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the inclination may not again return. To gain permanent popularity, and to establish himself firmly in the hearts of a grateful people, a complete change of system is requisite. The tide of popular feeling is now strongly in favour of the prince. Not only the venal, the worshippers of the rising sun, and the vicars of Bray applaud; but the independent portion of the community have their hopes and expectations strongly excited. Their fears also are raised. The prince may now establish himself in the hearts of the people; but if any temporising policy or compromising timidity occur to enfeeble his councils, and if the men he chooses do not prove honest, and brace up their minds to bear the shock of the present crisis of unparallelied danger with firmness, the re-action of popular favour will be severely felt.
The parliament has been at length opened by the great seal being affixed by a vote of both houses to a commission for that purpose, and a bill introduced into the house of commons for appointing the Prince of Wales Regent. The principal restrictions are, not to create any peers for a limited time, and that part of the household establishment should be under the control of the Queen. The latter restriction appears very unreasonable as to the extent to which it has been carried by the majorities in the cominons, in favour of the plan proposed by Spencer Perceval and bis coadjutors. He claims merit for his attachment to the king, and his adherents are loud in their ap. plauses of "hear, hear," on his professions, but to the impartial he appears as only desirous to retain as much power as he can in his own hands, or rather perhaps to procure it for one, who possessing great ambition, or rather insatiable avarige, will permit him and a se
lect few to be the ostensible distributors of it. The people take the opposite side, and wish to see the Regent unrestricted, that the measures of reform, which are looked for from him and a new ministry, may not be impeded. Charles Jas. Fox used to say "that confidence was a plant of slow growth with men of long experience," and it is scarcely prudent to be lavish in bestowing praise by anticipation. The struggle for power is evident; the people are no farther interested than as to the question, who will use it best; and the present men have justly forfeited the confidence of the reflecting part of the nation. The question whether the master of the Buck-hounds shall be under the controul of the queen, may at first glance appear ludicrous, but it becomes of importance when it is viewed as an affair of patronage. The holders of that office, and of many similar ones are members of parliament, and form component parts of the majorities by which measures obnoxious to the people have been often carried. If it be allowable in the present crisis to wish a preponderance of this influence to the Prince; surely they who look beyond the temporary party politics of the day are justified in desiring to have future restrictions on all undue influence on any side, and while the adherents of princes contend for power to their respective parties, the people should have their attention undeviatingly fixed on a REFORM which would correct all these abuses.
We insert among the documents, a petition from the town of Nottingham, and the resolutions of the Common Hall of the city of London. The Common Council had passed similar resolutions the day before. We give them a place in our records, because we approve of the increas
ing popular spirit of the country, and because they breathe more of the spirit of genuine freedom, than the resolutions of some greater. assemblies. It is our aim to cherish
the spirit of liberty in whatever place we find it existing. If our native country gave similar indications, gladly would we record them. But the genius of Erin is not yet awaked.
Our review of foreign politics may be short. The crisis of affairs in Portugal is rapidly approaching, and may probably be terminated before the procrastinating forms now slowly going forward, will allow the Prince of Wales to be invested with the office of Regent. The
French have crossed the Zezere in several directions, and appear to meditate vigorous measures. In Spain there is little consolatory, and the dream of Spanish patriotism which caused so great a popular delusion among us, for a time, has nearly lost its influence. Cadiz is closely and vigorously besieged, and the Cortes do not establish their chaTacter for an honorable disregard to party views in the present crisis of their country. They have banished the members of the former council of regency, without a trial.
Constantinople has been disturbed by the Janissaries, those machines of the old military despotism, and the scourges of the princes and the people. Turkey may soon be expected to change their former despotism, for a better organized. but not a more just system of military power, under the direction, and at the man-, date of the present ruler of continental Europe.
In Norway we are informed that the people have manifested strong opposition to the naval conscription introduced into their country, through French influence. Such a resistance was to be expected from a simple people like the Norwegians,
living remote from luxury, and cherishing a spirit of independence amidst their native rocks and mountains.
