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remarkably destructive, and seldom fails to make a long stay. The cœmeteries are swelled to a great extent round the town, and filled with broken columns, pieces of granate, and marble fragments, fixed as grave-stones; some carved with Turkish characters in relievo, gilded and painted. In the Armenian burying-ground we discovered a long Greek inscription on a slab of white marble, but not legible. On a rocky eminence on the side next the Propontis is a range of windmills.
The town and castle has on the south a river, which descends from mount Ida. Its source, as we were told, is seven hours up in the country; and its violence, after snow or rains upon the summits, prodigious. A thick wall has been erected, and plane trees disposed to keep off the torrent, and protect the buildings from its assaults. At the mouth, like the Scamander, it had then a bar of sand. The bed was wide, stony, and intersected with green thickets, but had water in the cavities, at which many women, with their faces muffled, were busy washing linen, and spreading it on the ground to dry.
This river enables us to ascertain the site of the inner castles, a point of some consequence in the topography of the Hellespont. Its antient name, as appears from Strabo, was Rhodius; and it entered the sea between Dardanus and Abydos. The remnants of marble, which we saw in the buryinggrounds about the town, have been removed thither chiefly from the ruins of these cities, particularly of the latter, which was the most considerable. The consul showed as a head of an image of the Virgin VOL. XVIII. 1775.
Mary, which was found in the rubbish of a church there. On the European side, opposite to the Rhodius, was Cynossema The Barrow of Hecuba, which is still very conspicuous, and within or close by. the castle.
We returned, when we had finished our survey, to our lodging, where we supped cross-legged, about sunset. Soon after, when it was dark, three coverlets richly embroidered were taken from a press in the room, which we occupied; and delivered, one to each of us; the carpet or sopha and a cushion serving, with this addition, instead of a bed. A lamp was left burning on a shelf, and the consul retired to his family, which lay in the same manner in an adjoining apartment. We pulled off our coats and shoes, and expected to be much refreshed by sleeping on shore. We had not been apprized of a nightly plague, which haunts the place, or perhaps rather the houses of the Jews. Two of us could not obtain rest for a moment, but waited the approach of dawn with a degree of impatience equalled only by our bodily sufferings, which cannot be described.
We had agreed in the evening to visit some neighbouring places on the continent, with the principal islands near the mouth of the Hellespont. Early in the morning the consul asked for money to purchase provisions, which, with other necessaries, were put into a scheick or wherry. He embarked with us, between the hours of eight and nine by our watches. We had six Turks, who rowed; a Janizary, and a Jew servant. The two latter, with the consul, sate cross-legged R
before us, on a small carpet; as the rais or master of the boat did behind, steering with the handle of the helm over his shoulder.
We soon crossed the Hellespont, and coasting by the European shore, saw several solitary king-fishers, with young partridge, among vast single rocks. The winter torrents had worn deep gullies, but the courses were dry, except a stream, which we were informed, turns a mill. A narrow valley, or two, was green with the cotton plant and with vines, or sowed with grain.
It is on the north-side of the castle, and ranges along the brink of a precipice.
When the heat was abated a little, we were informed that the governor gave us permission to refresh in his garden. We dismissed his messenger with a bac-shish or present of three piasters*, and an excuse, that we were just going away; but this was not accepted; and we paid another piaster for seeing a very small spot of ground, walled in, and containing nothing, except two vines, a fig and a pomegranate tree, and a well of excellent water.
The Turks, after we were land, cd, had rowed the wherry round Mastusia, and waited for us with
by the castle-wall, we saw a large Corinthian capital, and an altar, made hollow and used as a mortar for bruising corn. Near the other end of the town is a bare barrow. By this, was formerly the sacred portion of Protesilaus, and his temple, to which perhaps the marble fragments have belonged. He was one of the leaders in the Trojan expedition; and was killed by Hector. Afterwards he was worshipped as a hero, and reputed the patron or tutelar deity of Eleùs.
After passing the mouth of a port or bay called antiently Coelos, we landed about eleven on the che.ronese of Thrace, near the first European castle, within the en-out the point, In our way to them, trance of the Hellespont; and as cended to the miserable cottage of a poor Jew in the town. Here a mat was spread on the rud-floor of a room by the sea-side, and the eatables we had provided, were placed on it. The noon-tide heat at this place was excessive, The consul retired, as usual, to sleep; while we alsorested, or were amused with the prospect from the win dow. Beneath us was the shining canal, with Cape Mastusia on the right hand; and opposite, the Asiatic town and castle, with the noble plain divided by the Sea mander; and the barrows mentioned before, two standing by each other not far from the shore, with, in Sigéum, and one more remote.
