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ansmissible as much as a choleric, melancholy temperament; and as ras virtue consists in a more enrged, and cultivated reason, it ust depend upon a sound and althy organization of the brain. Fur vices may be justly deemed paral insanities, and most probably iginate from physical defects, which ay either lie dormant, or be deeloped in a greater or less degree, ccording to the circumstances in hich we are placed, or in other ords, according to the education e receive. Virtue is the health of se mental organ, (Sanitas est virs. Tusc 4. 13.), and what is cal ed a bad heart, always betrays an sound intellect. And I conclude, mat a healthy conformation of the ain, may as certainly be inherible as a sound conformation of the ver or the lungs.
Some indeed think of the mind as a certain volatile being, which, some undefined moment, flies into e body, and after taking its habi. tion there for some years, flies off ain, as a bird from its cage; but hers, perhaps as justly, think it e result of a particular organiza. on, suited to receive, retain, mofy, and associate impressions reived through the organs of sense, hich modifications or phases of the ental organ, are denominated perption, attention, memory, fancy, flection, &c. It is observed, that broad shouldermen have broad shouldered chilen. Now as labour always strength is the muscles employed, and ineases their bulk, it would seem at a few generations of labour or of dolence, may in this respect ange the form and temperament the body. It is, in this manner, continual residence for several enerations in certain places, under ertain unfavourable circumstances, d in unhealthy employments, that
proclivities to particular diseases are brought on by gradual malconformation of particular organs, such as of the liver, the lungs, &c. and of the parts containing them, or by that general debility and laxity of fibre, which pre-disposes to constitutional disease, and becomes at length a he reditary one.
It is remarked by an author, whose merits are far from having been adequately appreciated by the present age, that it is owing to the im perfection of language, the offspring is termed a new animal, but is, in truth, a branch or elongation of the present, since a part of the embryon animal is or was a part of the parent, and therefore, in strict language, it cannot be said to be entirely new at the time of its production-and, therefore, it may retain some of the habits of the parent system.
On the whole, there is some reason to think that the general state of the animal economy may be considerably influenced by that of the political economy, and that an illconstructed organization of the human frame, with the chronic and hereditary complaints consequent upon such deterioration, is ascribable,much oftner perhaps than suspected, to the evil organization of human society. Thus the financier, who raises his temporary revenue from the intoxication of the people, not only corrupts the morals of the present generation, but lays the foundation of that physical debility, which is entailed in various forms of disease upon remote posterity, and which is only curable by adopting through the same number of generations, a mode of life more agreeable to nature. A modern financier has no respect to posterity; he burthens it with debt, and he burthens it with disease.
when he calls it, Corporis temperantia Cicero defines health excellently well, cum ea congruunt inter se, e quibus con
In ancient times, there were fewer manufactures, but a less morbid population, fewer artisans, but a healthier community, a more universal enjoyment of the natural elements, a more perpetual use of air and exercise, which is in itself the best preservative, and nature's prophylactic, against the chronic debility that pre-disposes to the primary production of transmitted disease. Agriculture was the chief manufacture of ancient times, and certainly it is the most favourable not only to the possession of health, but the transmission of it to posterity. The Fabii, Lentuli, Cicerones, recognized their agricultural ancestors in their very names, (unlike our modern nobility, who seem desirous of concealing their names under a new title!), and kept in memory the very grains which they cultivated, with most success. "We may talk," says the virtuous and amiable Cowley, "we may talk what we please of Lions rampant, and spread eagles in fields d'or, or d'argent, but if heraldry were guided by reason and nature, a plough, in a field-urable, would be the most noble and ancient arins."
If therefore we are to propose a CURE that will prove perfect and radical, for such maladies as the consumptive habit, we will find it only in the thorough change of constitution, wrought by a total change of Occupation or mode of life, into one where there will be found a more constant and complete use of what has been nousensically termed the non-naturals, and this continued not merely through one, but several ge nerations. Thus, for example, if father, son, and grandson, should become seamen, or pursue through life the cultivation of the ground, I have little doubt that the narrow chest would expand, and the debile fibre would be condensed, and the due balance of the circulating sys
em would be preserved through the critical periods of life.
In a medical point of view, I have therefore supposed that EMIGRATION was often of great eventual benefit to the health as well as happiness of the human species, and that what at first sight, and what in reality is distressing, in the first instance, to the individuals concerned, may in the result, through the goodness of Providence, which brings real good from apparent evil, prove an advantageous circumstance, to correct, to re-invigorate, and renew the energy and vitality of the human frame, and to give it the best chance of getting free from that proclivity to particular maladies, for which transient doses of medicine and even the most careful regimen is too of ten of little avail.
