid of the trouble. Adding a portion of a very ripe, powdery collodion is a good plan. Sometimes the addition of a drop or two of distilled water to an ounce of collodion, and shaking well, answers. Keep the inner frames of the dark slide quite clean, and place clean wet blottingpaper at the back of the plate. Finally, if the trouble is persistent, make a ten-grain solution of nitrate of silver, and give the plate a momentary dip in this before development.
SILHOUETTE should know that we cannot repeat for individual
A. CLARKE.-If the varnish be a spirit varnish, add, to thin it,
A. J. F.-There is really no method of eliminating hyposulphit e
A. WARD. We have published many methods of placing a photograph on wood for the use of the engraver, but we cannot tell the special one to which you refer. The best method is to proceed as in photo-lithography, and produce a photo-lithographic transfer, and rub it down on the surface of the wood. By this means you get the image on the wood without any film of collodion, albumen, &c., which would chip up in cutting.
S. R. M.-The reproduction of negatives by means of powdered
E. WILLIAMS.-Many thanks for the interesting photographs.
the further communication.
Several Correspondents in our next.
WRATTEN & WAINWRIGHT'S
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A. ORDINARY BROMIDE.
B. INSTANTANEOUS BROMIDE.
Extract from a letter received from JNO. L. GEIGER, Esq., South Kensington:
"I have experimented with your Instantaneous Bromide Emulsion, both with alkaline and the new ferrous oxalate developer, and have found it very rapid and reliable; it ought to become a great commercial success. I shall be glad to recommend it to my photographic
Testimonials have also been received from many of the best workers of the day, including Henry Cooper, Esq (Torquay); Horatio Ross, Esq.; W. T. Wilkinson, Esq.; John Nesbitt, Esq.; Geo. Buckman, Esq. (Dover), and many others.
Price, per Pint, £1; Half-pint, 10s. 6d.; Five Ounces, 5s. 6d.
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are solicited to supply themselves with a sample sent free on receipt of Twelve Stamps. Quotations on receipt of business card. Wholesale Dealers and Export Agents supplied.
WING TO THE PURITY OF THE ALBUMEN used in the manufacture of these papers, and not to the presence of chemicals, more or less injurious to the quality o the prints, these papers will keep sensitized several days. They are free from smell, and the prints, consequently, will be found more permanent.
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