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lica)...Two leaved squill (Scilla bifolia) and Glaucus Leaved Kalmia (Kalmia glauca), flowering.

19...Vernal Snow flake (Leucojum Vernum)...and Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris), flowering.

20...Starch Hyacinth (Hyacinthus racemosus), flowering, Smaller House fly (Musca domestica minor) appearing.

From the 20th March, to the 20th April
March 21, 30,...............Fine Days.
April 1,.........
..Dark day,

Light rain.
...Fine days.

...Some drops of rain.

........Dark cold day with some sleet and rain.

.......Snow fell during the night to two inches deep, on
the ground. A fine day.
8...................... Ice on shallow waters half an inch thick, and icicles 10
inches long. Some hail showers through the day.
9......................Slight snow showers.
....Some hail showers.

.Fine day, snow still appearing on the mountains.
12,.......... ........Wet day.
....Dark dry day.

14, 16,................Gentle showers.


Wet evening.
..Showers, and stormy.


The Barometer was on the 20th, as low as 28.9, on the 18th and 19th, 29,1; the rest of the time it was seldom below 30, and on the 28th and 29th of March it was as high as 30.5.


3, 4,..




..Dark dry day, rain at night. ......Wet.

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The highest range of the Thermometer in the morning was 46, on the 3d of April it was 53, on the 7th it was 31, on the 8th only 29, it gradually rose to 54 on the 13th, and on the 16th, it was even as high as 55.

The wind has been observed 8 times N.W. 13 S.E. 11 N.E. 10 S.W. 2 S. 2 E. so that the prevalence has been southerly.


FOR MAY, 1811.

THE moon is on the meridian on the 1st, at ten minutes past seven in the evening, the first of the Lion being above, and about 4 degrees from her to the east of the meridian, and during the night we shall observe her gradual approaches to this star. At 9, she is 56 degrees, 8 minutes from the first of the Virgin, and 35 degrees, 35 minutes from the second of the Twins.

On the 4th she is on the meridian at twenty minutes past nine, having on the east of her the seventh, and to the west of her the second of the Virgin. Above her, and near the meridian on the west, is the second of the Lion, below her to the east of the meridian, the small stars in the Crow, and to the west of it the small stars in the Cup. At three quarters past eleven she passes the seventh of the Virgin, and in the morning she passes the ecliptic in her ascending node, but, for obvious reasons, without an eclipse. At nine she is thirty-three degrees thirty-six minutes from the first of the Lion.

On the 8th is full moon, at twenty one minutes before one in the afternoon, but withoût an eclipse, as she is upwards of four degrees in her upright north of the ecliptic. She rises under the two first stars of the Balance, but nearest to the 2nd, and is soon followed by the third, as she passes this star at 40 minutes past ten, and about four hours after the seventh. Before midnight, the two first stars of the Scorpion, with Mars below her to the east, and Saturn still farther removed, will distinguish the lower region, between south-east and the meridian. At 9 she is thirty degrees fifty-nine *minutes from the first of the Virgin.

On the 11th, she rises nearly at the same time with Saturn, who is new to the west of her below her, but to the west is the 18th of the Archer.

On the 16th, she rises under the 9th of the Water-bearer, having passed this star at fifty minutes before one. Above her, therefore we shall distinguish the first of the Water-bearer, with the four small stars in triangle of the Water-pot.

On the 25th, the Moon is seen in the west, under the two first stars of the Twins, but at a considerable distance from them.

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On the 30th, the 4th, 8th, and 2d, of the Lion are at a considerable distance above her; and on the 31st, she passes the ecliptic in her ascending node in the afternoon, near to the second of the Virgin, and when the stars appear we shall perceive her to the east of that star. For obvious reasons there is not an eclipse on this day.

This is not a favourable month for the planets, through our evening walks during the former part, will be embellished by the beautiful appearance of Jupiter and Mereury near the W.N.W. and in the lower part of the lower region.

Mercury is an evening star during the whole of the month; but, as his inferior conjunction is on the first of June, he will be too near the Sun during the latter part of this month to be perceived by any but the very keen astronomer. His greatest elongation is on the 8th, and he is stationary on the 20th; his latitude is north, and he is in a favourable sign, of course, so many things conspiring to render him_visible in the first part of the month, and Jupiter being at so smali a distance from him; and if it is fine weather, so many temptations offering to take the pleasures of a setting sun, it is presumed that few will lose an oportunity, which will not speedily return. On the 1st, Mercury is between the Pleiades and Aldebaran; the Moon passes Mercury on the 23d.