"Often when I plough my low ground," said the American farmer, I place my boy on a chair which screws to the beam of the ploughi. Its motion, and that of the horses please him. He is perfectly happy and begins to chat. As I lean over the handle, various are the thoughts which croud into my mind." This is a subject for a picture which might have worthily exercised the pencil of Gainsborough, and which the goddess Hygeia herself might have delighted to contemplate. Alas! what a contrast might have been atforded to the same artist from many of our cotton and other manufac tories crouded with morbid life, and premature labour, the remote cause of chronic and constitutional disease.
In the same point of view, evea war itself may turn out a partial blessing. In ancient times every c tizen was a soldier, and though the superfluity of labour was much less, the physical power, and health of the community was comparatively. greater than in modern states, where immoderate industry supports im
moderate luxury, and the one portion famishes while the other fattens, both verging to disease. PUBLIC SPIRIT was, then, the animating soul, that ventilated, invigorated, and inspired every order in the community. The modern enlistment of soldiery certainly rescues the prime of life from morbific manufactures; and it may be deemed a thirst of nature which actuates youth to free itself from the slow decline and degeneration of the workshop, for a more healthy and happier mode of life, though it may be thus curtailed in duration. Military discipline is, in many respects; a moral discipline, and, in its privations and perils becomes the school of men. Thus, the most effectual cure, and best means of checking the fatal progress of many chronic maladies, and particularly of the consumptive habit, is to be sought for, and only to be found, in a complete, and continued mutation in the modes of Fife, and in those occasional disper sions of the human race, which, in their event, bring about a radical reform, and salutary revolution of the animal economy.
SALUS PUBLICA. For the Belfast Monthly Magazine.
ÁNNUAL REPORT OF THE INSTITU.
TION IN DUBLIN, FOR ADMINISTER.
TH HE committee, in addressing the public, for the present year, will state some facts sufficient, they hope to produce that support which at this period becomes peculiarly
BELFAST MAG. NO. xxxv.
In the account exhibited to the public last year of the income and expenditure of this institution, the expenditure exceeding the income ra ther more than one hundred pounds. In that now presented, the committee have to regret the same circumstance to the amount of £32 11s. 44d. and that there is a sum of £76 14s. due to their treasurer, which from the first of the present year, the pe riod to which the account is made up, and that which the subscriptions become payable has been considerably increased, so that at the last mentioned period there was £149 4s. due to him.
The subscriptions for 1810 have decreased; this circumstance indeed was to be expected from the extraordinary distress felt by the trading world, from this cause a considerable proportion of subscriptions can now no longer continue, the committee therefore entreat that those whom divine providence has preserved from feeling the shock materially, and those in a peculiar and forcible degree who are not subject to the pres sure consequent upon the want of trade, to consider the necessity of coming forward with additional and new subscriptions to support this institution, which the committee can assure them, affords the poor much salutary assistance, and they have much pleasure in stating that the physicians have discharged their dur in a manner calculated to impress the poor objects, they have had under their care, with a just sense of the great relief experienced from the institution.
The number of patients have increased for several years past; 1810, shows a number on the books of the institution of 1006 more than 1809, the want of employment felt by the poor in this period, and the reduction of the price of spirituous liquors from the effects of the disQ99
tillery regulations of last year, must, the committee conceive, have had a tendency to produce this increase; drunkenness which appears prevalent to an alarining degree, making the body more susceptible of disease, and less able of support under it.
the subscribers and public that while the number of patients have been for soine years gradually increasing, the subscriptions have been at the they again entreat that funds may be same time falling off, and therefore undiminished usefulness: afforded to support the institution in
The committee are unwilling to close this report without stating clearly to
AN ACCOUNT OF THE INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF THE INSTITUSION FOR RELIEF OF THE SICK POOR AND THEIR FAMILIES, ÞRÓM 1ST NOVEMBER, 1809, TILL 1ST NOVEMBER, 1810.
Distribution to sick poor
Coals and Candles
Utensils for wear and tear
Repairs and alterations Rent for one year Salaries
9 11 208 7 5
32 10 8
3 18 5
2 12 8
40 0 0
Subscriptions feceived in the
Interest on Ballast office de-
Stock decreased this year
DUE BY THE INSTITUTION.
Surgeon, SAMUEL WILMOT.
66 0 0
£658 6 14
41 13 4
19 18 11
£1178 8 7
Signed by order of a general meeting of Sub—
Register and Collector
of Subscriptions.} HENRY Harris,