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hardship on the tenant to demand from him the full discount of the day. The landlords ate in many instances manifesting a disposition to make a reasonable compromise. The depreciation of paper at present, the chief and almost only circulating medium, will be found to bear peculiarly hard on annuitants, and all possessors of fixed incomes, Landlords, persons in trade, farmers, mechanics, and most others, even day labourers by an advance of wages, can find means in the shiftings of trathc to throw a part of the burden off themselves, but annuitants have not the opportunity; they are often helpless already, and the depreciation is likely to increase their burdens.

The rejection of the Bill which proposed to equalize the duties upon Sugar and Grain, was productive of an immediate and powerful effect upon the English market: the demand for all descriptions of Sugar was immediately checked, and the prices of the brown and middling qualities declined considerably. A good deal of business has been done, although the inferior sorts have gone off heavily, and at rather lower prices; but good and strong Sugars, as well as the fine qualities of which the new crop principally consists, are scarce, and being much wanted, have been freely purchased by the Grocers, upon terms fully equal to those which were previously obtained. The sales of Foreign Sugars have been so trifling as to render any particular enumeration of them unnecess sary, and while there is scarcely any possibility of re-selling, the disposition to purchase must, necessarilly, be very limited.

Connected with this subject is a curious fact, the sugars of the captured islands, which cannot be sold for home consumption, in Great Britain and Ireland, have been offered so low as 178. per cwt. or less than 2d. per lb. Although this would, we must admit, be a losing price to the holders, yet still the disproportion between sugar without paying the duty, and after the payment is made, is very great, and forcibly demonstrates the injury we individually sustain by wars, and the consequent taxes laid on to support them. Wars enhance the prices of all the articles of life, because as taxes are laid on articles of consumption, both of what we eat and wear, in the prices of them we have to calculate not only the original value of the articles, but the amount of the taxes which are either directly or indirectly laid on to support those fleets and armies which defend distant possessions, and for the other general purposes of war. Considered in a fair point of view, war is an evil, which presses on all ranks of the community, and we have to pay highly for the pleasures which many take in hearing true or exaggerated accounts of the destruction of those with whom their nation is at war. Besides the cruelties of warfare, it is a costly game to play at, even at a distance, and a very expensive gratification of the bad passions.

Coffee is still in a state of great depression. No relief is experienced, either from the small shipments which are occasionally sent to the Mediterranean, or from our home consumption. The stock is already immensely large, and from the abundance of the crops, we may expect heavy additional imports, which will tend still further to reduce the prices, unless the effects of an increasing supply, are counterbalanced by the operation of some political change.

In this country some little revival has taken place in the cotton trade, owing to a demand for a summer supply, but as this trade is almost entirely limited to home consumption, it may be expected that the additional stock will soon be more than commensurate with the temporary demand,

A letter from Liverpool gives the following gloomy prospect of their market for cotton


"Since our last Circular, our Cotton-market has presented nothing to our view, but a continued and uniform depression; increased difficulties have been experienced in effecting sales, and at the close of every week, the prices are found to be lower than these which marked its commencement.-' his gradual decline, although naturally resulting from the vast disproportion which exists between the demand and the supply, has, we must ailow, been accelerated by the operation of other causes.-Owing to pecuniary necessi ties, forced sales have frequently been made, at prices under those which were, generally required. The prices which have been obtained in these and similar cases, are certainly lower than what may be reckoned the current rates, but they nevertheless tend to esta

blish a precedent, by which the dealers have endeavoured to regulate their subsequent purchases. Since the beginning of this year, our supplies have exceeded the quantity taken out of the market by upwards of 45,000 bags, and from the pressure of an immense and accumulating stock, we can scarcely look for any relief, until the sources of consumption are greatly enlarged. From facts like these, it seems reasonable to conclude, that unless the face of affairs should be very materially changed, we cannot calculate upon any decided improvement in our market, and to entertain a hope that this will take place, while the present unnatural order of things remains unaltered, will, we fear, only lead to those disappointments, which have before been so frequently experienced."

The advance of duty on cotton wool imported into Great Britain, appears to have been abandoned, but an additional duty is laid in Ireland, on all imported in vessels not Irish or British built. America only permits the export in their own vessels ; between these measures of mutual hostility trade suffers.

It appears that the bank of England is about to issue a number of tokens at 3s, and 2s. 6d. and a bill is brought into parliament to prevent the counterfeiting of them. These tokens in England will probably be similar to the tokens issued by the bank of Ireland. The mint owing to the high price of silver bullion cannot afford to issue a coinage of the established legal value or fineness. The banks step in, and give a depreciated silver currency to suit the paper circulation, either by re-stamping dollars, and charging a higher value on them as is the case with the 6 shillings pieces, or by giving silver with a very large portion of alloy, as in the case of the five pennies, tenpennies and 2s. 6d. pieces. These are steps in the progress of depreciation, and deserve the attention of the intelligent observers of passing events. If by many they are disregarded, the future historian will mark them as so many descending degrees in the scale of public credit.

Exchange on London 94 to 9 per cent, and discount on bank notes 13 14 to 15 per cent, have been the general currency of this month in Belfast.


From May 20, till June 20.

May 21...Fine-leaved Peony (Paonia tenuifolia) flowering.

22...Pontic Rosebay (Rhododendron Ponticum), and Rusty-leaved Alpine Rosebay (R. ferrugineum) flowering.

25...St. Bruno's Lily (Phalangium Liliastrum), and Entire-leaved Peony (Paonia Corrallina) flowering.

26...Grass-leaved Iris (Iris Graminea), Medicinal Peony (Paonia officinalis), and Little Field Mater (Sherardia Arvensis) flowering.