In South America the spirit of revolution spreads throughout that vast continent, as well as in the Southern provinces of North America, which were under the dominion of Spain. A contest has long subsisted between the old and the new settlers, or the Spaniards by descent, and the Spaniards by birth. It appears probable, that at no very distant period, the entire continents of America will be independent of Europe. Such a change furnishes scope for imagination at present, and for hopes of the amelioration of mankind in future.
Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, on the subject of American Manufactures, made April 17, 1810, in obedience to a Resolution of the house of representatives.
(Continued from No. 28, page 394.)
PAPER AND PRINTING.
Some foreign paper is still imported; is of American manufacture: and it is but the greater part of the consumption believed, that if sufficient attention was every where paid to the preservation of rags, a quantity equal to the demand would be made in the United States. Papermills are erected in every part of the Uof New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode isnion. There are twenty-one in the states land, and Delaware, alone; and ten in only five counties of the states of NewYork and Maryland. Eleven of those mills employ a capital of two hundred make annually 150,000 dollars worth of thousand dollars, and 180 workmen, and
Printing is carried on to an extent commensurate with the demand. Exclusively of the numerous newspapers, which alone books for which there is an adequate numform a considerable item in value, all the ber of purchasers, are printed in the United States. But sufficient data have not been obtained to form an estimate of the annual aggregate value of the paper made
and of the printing and book-binding executed, in the United States, other than what may be inferred from the population. The manufactures of hanging-paper, and of playing-cards, are also extensive; and that of printing types, of which there are two establishments, the principal at Philadelphia, and another at Baltimore, was fully adequate to the demand, but has Sately been affected by the want of regulus of antimony.
Manufactures of Hemp.-The annual importations of foreign hemp amounted to 6,200 tons. But the interruption of com. merce has greatly promoted the cultiva tion of that article in Massachusetts, New York, Kentucky, and several other places; and it is believed, that a sufficient quantity will, in a short time, be produced in the United States.
The manufacture of ropes, cables, and cordage of every description, may be considered as equal to the demand; the exportations of American manufacture for 1806 and 1807, having exceeded the ave rage of 6,500 quintals, and the importa tions from foreign ports having fallen short of 4,200 ditto.
Exclusive of the rope-walks in all the sea-ports, there are fifteen in Kentucky alone, which consume about one thousand tons of hemp a-year; and six new works were in a state of preparation for the present year.
The manufacturers of sail-duck, formerly established in Rhode Island, in Connecticut, and at Salem, have been abandon. ed or suspended, partly on account of the high price of hemp, and partly for want of capital. Some is still made; and the species of canvas, commonly called cotton bagging, is now manufactured in various places on an extensive scale. An establishment at Philadelphia employs eight looms; and can make annually 17,000 yards of duck, or 45,000 yards of cotton bagging. There are thirteen manufactories in Kentucky, and two in West Ten
The five at or near Lexington, make annually 250,000 yards of duck and cotton bagging.
Spirituous and malt liquors.-The duty on licensed stills amounted in 1801 to 372,000; and, on account of omissions, might be estimated at 450,000 dollars. As the duty actually paid on the spirits distilled in those stills, did not on an average exceed five cents per gallon, the quantity of spirits distilled during that year from grain and fruit (exclusive of the large gin-dis
BELFAST MAG. NO. XXX.
tilleries in cities) must have amounted to about 9,000,000 of gallons, and may at present, the manufacturing having increased at least in the same ratio as the popu lation, be estimated at twelve millions of gallons. To this must be added about three millions of gallons of gin and rum, distilled in cities; making an aggregate of fifteen millions of gallons.
The importations of foreign spirits are nevertheless very considerable, having amounted during the years 1806 and 1807, to 9,750,000 gallons a-year, and yielding a net annual revenue to the United States of 2,865,000 dollars.
The quantity of malt liquors made in the United States, is nearly equal to their consumption.
The annual foreign importations amount only to 185,000 gallons. And the annual exportations of American beer and cider to 187,000 gallons.
But the amount actually made, cannot be correctly stated. It has been said, that the breweries of Philidelphia consumed annually 150,000 bushels of malt; and exclusively of the numerous establishments on a smaller scale, dispersed throughout the country, extensive breweries are known to exist in New York and Baltimore.
From those data, the aggregate value of spirituous and malt liquors annually made in the United States, cannot be estimated at less than ten millions of dollars.
