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charted between 10 P. M. and 1 A. M. place the radiant about one-third of the way on a line from y to o Andromedæ.

On the evening of the 25th watch was kept occasionally but no Andromedes

were seen.

The Andromedes.-The Andromedes shower was a fine one for one night. On November 20, 1899 I watched for forerunners. The sky was half overcast. But in spite of that I saw one of the third magnitude at 7.10 of a white color. The 21st, 22d and 23d were cloudy. But on the 24th the sky was excellent. A cloudless and moonless sky. I began observations at 7:00 sharp. I had a table, chair, clock and maps and instruments. I noticed all through the night that the Taurids were also at their best, and I saw eleven in all, while fixing my attention on the constellation Andromeda. They were all bright and four very bright ones. I saw at one time three in one minute all of 0 magnitude. Saw in all sixty-four Bielids during the time between 7:00 and 10:02. Two on different nights. One on the 20th and one on the 25th the only one I saw between 7:00 and 8:30. Most of them were fairly bright. I saw two of 0 magnitude; one in the north-west and another that went through Pegasus and left a two-portioned trail of a green to blue color. This trail lasted two seconds. I had a camera ready, but did not set it because I thought the shower would be better

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The whole number of meteors was 80, consisting of Taurids, Bielids or Andromedes and two shooting stars. I did not, by good luck, sit up until 11:00 or probably the number of meteors would have been perhaps over a hundred. There were two radiants on the map (A−1) and (A-2). The meteors started at first near the star and then gradually moved to ẞ Andromedae.

GLEN ROAD, Jamaica Plain, Boston, Mass.

ROBERT M. DOLE.

An Interesting Object.-Near 5:30 P. M. on Thursday, Nov. 2, 1899, a hazy light spot, something like a fiery mist, large enough to easily attract attention, made its appearance near the horizon, north of east. This spot became rapidly distinct as it approached, changing from a hazy mist into a redder ball, which changed into a peculiarly beautiful white light, becoming more defined and with a luminous train growing larger and brighter and more beautiful as it slowly glided westward. Its course from the point where it appeared was due west and moving in a straight line almost parallel to the horizon lasted fully one minute. When at about two-thirds of its flight across the sky the ball of light seemed not to explode but rather part into three distinct bodies which moved on in the same path. Gradually the two bodies following separated from the head until at a certain distance which was kept the remainder of their flight. The second ball, smalier than the other two, keeping midway between.

Presently the face of the head light began to dissolve into fiery red flakes that were soon flying about the two bodies following which were almost lost to view but could be distinguished by their whiter appearance. At a point almost due north the lights, while making a short turn from their unvaried straight course, disappeared leaving a very dark curl of smoke.

BALDWIN, Kansas.

FRED HATCH.

Leonids at New York City.-It may interest you to hear from your asteern observers of the Leonid meteors, our Mr. Chas. Lembke, Mr. Otis

Wattles and Mr. Holtz of the Goerz Lens Co., Berlin. We stationed ourselves at the Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences, provided with cameras equatorially mounted provided with finder and slow motion in right ascension. The lenses used were 4.4 portrait tube and lenses ground by Chas. Lembke, Jr. The other camera was supplied with a Goerz astigmat wide angle lens.

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Our disappointment was very great, as our station, free from houses or any interference except the brilliancy of moonshine. We have not seen a single meteor neither on Thursday 1 A. M. to 4 A. M., nor the following morning.

GALL & LEMBKE.

The Foucault Pendulum Experiment.-A brief article appears in No. 9 of the Journal of the British Astronomical Association concerning the Foucault Pendulum experiment to show the rotation of the Earth on its axis. This experiment was first performed by Foucault at the Panthéon, in Paris in 1851. From the article, above referred to, it is learned that nearly two centuries before this date, those who were experimenting with the pendulum at Florence bad observed the rotation of the plane of oscillation, and that Vincenzo Viviani, the pupil of Galileo, had recorded the observation "in a note which was found amongst his writings relating to the motion of the pendulum but which remained unpublished." The members of the Florence Academy understood this fact thoroughly, but they could not give the reasons for it. The demonstration as we now know was first given by Foucault about two centuries later.