27... Various coloured Iris (Iris versicolor), Double Cinnamon rose (Rosa Cinnamomea), and Alpine Rose (Rosa Alpina), flowering.

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29...Siberian Iris (Iris Siberica) flowering.

30...Spotted Flowered Palmate Orchis (Orchis maculata), Meadow Pink, or Cuckoo Flower (Lychnis Floș Cuculi), and Yellow Rattle (Rhinanthus Crista Galli) flowering.

June 1...Bulbbearing Orange-Lily (Lilium bulbiferum) flowering.

2...Irish Rose (Rosa Hibernica), and Yellow Flag (Iris Pseudo Acorus) flowering. 5...Medicinal Speedwell (Veronica officinalis) flowering.

6...Medicinal Hedge Mustard (Erysimum officinale) flowering.

8...Oval Leaved Lychnidea (Phlox ovata), Narrow-leaved Kalmia (Kalmia angusti

folia), and Orange Hawk weed (Hieracium aurantiacum) flowering.

9...Bloody Crane's-bill (Geranium Sanguineum), Glaucus Leaved American Upright Honey Suckle (Azalea viscosa glauca), and Fairy Fingers (Digitalis purpurea) flowering 11...Thorny Rose (Rosa Spinosissima) flowering.

$2,.,Marsh Hawk-weed (Hieracium paludosum) flowering.

14...Rough Rose (Rosa Scabriuscula) flowering.

16...Umbelled Rose Campion (Agrostema Flos Jovis), and Downy-leaved Rose (Ro

sa tomentosa) flowering.

18...Red Pompone Lily (Lilium Pomponium) flowering.

19...Willow leaved Spiraea (Spirea Salicifolia), Shrubby Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa), and Branching Spider Wort (Phalangium ramosum) flowering,

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20,........... Showery.

The barometer has during this period been, on the 27th May, 30-17th June $0-1-18th, 30-3-19th, 30-2-the lowest on the 5th June, 29-2.

The thermometer has been as high as 63 on the morning of the 22d of May, A.M.on the 24th at 8 A.M. 50--27th at 8 A.M. 60-on the 17th June at 8 A.M. 60—18th at 8 A.M. 59-19th 59-20th 50.

The wind has been observed 6 times S.E-15 S.W.-2. N.E.-3. N.W,-3 S.-4W. so that the prevalence has been evidently southerly,


FOR JULY, 1811.

(Extracted from Frend's Evening Amusements.)

THE Moon is on the meridian on the 1st, at one minute past eight, having below her but near to the meridian the first of the Balance, and above her at a much greater distance, both from her and the meridian, the second of this constellation. To the east of her we shall notice Mars and the two first stars of the Scorpion.

On the 3d, the Moon is on the meridian at three quarters past nine, having nearly

under her the first of the Scorpion, and below her to the west the second of this constellation; beyond this star we notice Mars, and to the east of the meridian, nearly at the same distance, Saturn. The Moon thus between the two planets, and having un der her a star of the first magnitude, will attract our attention.


On the 6th is full Moon at twenty-six minutes past seven in the morning. rises nearly at the same time with the two first stars of the Goat, whose brightness will be much diminished by her superior splendour.

On the 14th, the Moon rises in the morning under the three first stars of the Ram, and it is soon followed by the small stars in the head of the Whale, but does not pass the line between the first of the Ram and Menkar before sun-rise.

On the 20th, at four minutes past eleven is new Moon.

On the 26th, we perceive that she has passed the five stars in triangle of the Virgin, though the third of this constellation is the nearest star to her.

On the 31st, she is on the meridian at one minute past eight, being directly under the seventh of the Serpent-bearer, the stars in the Scorpion, with Mars, being below her to the west, and Saturn below her, but nearer to her, to the east of the meridian.

The chief planets are morning stars during this month; and a conjunction between Venus and Jupiter taking place, their brilliancy in the north east by east will frequent ly attract the attention of the early riser.

Mercury is a morning star till the 24th, when he is in his superior conjunction; and as his latitude is south in the first part of the month, he will not often present himself to our view.

Venus is a morning star, her duration above the horizon, before sun-rise on the 1st being an hour and forty minutes; and this duration increases, though very slowly.

Mars is on the meridian on the 1st, at forty-six minutes past eight in the evening, and on the 19th at forty-one minutes past seven, being in the eighth sign and to the south of the ecliptic: he is, when on the meridian, only a little above the middle of the lower regions. As Jupiter and Venus attract attention in the morning, Mars and Saturn will merit it in our evening walks, and the stars in the Scorpion form an agreeable groupe between them.

Jupiter is a morning star, and his duration above the horizon before sun rise is daify increasing, being at first little more than an hour and a quarter. Mercury passes him on the 3d, Venus on the 10th; so that the motion of these planets by him must be highly interesting to the astronomer; and the early riser cannot but be struck at the appearance of these morning stars.

Saturn is on the meridian at forty-seven minutes past ten at night of the 1st, and at twenty nine minutes past nine of the 19th. He is therefore in a favourable position for the observer, being then about the middle of the lower region.

Herschell is on the meridian at eleven minutes past eight in the evening of the 1st, and forty-nine minutes past six of the 21st.

The Sun's apparent diameter on the 1st, is thirty-one minutes, thirty-one seconds, and on the 19th thirty-one minutes, thirty-two seconds. At noon of the 27th it is, half a degree.

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Page 389, 2d col. 24th line, for Utophia, read Utopia.—Page 445, 1st col. 20th line,
for Roport, read Report.


Several communications came too late for insertion in this number.

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