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Different customs of the Romans, with regard to proper Marius' character, and first campaigns. Scipio's anticipation of his future greatness. His tribuneship. Rejected in his competition for the ædileship: he obtains the office of prætor, as surmised, by bribery : takes the command in Spain: marries Julia, of the family of the Casars. His fortitude in enduring pain. He goes into Africa, as Metellus' lieutenant. His conduct in that war. He gets Turpilius capitally condemned: is elected consul: pronounces his own eulogy, and shows great contempt for the patricians. Bocchus surrenders Jugurtha to Marius' quæstor Sylla, whence the implacable quarrel of those two Roman officers. Marius' second consulship. Origin of the Cimbri. They resolve to actack Rome. Marius' election opposed, but without success: his triumph. Jugurtha's death. Marius sets off for the army. He enures his troops to hardship.
admirable behaviour to Trebonius. His third and fourth consulships. He opens a canal, as a new mouth to the Rhone. He declines engaging, in order to accustom his soldiers to the looks of the barbarians. His Syrian fortune-teller. Various presages of his success. He pursues the enemy, who had decamped: his victory. Anxiety of the Romans, during the night. Preparations for a second action: his second victory. He is a fifth time elected consul. VOL. IV.
Intelligence of Catulus' army. Marius sets off to join it. His arrangements for battle: the Romans victorious: the two consuls honoured with a triumph. Reflections on Marius' character. He associates himself with Glaucias and Saturninus. His sixth consulship; and dishonest condescensions. He swears to Saturninus' law: Metellus refuses, and goes into exile. Marius obliged to take up arms against Saturninus, who with his accomplices is killed. Metellus is recalled. Marius passes into Asia. Commencement of the War of the Allies. Marius' conduct. He solicits the command of the urmy against Mithridates : is obliged to leave Rome. His son escapes from his enemies. Marius' flight, and sufferings. Old presages, by which he supports himself. Fresh danger, which he escapes. He conceals himself in a marsh, but is taken. No one dares to despatch him, and he is set at liberty. He lands in Africa, whence he is driven by Sextilius: is rejoined by his son, and returns to Italy: unites with Cinna and takes possession of the Janiculum. sul Octavius. Marius' cruelties. by his slaves. Death of Mark Atrocities committed in Rome. ship: his anxieties; and death. bition, attachment to life, &c. rius.
Death of the conCornutus is preserved Antony, and Catulus. Marius' seventh consulReflections on his amDeath of his son Ma
WE know no third name of Caius Marius', any more than we do of Quintus Sertorius who held Spain so long, or of Lucius Mummius who took Corinth. For the surname of Achaïcus Mummius, gained by his conquest, as Scipio did that of Africanus, and Metellus that of Macedo nicus. Posidonius avails himself chiefly of this argument to confute those, who hold the third to be the Roman proper name (Camillus, for instance, and Marcellus, and Cato); for in that case those who had only two names, would have had no proper name at all. But he did not
1 Hence the name of Nepos, given him by some historians, is obviously without foundation.
consider, that by this reasoning she robbed the women of their names; for no woman bears the first, which Posidonius supposed the proper name among the Romans. Of the other names, one was common to the whole family, as the Pompeii, Manlii, Cornelii (in the same manner as, with us, the Heraclidae and Pelopidae), and the other was a surname given them from something remarkable in their dispositions, their actions, or the form of their bodies; as Macrinus, Torquatus, Sylla, which are like Mnemon, Grypus, and Callinicus, among the Greeks. But the diversity of customs in this respect leaves much room for farther inquiry.
As to the figure of Marius, we have seen at Ravenna in Gaul his statue in marble, which perfectly expressed all that has been said of his sternness and austerity of behaviour. For being naturally robust and warlike, and better acquainted with the discipline of the camp than that of the city, he was fierce and untractable when in authority. It is said that he neither learned to read
2 The Romans had usually three names; the Prænomen, the Nomen, and the Cognomen.
The Prenomen, as Aulus, Caius, Decimus, was the proper or distinguishing name between brothers, during the time of the republic.
The Nomen was the family-name, answering to the Grecian patronymics. For, as among the Greeks the posterity of acus were called Æacidæ, so the Julian family had that name from Iülus or Ascanius. But there were several other things, which give rise to the Nomen, as animals, places, and accidents; for instance, Porcius, Ovilius, &c.
The Cognomen was originally intended to distinguish the several branches of a family. It was assumed from no certain cause, but generally from some particular occurrence. It became however hereditary, except it happened to be changed for a more honourable appellation, as Africanus, Macedonicus. But it should be well remarked, that under the emperors the Cognomen was often used as a proper name, and brothers were distinguished by it, as Titus Flavius Vespasianus, and Titus Flavius Sabinus.
As to women, they had anciently their Prænomen as well as the men, such as Caia, Lucia, &c. (Val. Max. x.) But afterward they seldom used any other beside the family-name, as Julia, Tullia, and the like. Where there were two sisters in a house, the distinguishing appellations were Major and Minor; if a greater number, Prima, Secunda, Tertia, &c. With respect to the men, who had only two names, a family might be so mean as not to have gained the Cognomen; or there might be so few of the family, that there was no occasion for it to distinguish 'the branches. 3 Viz. Cisalpine Gaul; for so part of the north of modern Italy was denominated by the Romans.*
Greek, nor would ever make use of that language upon any serious occasion; thinking it ridiculous to bestow time on learning a language, of which the teachers were slaves. And when, after his second triumph, at the dedication of a temple he exhibited shows to the people in the Grecian manner, he barely entered the theatre and sat down, and then immediately departed. As Plato therefore used to say to Xenocrates the philosopher, who had a morose and unpolished manner, "Good Xenocrates, sacrifice to the Graces;" so, if any one could have persuaded Marius to sacrifice to the Grecian Muses and Graces, he would never have brought his noble achievements both in war and peace to so shocking a conclusion; neither would he ever have been hurried by passion, unseasonable ambition, and insatiable avarice, to split upon the rocks of a savage and a cruel old age. But this will soon appear from his actions themselves.
His parents were obscure and indigent people, who supported themselves by labour: his father's name was the same with his; his mother was called Fulcinia. was late before he came to Rome, or had any taste of the refinements of the city. In the mean time he led at Cirrætum, a village in the territory of Arpinum+, a life which if compared with the elegance of polished life was perfectly rustic; but at the same time it was temperate, and much resembled that of the ancient Ro
He made his first campaign against the Celtiberians 5, when Scipio Africanus was besieging Numantia. It did not escape his general, how far he surpassed the other young soldiers in courage; nor how easily he adopted the reformation in point of diet, which he had introduced into armies before almost ruined by luxury and pleasure. It is said also, that he encountered and killed an enemy in sight of Scipio; who therefore distinguished him by many marks of honour, and among the rest by inviting him to his table. One evening the conversa
4 A corruption of Cernetum.' Pliny informs us (N. H. iii. 5.) that the inhabitants of Cernetum were called Mariani,' undoubtedly from Marius their townsman, who had distinguished himself in so extraordinary a manner. Arpinum was also the native province of Cicero.
5 B. C. 133. The Celtiberians were a people of Old Castile.*