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The customs are considerably lessened, from the almost total stoppage of importations from the continent of Europe, and government in the present perplexing state of their finances, find the deficiency so great, that they appear inclined to grant licences to bring in some articles, on which they may have the duties, although the measure is attended with many disadvantages so long as Bonaparte can keep the continent shut against British manufactures. Those interested in each trade endeavour to throw the difficulties off themselves on others, and in this struggle a remonstrance has been presented to the board of trade by the shipping interest against the licencing of foreign vessels. The petitioners represent the necessity of excluding all importations into Britain by foreign ships so long as the restrictions on exports is continued under the influence of the French system. It As expected that a duty will be laid on timber from the North of Europe, in the present session to encourage importations of this article from British America.

A serious rupture with the United States of America may now be expected: at least an interruption of commercial relations, if acts of more direct hostility do not ensue. Congress have passed a supplementary act, and are strictly enforcing their laws against British and Irish trade. By the operation of these acts, the effects are nonintercourse as far as respects British and Irish shipping, and non-importation in their


Rumours are in circulation, that the British government kave in contemplation by a fresh order in council, to prohibit importation into these countries in American vessels, and thus make the system of non-intercourse complete. They would then shut up the small opening for trade left us by America, in permitting their exports to come to us in their own vessels, and we shall have by a conjoint operation of the two governments a complete non-intercourse system. Such a measure will prevent us from receiving the articles we stand in need of, many of which may be considered as prime materials in our manufactures. The Americans can do better without our manufactures, as their home manufactures especially of linens, cottons, and woollens have of late considerably increased, while a non-importation system will act as a protection to them, till they find they can completely do without ours.

If the British ships of war capture American vessels going into French ports, as by the act of Congress the Americans are permitted to trade with France, since the Berlin and Milan decrees, as far as regards them, are repealed, direct war with the United States, appears inevitable. We shall then have one more blunder added to the many already existing, and national advantage will be once more sacrificed to national pride, and an unwillingness to make just concessions.

A Liverpool correspondent gives the following statement:

"Since the date of our last circular, no occurrence has taken place, to alter our pros pects, either with regard to the prices, or the demand; consequently, the fluctuations, in most kinds of American produce, have been very few, and of trifling extent. Our cotton market, though it occasionally experiences a little revival, continues, upon the whole, in a dull state, with but little alteration in the prices. Since the commencement of this year, the imports have been large, compared with the extent of the consumptive demand, which, as may be naturally expected, is now much abridged, and while our foreign relations are so unhappily circumstanced, we cannot look for any great or permanent improvement in the trade of the spinner, and manufacturer.-Pot ashes, of prime quality, are scarcely to be procured in this market, and when a few barrels, perfectly sound, can be selected, they cannot be purchased under 43s. a 44s. per cwt. The inferior sorts are plentiful, and go off at prices proportioned to their various qualities.

"A sale of Barilla was lately attempted by auction, but the demand is so completely suspended, that no purchaser came forward to make an offer of any description, and the prices are, in consequence, altogether nominal.

"The inquiry for almost every species of grain, is so completely suspended, that it is difficult to convey any correct idea of the prices, which could be actually obtained. The export demand to Portugal has greatly subsided, and although the stock of American flour in this market, is confined to two or three parcels; yet, it is almost impossible to effect a sale, on any terms. American and Irish wheat and barley, are all very dull. Oats are rather better, but still in very limited request.

"Timber has continued to meet with a very limited sale, and during the last month, a further reduction was experienced upon all descriptions of pine. Should the additional duty which government intends to impose upon Pine, imported from

the Baltic, take effect upon the 1st of June next, of which there now appears to be lit tle doubt, an advance upon this species of timber is confidently expected."

The cotton trade of this country is in a low state, yet it has the home consumption, although considerably diminished, but in Britain the want of a market on the continent, Occasions a depression, which from the great reverse is still more severely felt.

As to the linen trade little alteration appears either in the demand for white goods, or in the brown markets.

