An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Volume 2

Front Cover
William Fessenden, 1806

From inside the book

Contents

Identity of Man 7 Identity fuited to the Idea
17
Same Man 9 Perfonal Identity
18
Thirdly In Subftances by fhowing and defining
19
Ideas of the leading Qualities of Subftances are beft got by fhowing
20
Confcioufnefs makes perfonal Identity
21
Perfonal Identity in change of Subſtances
22
Whether in the change of thinking Subftances 16 Confcioufnefs makes the fame Perfon
23
Ideas alfo of Subſtances muſt be conformable to things
24
Not eafy to be made
25
Fifthly By Conftancy in their Signification
26
Conclufion
27
Self depends on Confcioufnefs
28
Object of Reward and Puniſhment 21 Difference between Identity of Man and Perfong
30
Conſciouſneſs alone makes Self
31
Perfon a forenfick term
34
Proportional 2 Natural
64
Infituted
65
Moral CHAP XXVIII
71
Moral Good and Evil 6 Moral Rules 7 Laws 8 Divine Law the Meaſure of Sin and Duty 9 Civil Law the Meaſure of Crimes and Innocence 10 11 Phil...
73
Thefe three Laws the rules of moral good and evil
74
Morality is the relation of actions to the rules 16 The denominations of actions often miſlead us 17 Relations innumerable 18 All Relations terminate i...
77
We have ordinarily as clear or clearer Notion of the Relation as of its Foundation
78
The Notion of the Relation is the fame whether the Rule any Action is compared to be true or falſe
79
Ideas of Subſtances are real when they agree with
92
CHAP XXXIII
115
Its influence on intellectual Habits
122
Words often fecretly referred Firft to the Ideas
129
Of the Names of Simple Ideas
152
The Names of complex Ideas when to be made
158
Though very imperfect
191
But makes feveral Effences fignified by the fame name 31 The more general our Ideas are the more incomplete partial they are and 4
194
This all accommodated to the End of Speech 33 Inftance in Caffuaries Make
196
Men make the Species ToftanceGold 35 Though nature makes the Similitude
197
And continues it in the Races of things 37 Each abtract Idea is an Effence wwwmakerpen order to naming Watch in ག
199
Species of artificial things lafs confufed than natural 40 Artificial things of diftinet Species 39405 4 Subſtances alone have proper Names
201
Difficulty to treat of Words with Words 43 44 Inftance of mixed Modes in Kineah and Niouph 45 46 Inftance of Subftances in Zahab 47 Their Ideas...
205
Therefore to fix their Species a real Effence is fup pofed 49 Which Suppofition is of no ufe 50 Conclufion
206
SECT
210
zo The most doubtful are the Names of very compound ed mixed Modes and Subftances 21 Why this Imperfection charged upon Words
226
This fhould teach us Moderation in impofing our own fenfe of old authors
227
SECT CHAP X
229
Occafioned by learning nanies before the Ideas they belong
230
Secondly unfteady application of them 6 Thirdly Affected Obfcurity by wrong application
232
Logick and Difpute has much contributed to this 8 Calling it Subtilty
233
This learning very little benefits Society 10 But deftroys the Inftruments of Knowledge and Com munication
234
As ufeful as to confound the Sound of the Letters 12 This Art has perplexed Religion and Juſtice
235
And ought not to paſs for Learning 14 Fourthly Taking them for things
236
Inftance in Matter
237
This makes Errours lafting
238
Fifthly Setting them for what they cannot fignify
239
g putting them for the real Effences of Subſtances 19 Hence we think every Change of our Idea in Subſtan ces not to change the Species
240
The Cauſe of this Abuſe a fuppofition of Natures working always regularly
241
This Abuſe contains two falfe Suppofitions 22 Sixthly A Suppofition that Words have a certain and evidênt fignification
243
The Ends of Language First to convey our Ideas 24 Secondly to do it with quickneſs
244
Thirdly therewith to convey the Knowledge of things 2631 How mens words fail in all thefe
245
How in Subſtances 33 How in Modes and Relations 34 Seventhly Figurative Speech alfo an Abufe to Lane guage
247
Simple Ideas why undefinable farther explained
324
SECT BOOK IV CHAP I

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Page 44 - But some man will say, How are the dead raised up ? and with what body do they come ? Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die. And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bare grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some other grain: but God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him; and to every seed his own body.
Page 181 - ... which, if it be probable, we have reason then to be persuaded, that there are far more species of creatures above us, than there are beneath; we being in degrees of perfection much more remote from the infinite being of God, than we are from the lowest state of being, and that which approaches nearest to nothing. And yet, of all those distinct species, we have no clear distinct ideas.
Page 16 - That being then one plant which has such an organization of parts in one coherent body partaking of one common life, it continues to be the same plant as long as it partakes of the same life, though that life be communicated to new particles of matter vitally united to the living plant, in a like continued organization conformable to that sort of plants.
Page 125 - ... &c., are all words taken from the operations of sensible things, and applied to certain modes of thinking. Spirit, in its primary signification, is breath; angel, a messenger ; and I doubt not, but if we could trace them to their sources, we should find in all languages the names which stand for things that fall not under our senses, to have had their first rise from sensible ideas.
Page 289 - From all which it is evident, that the extent of our knowledge comes not only short of the reality of things, but even of the extent of our own ideas.
Page 249 - ... taught, and has always been had in great reputation : and I doubt not, but it will be thought great boldness, if not brutality in me, to have said thus much against it. Eloquence, like the fair sex, has too prevailing, beauties in it to suffer itself ever to be spoken against. And it is in vain to find fault with those arts of deceiving wherein men find pleasure to be deceived.
Page 343 - But whilst we are destitute of senses acute enough to discover the minute particles of bodies, and to give us ideas of their mechanical affections, we must be content to be ignorant of their properties and ways of operation; nor can we be...
Page 132 - Men would in vain heap up names of particular things that would not serve them to communicate their thoughts. Men learn names, and use them in talk with others, only that they may be understood: which is then only done when by use or consent the sound I make by the organs of speech, excites in another man's mind who hears it the idea I apply it to in mine...
Page 66 - Fourthly. There is another sort of relation, which is the conformity or disagreement men's voluntary actions have to a rule to which they are referred, and by which they are judged of; which, I think, may be called
Page 128 - A man cannot make his words the signs either of qualities in things, or of conceptions in the mind of another, whereof he has none in his own.

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