Venus is a morning star, but, though at a considerable distance from the sun, it does not appear in favourable circumstances. On the 1st, she is at the entrance of the first sign, and with a southern latitude, so that her greatest altitude at sun-rise is only about ten degrees, and her duration above the horizon before that time is scarcely an hour. The moon passes her on the 19th.

Mars is on the meridian at two in the morning of the 1st, and at seven minutes before midnight on the 25th. His motion is retrograde through nine degrees, directing his course to the fourth star of the Scorpion, the smaller star under the second, which he does not however reach this month. The moon passes him on the 9th.

Jupiter is an evening star, but the sun advances so fast upon him, that he will excite our attention only in the first part of the month. His motion is direct through seven degrees. He steers his course from the Hyades in the space between the Bull's horns; but the space he moves through in the first week, is not a fifth of that described by Mercury in the same time; and the difference in the motions cannot fail of attracting our notice. The moon passes him on the 23d.

Saturn is on the meridian at a quarter past three in the morning on the 1st, and at two on the 19th. His motion is retrograde through a degree and three quarters, in the barren space between two the branches of the milky way, where he has so long been fixed, but he does reach the middle point between them. The moon passes him on the 11th.

Herchell is on the meridian at half an hour before one in the morning on the 1st, and at five minutes past eleven at night on the 21st. His motion is retrograde through a degree and a quarter, and he approaches the two thirteenths of the Balance, which continue to be an excellent guide to the planet, as he is at so little distance from them to the east. The Moon passes him on the 8th. The Sun's apparent diameter on the 1st is thirty-one minutes, forty-seven seconds. The Moon's apparent diameter on the 1st, is twenty-nine minutes, thirty-eight seconds, and it encreases to the 16th, being then thirty-two minutes, twenty-four seconds: it then decreases to the 29th, when it is 29 minutes, 38 seconds; and at midnight of the 31st, it is 29 minutes, 54 seconds.—(Extracted from Frend's Evening Amusements.)


An elegy signed M. M. is too incorrect to meet the public view.

ERRATA...P. 245, 2 col. 4 lines from bottom, for vigourously read rigourously. page 187, 2 col. 4th line, for obscruation, read obscuration....Owing to an error in making referrences in the Political Retrospect, in the note at the bottom of the 2d column of page 330, for 336, read 349...after page 329, the next page is wrong numbered, for 130, read 330.


No. 34.]

For the Belfast Monthly Magazine.

A SOCIETY has lately been established in Liverpool for bettering the condition and encreasing the comforts of the poor. The following report of a committee previous to the institution being established, developes some good observations on the best modes of assisting the poor, and points out some useful axioms in that branch of political economy, which is connected with the proper management of the poorer classes of society. The rules of the society are also subjoined, and also the first report of the society. The latter is enriched with some just remarks on that difficult science of relieving the poor with the least injury to themselves. In all plans for their assistance, the administering of present relief should be connected with a view to the amelioration of those vices, which too frequently accompany poverty.

MAY, 31, 1811.

[Vol. 6.

"The inquiries which they have found it necessary to make, in order to form those rules, upon a foundation best calculated to attain the desired object, having placed within their immediate view many different plans which have been put in practice in several populous towns in the united kingdom, for the improvement of the condition of the poor, they take this opportunity of making a few remarks upon the good which may be expected gradually to arise from an institution of the proposed nature.


"And, in the first place, such a society will contribute to increase that mutual good-will and nexion which ought ever to subsist between the rich and the poor; it will draw closer those natural bonds of union which local circumstances may have already formed, and, while it serves to remind the highest of their duty, it will conduce to render the lowest satisfied with their condition.

"The sums of money annually expended in this country under the name of charity are almost beyond calculation. But how much of this becomes the reward of imposture; how much, with the best intention of

doing good, is misapplied to the that pecuniary bounty, which was purposes of evil; how often does meant to wipe away the tears of distress, and to solace the miseries of

indigence, fail in its object; and, instead of being productive of benefit to those very persons whom it was kindly intended to relieve, how often does it operate to their prejudice by furnishing them with the means of encouraging their propensities to idleness and vice; and by rendering



"YOUR committee, after having
paid the best attention in their pow-
er to the objects for which they were
appointed, have prepared the rules
accompany this report, as the
basis of a society for bettering the
condition and increasing the com-
forts of the poor in the town and
neighbourhood* of Liverpool.