The supply of flax-seed this year is abundant, and the prices low. Seed from the United States of North America, both of this and last year's importation is in abundance. The want of a supply from Riga and the other ports of the Baltic is compensated by some seed raised in this country last year, and by large importations of English growth.


It desTo intend

Another instance of forgery has occurred in this town during last month, on ras ther a smaller scale. A lax morality appears to prevail with many unacquainted with the necessity of supporting commercial credit in the strictest manner. gery is a crime of very injurious tendency in a commercial country. troys confidence, and lessens security in all transactions on credit. not to defraud, affords no valid excuse. When the nature of bills and negociable securities are better understood, it is hoped that more just sentiments will prevail, and this crime become less frequent. The smaller traders have not, till of late, been so much acquainted with transactions in bills. The present extended system of paper multiplies the temptations to improper conduct, and also shows the necessity of greater strictness in avoiding any breach in the rules indispensably ne cessary to preserve security.

The premium on guineas fell to 7 and 8 per cent. It soon again rose to 10, 12, and 15 per cent. While a disproportion of 27 per cent exists between gold in bullion, and in coin, and since the English have discovered the large quantity that remained in this district, the price here must necessarily continue so high, as draw away all the disposable guineas in this country. In a short time we may expect that not a guinea will be left here, except the small quantity which people can afford, or are inclined to hoard,


Inconveniences are now suffering in England for want of silver change: the dollars continuing to rise above the depreciation of the paper currency. Unless some measures of redress by the repeal of the bank restriction act, are specdily adopted, to remedy the scarcity of silver, and the almost total disappearance of guineas in general circulation, the effects will force themselves on the consideration even of the inconsiderate. The causes of depreciation lie deep, and are interwoven intimately in our political and commercial system, in the breaking up of the former overgrown trade of Britain, and in the mighty national debt, and increasing expenditure. In the two latter articles, Ireland is fully keeping pace, the expenditure for last year being upwards of 10millions, and the revenue only about 64 millions. Exchange on London is a little higher, than last month, being about 94 per cent.

From March 20, to April 20.

March 21...Wood Anemone (Anemone nemorosa), and Double Daffodil (Narcissus Pseudo Narcissus), flowering.

22...Yellow Star of Bethlehem (Gagea lutea) flowering. 26...Light Blue Violet (Viola Canina), flowering.

27...The Fish called about this country Roach, properly the Rud, Pennants British Zool. No. 170, Cyprinus crythropthalmus Linnæus, begin to appear near the surface of the water.

28...Double cupped Andromeda (Andromeda calyculata), and Common Lungwort, Pulmonaria officinalis), flowering.

April 2...Wheat Ear (Sylvia Enanthe) arrived, and singing.

5...Canadian Medlar (Mespilus Canadensis) flowering...Willow Wren (Sylvia Trochilus) come and singing.

6...Alpine Wall Cress, (Arabis Alpina), flowering.

11...Yellow tipped White Butterfly (Papilio Cardamimes), appearing...Smaller White Spanish Narcissus (Narcissus Moschatus) flowering.

16.Plaintain leaved Crowfoot (Ranunculus amplexicaulis)...kalian Squill (Scilla Ita

lica)...Two leaved squill (Scilla bifolia) and Glaucus Leaved Kalmia (Kalmia glauca), flowering.

19...Vernal Snow flake (Leucojum Vernum)...and Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris), flowering.

20...Starch Hyacinth (Hyacinthus racemosus), flowering, Smaller House fly (Musca domestica minor) appearing.


From the 20th March, to the 20th April

March 21, 30,...............Fine Days.

April 1,.......


Dark day

Light rain.

3, 4,.....




..Fine days.

..Some drops of rain.

..Dark cold day with some sleet and rain.

.........Snow fell during the night to two inches deep, on the ground. A fine day.

8......................Ice on shallow waters half an inch thick, and icicles 10






14, 16,........

inches long. Some hail showers through the day. ..Slight snow showers.

..Some hail showers.

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20,.....................Showers, and stormy.