The ancient name of this town, which is exceedingly mean and wretched, was Eleûs. The streets or lanes are narrow and intricate,
On our arrival at the wherry, which was behind the castle, we found our Turks sitting on the ground, where they had dined, chiefly on ripe fruits, with ordinary bread. We had there a wide and deep gulf, a portion of the Agean sea anciently called Melas, on our right hand; with Imbros, toward the entrance, twenty-five miles
A piaster is about half a crown English, and is equal in value to thirty peraus. These are a small silver coin, about the size of an English penny.
from Mastusia, and twenty-two from Lemnos, which lay before us, and beyond these, other islands, and the continent of Europe, in view. We had intended to visit Lemnos, and the principal places in that quarter, but, the wind proving contrary, we now steered for Tenedos, and, after rowing some time with a rough sea, hoisted sail: we passed by some islets, and about three in the afternoon, reached the town. On opening the harbour, we discovered in it, besides smallcraft, three Turkish gallies wait ing to convey the Venetian bailow or resident, who was expected daily, to Constantinople; the ships of that republic being by treaty excluded from navigating the Hellespont.
The island Tenedos is chiefly rock, but fertile. It was anciently reckoned about eighty stadia or ten miles in circumference, and from Sigéum twelve miles and a half. Its position, thus near the mouth of the Hellespont, has given it importance in all ages; vessels bound toward Constantinople finding shelter in its port, or safe anchorage in the road, during the etesian or contrary winds, and in foul weather. The Emperor Justinian erected a magazine to receive the cargoes of the corn-ships from Alexandria, when detained there. This building was two hundred and eighty feet long, ninety-broad, and very lofty. The voyage from Egypt was rendered less precarious, and the grain preserved, until it could be transported to the capital. Afterwards during the troubles of the Greek empire, Tenedos experienced a variety of fortune. The pirates, which infested these seás, made it for many years their
place of rendezvous; and Othman seized it in 1302, procured vessels, and from thence subdued the other islands of the Archipelago.
The port of Tenedos has been inclosed in a mole, of which no part now appears above water, but loose stones are piled on the foundations to break the waves. basin is encompassed by a ridge of the mountain. On the south side is a row of wind-mills and a small. fort; and on the opposite, a castle by the shore. This was taken in the year 1656 by the Venetians in four days, but soon after abandoned, as not tenable. The houses, which are numerous, stand at the, foot, or on the slope, of an acclivity; with a flat between them and the sea, formed partly by soil washed down from above. They reckon six hundred Turkish families, and three hundred Greek. The church belonging to the latter is decent.
We found here but few remains of antiquity worthy notice. We perceived on our lauding a large and entire sarcophagus or stone coffin serving as a fountain, the top-stone or lid being perforated to admit a current of water, which supplies the vent below; and on one side is an inscription. this we saw part of a fluted column converted into a mortar for bruising corn; and in a shop was a remnant of tesselated pavement then recently discovered. In the streets, the walls, and buryinggrounds, were pieces of marble, and fragments of pillars, with a few inscriptions.
In the evening, this being Sunday and a festival, we were much amused with seeing the Greeks, who were, singing and dancing, in several companies, to music, near
the town; while their women were sitting in groups on the roofs of the houses, which are flat, as spectators, at the same time enjoying the soft air and serene sky.
We were lodged much to our satisfaction in a large room, with a raised floor matted, on which we slept in our clothes, in company with two Jews and several Greeks; a cool breeze entering all night at the latticed windows, and sweetening our repose.
In these countries, on account of the heat, it is usual to rise with the dawn. About day break we received from the French consul, a Greek with a respectable beard, a present of grapes, the clusters large and rich, with other fruits all fresh gathered, We had, besides, bread and coffee for breakfast, and good wines, particularly one sort, of an
exquisite flavour, called muscade!!. The island is deservedly famous for the species of vine which produces this delicious liquor.
We had been told, that an antient building remained on the south side of the island, not much out of our way to the ruins of a city, called Eski-Stamboul, on the continent of Asia. Our Turks were waiting at the boat, and we just ready to join them, when we were informed that a scheik was arrived from the Asiatic Dardanell, which we had lately left, and that the presence of the consul was required on some very urgent busi ness at Constantinople. His bro ther, who had set sail in the morning carly to overtake him, rewin ed with us in his stead, and soon won our regard by his attention and civility,
HISTORY OF EUROPE.
Retrospective view of affairs in the colonies in the year 1764. General effect