"By the neighbourhood, it is meant to include all persons residing within three miles of the town of Liverpool."


come acquainted with the situation and character of the resident poor in the town and neighbourhood, before any very extended good can be expected to arise from the proposed institution. However difficult, and almost impossible, the accomplishment of this may at first view appear, your committee entertain not a doubt that the investigation, it properly conducted, will not only be practicable, but easy of attainment.


them less frugal, less industrious,
and less capable of maintaining their
families by the exertions of honest
industry. One great cause of the
growing evil is obvious; the genera-
lity of persons are willing to give
their money,
but they will not give
their time to the poor. It must
therefore necessarily follow, that in
such charity there can be little in-
quiry, and still less discrimination;
and there cannot be a truer maxim
than this, that it is not what is given,
but the right application of it,
which constitutes its real value.
Here then a society of the proposed
nature will prove itself particularly
useful. It will convert benevolence
to better purposes; it will direct it
into better channels; it will teach
that the true and legitimate object of
charity is moral amendment; it will
urge the necessity of regular ha-
bits, of prudent economy and of im-
provement of character; it will hold
out the most powerful motives to
exertion; it will direct its efforts
to eradicate the seeds of evil, and
advance the practice of virtue; and,
whilst it endeavours to operate on the
lower classes by individual encon-
ragement, by the prospect of honest
ly acquiring property, and by every
other incitement to industry and pru-
dence, it will also point out to the
rich the paths of active and useful


"It is not necessary that your committee should enumerate the va rious objects which may ultimately be attained by an association like the present; they will gradually be developed with the progression of the plan. Your committee will, however, trespass a little longer upon your time, while they state what they would recommend for immediate a doption: and the grand basis of the plan, they conceive, should be inquiry and investigation. It appears to them essentially necessary to be

By a skilful division of labour, by a selection of respectable individuals from that class of society, who, without being liable either to impose or be imposed upon, have the best means of acquiring a competent knowledge of the poorer classes, and by assigning to each such a portion as will not interfere with his own personal pursuits, your committee are confident that the desired end may, in a great measure, be obtained; and in this confidence the experience of the past fully justifies them. This knowledge, when once acquired, may be easily preserved; and the result of such a continued inquiry will point out the best remedy for those evils so justly complained of in the loese and indiscriminate charity of individuals. The progress of imposture will be checked; the distresses of the industrious poor will be pointed out and relieved; and idleness and vice will be detected and discouraged.


The second object which your committee would recommend for immediate adoption is also one of the greatest importance. It is an undeniable truth, and it should never be forgotten as a maxim, that one shilling which the poor man earns docs him more real service than two which are given him. Upon this principle your committee.would strongly urge the benefits which

would arise from the establishment of a general friendly society. under the trusteeship of the projected institution, and founded on correct principles of calculation. No measure could be devised more politic in its object, more practicable in its execution, or more-permanent in its effects. By thus supplying the poor man with the means of making a prospective provision for himself and his family, you improve his character, you ameliorate his condition, and you preserve his independence. The great objection of the friendly societies already established is their insecurity. They are founded on incorrect calculations with a view of encouraging subscriptions, they hold out the prospect of larger alfowances in sickness than the con tributions will justify; and the ine vitable consequences is, their ultimate dissolution, and often their speedy bankruptcy. It has also not unfrequently happened that the treasurers have been fal-e to their trust; and the sums of money spent at their club-meetings tend considerably to diminish the funds. With such disadvantages it cannot be a matter of surprise if the industrious poor man, who labours hard to save sufficient to pay his contribution, should be unwilling to trust his little all to a tenure so precarious; and the obvious benefits of a society, which, from the very nature of its constitution, precludes the possibility of internal discord, which dispenses its

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allowances with strict impartiality, and facilitates the means of obtaining thein; which, in short, offers such permanent security for the advantages it holds out, require no further illustration.

The third measure which your committee would at present recommend is the building of two public kitchens, one in the northern, and the other in the southern part of the town. For (not to mention the additional expense, which is by no means trifling,) the great delay and inconvenience which have resalted upon former occasions, from the want of them, sufficiently prove the necessity of this measure'; and though it is to be hoped that they will not be soon called for, yet in a town so extensive and so populous as Liverpool they never can be useless. The fluctuations of employment are at some periods great; during the long continuance of a hard frost many descriptions of the poor are thrown out of work; and in such cases the loss of time in necessary preparations entirely takes away from the value of relief, and the evil has reached its height before the remedy can be applied. Your committee would also recommend that a public shop should be attached to each of these, where the common necessaries of life, such as flour, potatoes, coals, &c. should be sold to the poor for ready money only. Let it not be understood that they mean to recommend the articles being sold at a price below their value, nor even at prime cost. That would be a dereliction of the very principles upon which the society should, in their opinion, be founded. It has been ascertained as a fact, from actual investigation, that the poor pay an advanced price for the common necessaries of life, at the rate of 25 per cent. beyond what the rich do; and, in addition to this, there is every

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