The Barometer was on the 20th, as low as 28.9, on the 18th and 19th, 29,1; the rest of the time it was seldom below 30, and on the 28th and 29th of March it was as high as 30.5.

The highest range of the Thermometer in the morning was 46, on the 3d of April it was 53, on the 7th it was 31, on the 8th only 29, it gradually rose to 54 on the 13th and on the 16th, it was even as high as 55.

The wind has been observed 8 times N.W. 13 S.E. 11 N.E. 10 S.W. 2 S. 2 É. so that the prevalence has been southerly.


FOR MAY, 1811.

THE moon is on the meridian on the 1st, at ten minutes past seven in the evening, the first of the Lion being above, and about 4 degrees from her to the east of the meridian, and during the night we shall observe her gradual approaches to this star. At 9, she is 56 degrees, 8 minutes from the first of the Virgin, and 35 degrees, 35 minutes from the second of the Twins.

On the 4th she is on the meridian at twenty minutes past nine, having on the east of her the seventh, and to the west of her the second of the Virgin. Above her, and near the meridian on the west, is the second of the Lion, below her to the east of the meridian, the small stars in the Crow, and to the west of it the small stars in the Cup. At three quarters past eleven she passes the seventh of the Virgin, and in the morning she passes the ecliptic in her ascending node, but, for obvious reasons, without an eclipse. At nine she is thirty-three degrees thirty-six minutes from the first of the Lion.

On the 8th is full moon, at twenty one minutes before one in the afternoon, but without an eclipse, as she is upwards of four degrees in her upright north of the ecliptic. She rises under the two first stars of the Balance, but nearest to the 2nd, and is soon followed by the third, as she passes this star at 40 minutes past ten, and about four hours after the seventh. Before midnight, the two first stars of the Scorpion, with Mars below her to the east, and Saturn still farther removed, will distinguish the lower region, between south-east and the meridian. At 9 she is thirty degrees fifty-nine 'minutes from the first of the Virgin.

On the 11th, she rises nearly at the same time with Saturn, who is now to the west of her below her, but to the west is the 18th of the Archer.

On the 16th, she rises under the 9th of the Water-bearer, having passed this star at fifty minutes before one. Above her, therefore we shall distinguish the first of the Water-bearer, with the four small stars in triangle of the Water-pot.

On the 25th, the Moon is seen in the west, under the two first stars of the Twins, but at a considerable distance from them.

On the 30th, the 4th, 8th, and 2d, of the Lion are at a considerable distance above her; and on the 31st, she passes the ecliptic in her ascending node in the afternoon, near to the second of the Virgin, and when the stars appear we shall perceive her to the east of that star. For obvious reasons there is not an eclipse on this day.

This is not a favourable month for the planets, through our evening walks during the former part, will be embellished by the beautiful appearance of Jupiter and Mer cury near the W.N.W. and in the lower part of the lower region.

Mercury is an evening star during the whole of the month; but, as his inferior conjunction is on the first of June, he will be too near the Sun during the latter part of this month to be perceived by any but the very keen astronomer. His greatest elongation is on the 8th, and he is stationary on the 20th; his latitude is north, and he is in a favourable sign, of course, so many things conspiring to render him visible in the first part of the month, and Jupiter being at so small a distance from him; and if it is fine weather, so many temptations offering to take the pleasures of a setting sun, it is presumed that few will lose an oportunity, which will not speedily return. On the 1st, Mercury is between the Pleiades and Aldebaran; the Moon passes Mercury on the 23d.

Venus is a morning star, but, though at a considerable distance from the sun, it does not appear in favourable circumstances. On the 1st, she is at the entrance of the first sign, and with a southern latitude, so that her greatest altitude at sun-rise is only about ten degrees, and her duration above the horizon before that time is scarcely an hour. The moon passes her on the 19th.

Mars is on the meridian at two in the morning of the 1st, and at seven minutes be fore midnight on the 25th. His motion is retrograde through nine degrees, directing his course to the fourth star of the Scorpion, the smaller star under the second, which he does not however reach this month. The moon passes him on the 9th.