It is easy to perform the experiment in a rough way, now, and it is doubtless done in most colleges of this country which use the laboratory methods in teaching astronomy to any considerable extent. We have at Carleton College shown the rotation of the plane of oscillation with a pendulum only 12 feet long in less than one half hour. We have used a smooth sphere of iron 8 inches in diameter weighing 100 pounds and suspended it with steel wire so as to give a length of about 24 feet. If carefully suspended such a pendulum will swing for two or three hours, and show a deviation of plane of vibration at the rate of 10 degrees per hour, roughly, in latitude 45°, and always in the right direction to show rotation of the Earth to eastward. When we could get a charce to swing the pendulum with a length of 100 feet, as has been true in one instance, in the use of the steeple of a large church, the results came out beautifully and with greater accuracy in swings of about one hour periods. To gain accurate results by such an experiment the mounting of the pendulum must be done with very great care.

Lowe Observatory, Echo Mountain, Dec. 9, 1899.—I have read in the November number of POPULAR ASTRONOMY Mr. Herman Davis' description of a lunar rainbow as seen by him. I subscribe to his assertion that they are somewhat rare from my own experience, having during the past 60 years seen but few. This calls to mind a desire I long have felt to learn if many of the readers of your Popular Astronomical Journal ever saw a solar rainbow in the north? I have seen but two, and therefore conclude that the phenomenon is of rare occurrence, in fact, reason teaches that it must be rare, for it depends on the simultaneous occurrence of four distinct events: 1st, it must (say in the middle states) occur during the three winter months; 2d, it must take place at noon; 3d, it must be raining in the north; and 4th, the Sun must be shining in the south. As the apex of the bow is low, it also requires to see it an unobstructed northern horizon.

My last and the most conspicuous of the two was seen from the elevated tower of the Warner Observatory in Rochester, N. Y., some eight years ago. In Southern California it so seldom rains a rainbow in any directior is rarely seen. I have seen on a few occasions detached pieces of one, but seldom is one seen entire from horizon to horizon.

LEWIS SWIFT.

Eclipse of the Moon at Des Moines, Ia.-The eclipse of the Moon, Dec. 16, 1899, was observed and enjoyed by a large number of the citizens of Des Moines.

The disappointment in not seeing the expected Leonids, Nov. 12-16, led to skepticism, on the part of some people, as to the calculations and predictions of astronomers, and confidence was in a measure restored by seeing the eclipse occur at the hour predicted.

The first contact was not generally well seen because of clouds near the horizon, but within a very few minutes the arc of the segment of the shadow was plainly visible on the Moon.

While the sky was slightly hazy the entire evening, yet it was sufficiently clear to make the eclipsed Moon a beautiful naked-eye object from 6 to 9 P. M.

At the middle of the eclipse the center of the Moon was quite dark, but the "seas" showed up finely in the finder of the telescope, and Tycho was quite easily seen. The very slightly protruding rough edge of the bright limb was interesting.

The copper hue before, at, and after, the middle of the eclipse was readily noticeable.

W. A. CRUSINBERRY.

Leonids at Cleveland, Ohio.-With ten assistants from my astronomy class I watched for meteors from Monday to Friday night inclusive, November 13th to 18th. During this time we had one hour of clear sky on Friday morning. We counted five meteors and photographed three 8 x 10 plates. The weather was most unfortunate and the results obtained here are of no value whatever. I write you personally, not for publication, to let you know that we tried to do our part in watching this shower. CHAS. S. HOWE, Professor of Astronomy.

CASE OBSERVATORY, Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio.

Leonids and Andromedes at Carlisle, Pa.-I beg to make a brief report of recent meteoric observations in this vicinity. Cloudy weather interfered very disappointingly on Nov. 13, 14, 15 and 16th and our party saw but one Leonid, although we kept up our constant watch for hours each night. We were well situated on an elevation away from the glare of the electric lights of town and had charts, etc., ready, but the clouds persisted in intervening.

However, the observations from Andromeda were more encouraging. The number seen on the night of Nov. 22-23 was 89, including one of wonderful brightness going toward and nearly to St. Cygnus. Others were faint by comparison as this big one cast a distinct shadow. The course was straight and the trail was visible for some seconds afterwards.

A party of five of us saw 161 meteors on the following night. These were all from Andromeda, with the exceptions of several Cassiopeids and a very pretty Leonid, the latter going as far west as Polaris at 12.30 A. M. on Nov. 24th. A number of the Andromedes were particularly brilliant and created much enthusiasm. The average was about one per minute. At intervals there would be three or four in rapid succession and in two instances there were two going in the same direction at the same time. The sky was cloudless and all of the constellations were exceedingly clear and distinct.

E. N. FOUGHT.

CARLISLE, Pa., Nov. 30, 1899.

The Central Star in the Ring Nebula.-In Astron. Nachr., No. 3607, Mr. W. Stratanoff, of the Tachkent Observatory, Russia, gives the results of a

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