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the meteors which are situated in the neighborhood of that part of the stream through which the Earth passed in 1866.

"The actual shift of the node—that is, the amount by which the meteoric orbit has moved sideways along the Earth's orbit-has had considerably more than three times its average amount in consequence of the intense perturbation to which the meteors. have been subjected within the last 33 years; and this is not the only respect in which Adam's orbit has been removed from the position in which he found it in 1866. This meteoric orbit then intersected the Earth's orbit. It has since been forced away from the Earth's orbit by the disturbing action of the planets, chiefly of the great planets Jupiter and Saturn. In the position which it now occupies the Earth will pass closest to it upon next Thursday morning, at about 6 o'clock A. M.; and Adams' meteoric orbit will then be as much as 1,300,000 miles distant from the Earth's orbit, that is more than five times further off than the Moon.

"This would be quite enough to carry the stream of meteors quite clear of the Earth if that stream were a mere cylindrical stream like a thread traveling lengthwise through space. But the investigations which we have had to make have brought to light the important fact that the stream where it pierces the plane of the Earth's orbit is not like a thread but more like a long piece of strap or tape traveling forwards in the direction of its length-in other words, the stream is very much wider than it is thick. Its thickness is known, from the duration of the meteoric showers, to be about 100,000 miles; but all that is known of its width is that it is much more. We shall probably not be far wrong if we estimate it as being three or four millions of miles. This very wide and comparatively thin stream of meteors passes obliquely through the plane of the Earth's orbit, and the part of the plane through which it passes has obviously the shape of a long oval or rectangle. We know where one point in this oval is at present-namely the point spoken of above where Adams' orbit pierces the plane of the Earth's orbit-a point which, as we have seen, will be 1,300,000 miles nearer to the Sun than the position which the Earth will reach at 6 A. M. on next Thursday morning. Unfortunately we do not know the length of the longer axis of the oval section, nor its position, further than that its direction originally, that is, 17 centuries ago, lay perpendicular to the Earth's orbit, and that it has since been very slowly shifted by perturbations into a position which slopes towards a part of the Earth's orbit which the Earth will reach.

sooner than 6 o'clock A. M. on Thursday morning. When the shower of this year takes place, if there is one of the great showers this year, we shall know from the time of its occurrence how much the oval section has turned out of its original position. Meanwhile we can only say that the shower is to be expected before 6 A. M. on Thursday, probably some hours earlier, and possibly, but not probably, so much earlier that the beginning of the shower may be seen from our side of the Earth before dawn on Wednesday morning, It is, however, more likely to come during the daytime or evening of Wednesday, in which case it will not be seen in England, or after 10:30 P M. on Wednesday evening, in which case it will be visible if the weather permit."

In the last issue of this journal we gave a number of reports of observers who watched the November Leonids, with charts showing the work done. We now give considerable more space to the continuance of these reports.

LEONIDS AT NORTHFIELD, MINN.

The Astronomy class at Carleton College, Northfield, Minn., consisting of twenty members, participated in the observations of the Leonid meteors Nov. 15, 17h to 22h 1899, Greenwich M. T. The following table gives the times and brightness of individual meteors as observed by students.

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At no time was the sky entirely clear during the night watch. It was partly clouded or covered with haze so that it was difficult to see any meteors except for the brief time they were brightest. All trails were therefore short and correspondingly uncertain in direction. If we add to this the strong moonlight, it is at once evident how unsatisfactory the observations were.

LEONIDS AT BARRE CENTER, N. Y.

On the morning of the 14th the heavens were cloudy, but on the morning of the 15th in a clear sky from 1 A. M. to 4 A. M. I charted nineteen meteors, the most of which could be traced from the Sickle in Leo, their flight was generally very rapid, with exception of two, which first appeared very near Gamma Leonis both were very bright with short trails and one of these showed a very

perceptible curve. In no case could any be said to exceed the second magnitude. At 1:30 A. M. a very large meteor far exceeding the brilliancy of Venus at her greatest with a heavy luminous train at a slow rate of motion was seen to emerge from Ursa Major and travel eastward disappearing low in the horizon. I again on the 16th and 17th at midnight resumed my watching till about four o'clock in the morning, but in neither case was a single meteor seen. I prepared to photograph the radiant with a wide angle lens and 5 x 7 plate with camera attached to my 81⁄2 inch Brashear reflector but as no meteors were seen I abandoned the work. I enclose the chart of meteors as seen.

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METEORS CHARTED DURING THE LEONID SHOWER.

Nov. 15, 1899, 17h-22h Greenwich M. T., by students at Goodsell Observa

tory, Carleton College, Northfield, Minn.

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METEORS CHARTED DURING THE LEONID SHOWER.

Nov. 14, 1899, 18h-22h Greenwich M. T., by Mr. Weston Wetherbee at Barre Center, N. Y.

LEONIDS AT CRETE, NEB.

Observations of the Leonid meteors were made successfully from this place on the nights of Tuesday, Nov. 14, and Thursday, Nov. 16. On Monday and Wednesday nights it was cloudy as was also the case for about three hours after midnight of Thursday. No careful work was done on Friday night but a few Leonids were reported as seen by casual observers.

A considerable number of the students of Doane College volunteered their assistance for the work and the corps of observers were given detailed instruction in advance in order to secure as satisfactory results as possible. In general the suggestion of Professor Wm. H. Pickering as given in the September and October

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METEORS CHARTED DURING THE LEONID SHOWER.

Nov. 14. 18h 30m-24h Greenwich M. T., by Professor Henry H. Hosford and students at Boswell Observatory, Doane College, Crete, Neb.

number of POPULAR ASTRONOMY were followed. It was arranged that the observers should work in sets of three. In each set one person was to keep an accurate count of all meteors seen, recording the number for each quarter hour; the second observer was to plat on the chart all meteors whose paths were accurately determined, recording the exact time when each was seen and other matters of interest; the third person was to act as time-keeper, comparing his watch each hour with the Observatory clock.

On Tuesday night for about two hours after midnight the sky was partially covered with light, filmy clouds which doubtless prevented the observers from seeing many of the less bright meteors. As the sky became clear the number of

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