Jupiter is an evening star, but the sun advances so fast upon him, that he will excite our attention only in the first part of the month. His motion is direct through seven degrees. He steers his course from the Hyades in the space between the Bull's horns; but the space he moves through in the first week, is not a fifth of that described by Mercury in the same time; and the difference in the motions cannot fail of attracting our notice. The moon passes him on the 23d.

Saturn is on the meridian at a quarter past three in the morning on the 1st, and at two on the 19th. His motion is retrograde through a degree and three quarters, in the barren space between two the branches of the milky way, where he has so long been fixed, but he does reach the middle point between them. The moon passes him on the 11th.

Herchell is on the meridian at half an hour before one in the morning on the 1st, and at five minutes past eleven at night on the 21st. His motion is retrograde through a degree and a quarter, and he approaches the two thirteenths of the Balance, which continue to be an excellent guide to the planet, as he is at so little distance from them to the east. The Moon passes him on the 8th. The Sun's apparent diameter on the 1st is thirty-one minutes, forty-seven seconds. The Moon's apparent diameter on the 1st, is twenty-nine minutes, thirty-eight seconds, and it encreases to the 16th, being then thirty-two minutes, twenty-four seconds: it then decreases to the 29th, when it is 29 minutes, 38 seconds; and at midnight of the 31st, it is 29 minutes, 54 seconds.-(Extracted from Frend's Evening Amusements.)


An elegy signed M. M. is too incorrect to meet the public view.

ERRATA...P. 245, 2 col. 4 lines from bottom, for vigourously read rigourously. page 187, 2 col. 4th line, for obscruation, read obscuration.... Owing to an error in making referrences in the Political Retrospect, in the note at the bottom of the 2d column of page 330. for 336, read 343...after page 329, the next page is wrong numbered, for 130, road $30.


No. 34.]

MAY, 31, 1811.

For the Belfast Monthly Magazine.


SOCIETY has lately been established in Liverpool for bettering the condition and encreasing the comforts of the poor. The following report of a committee previous to the institution being esta blished, developes some good observations on the best modes of assisting the poor, and points out some useful axioms in that branch of political economy, which is connected with the proper management of the poorer classes of society. The rules of the society are also subjoined, and also the first report of the society. The latter is enriched with some just remarks on that difficult science of relieving the poor with the least injury to themselves. In all plans for their assistance, the ad ministering of present relief should be connected with a view to the amelioration of those vices, which too frequently accompany poverty.


"YOUR committee, after having paid the best attention in their power to the objects for which they were appointed, have prepared the rules which accompany this report, as the basis of a society for bettering the condition and increasing the comforts of the poor in the town and neighbourhood of Liverpool.

"By the neighbourhood, it is meant to include all persons residing within three miles of the town of Liverpool."


[Vol. 6.

"The inquiries which they have found it necessary to make, in order to form those rules, upon a foundation best calculated to attain the desired object, having placed within their immediate view many different plans which have been put in practice in several populous towns in the united kingdom, for the improvement of the condition of the poor, they take this opportunity of making a few remarks upon the good which may be expected gradually to arise from an institution of the proposed nature.


"And, in the first place, such a society will contribute to increase that mutual good-will and nexion which ought ever to subsist between the rich and the poor; it will draw closer those natural bonds of union which local circumstances may have already formed, and, while it serves to remind the highest of their duty, it will conduce to render the lowest satisfied with their condition.

"The sums of money annually expended in this country under the name of charity are almost beyond calculation. But how much of this becomes the reward of imposture; how much, with the best intention of

doing good, is misapplied to the

that pecuniary bounty, which was purposes of evil; how often does meant to wipe away the tears of distress, and to solace the miseries of indigence, fail in its object; and, instead of being productive of benefit to those very persons whom it was kindly intended to relieve, how often does it operate to their prejudice by furnishing them with the means of encouraging their propensities to idleness and vice; and by rendering 2 2

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