Iron and Manufactures of Iron.-The information received respecting that inportant branch is very imperfect. It is however well known that iron ore abounds, and that numerous furnaces and forges are erected throughout the United States. They supply a sufficient quantity of hollow ware, and of castings of every description: but about 4,500 tons of bar iron are annually imported from Russia, and probably an equal quantity from Sweden and England together. A vague estimate states the amount of bar iron annually used in the Uunited States at fifty thousand tons, which would leave about forty thousand for that of American manufacture. Although a great proportion of the ore found in Vermont, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, be of a superior quality, and some of the iron manufactured there equal to any imported, it is to be regretted, that from the great demand, and from want of proper attention in the manufacture, much inferior American iren is brought to market. On that ac
count, the want of the ordinary supply of Russian iron has been felt in some of the slitting and rolling mills. But whilst a reduction of the duty on Russian iron is asked from several quarters, it is generally stated, that a high or prohibitory duty on English bar, slit, rolled, and sheet iron, would be beneficial; that which is usually imported on account of its cheapness, being made with pit coal, and of a very inferior quality.
The annual importations of sheet, slit, and hoop iron, amount to five hundred and sixty-five tons; and the quantity rolled and slit in the United States, is estimated at seven thousand tons. In the state of Massachusetts alone, are found thirteen rolling and slitting mills, in which about 3,500 tons of bar iron, principally from Russia, are annually rolled or slit. A portion is used for sheet iron, and nail rods for wrought nails; but two-thirds of the whole quantity of bar iron, flaftened by machinery in the United States, is used in the manufacture of cut nails, which has now extended throughout the whole country, and being altogether an American invention, subsituting machinery to manual labour, deserves particular notice. It will be sufficient here to state, that the annual product of that branch alone, may be estimated at twelve hundred thousand dollars; and that, exclusively of the saving of fuel, the expense of manufacturing cut nails is not one-third part of that of forging wrought nails. About two hundred and eighty tons are already annually exported; but the United States continue to import annually more than fifteen hundred tons of wrought nails and spikes. An increase of duty on these, and a drawback on the exportation of the cut nails, is generally asked for.
A considerable quantity of blistered, and some refined steel, are made in America: the foreign importations exceed 11,000 cwt. a-year.
The manufactures of iron consist principally of agricultural implements, and of all the usual work performed by common blacksmiths. To these may be added, anchors, shovels and spades, axes, scythes, and other edge-tools, saws, bits, and stirrups, and a great variety of the coarser articles of ironmongery; but cutlery, and all the finer species of hardware and of steel work, are almost altogether imported from Great Britain. Balls, shells, and cannon of small caliber, are cast in several places; and three founderies for casting
solid those of the largest caliber, together with the proper machinery for boring and finishing them, are established at Cecil county, Maryland, near the city of Washington, and at Richmond, in Virginia; each of the two last may cast 300 pieces of artillery a-year, and a great number of iron and brass cannon are made at and near the seat of government. Those of Philadelphia, and near the Hudson river are not now employed. It may be here added, that there are several iron founderies for casting every species of work wanted for machinery, and that steam-engines are made at that of Philadelphia.
At the two public armouries of Springfield, and Harper's-ferry, 19,000 muskets are annually made. About twenty thousand more are made at several factories, of which the most perfect is said to be that near New Haven, and which, with the exception of that erected at Richmond, by the state of Virginia, are all private establishments. These may, if wanted, be immediately enlarged, and do not include a number of gun-smiths employed in making rifles, and several other species of arms. Swords and pistols are also manufactured in several places.
Although it is not practicable to make a correct statement of the value of all the iron, and manufactures of iron, annually made in the United States, it is believed to be from twelve to fifteen millions of dollars. The annual importations from all foreign countries, including iron bar, and every description of manufactures of iron or steel, are estimated at near four millions of dollars.
Capper and Brass.-Rich copper mines are found in New Jersey in Virginia, and near Lake Superior; but they are not now wrought. The principal manufactures of that material, are those of stills and other vessels; but the copper in sheets and bolts is almost universally imported; the only manufacture for that object, which is at Boston, not receiving sufficient encouragement, although a capital of 25,000 dollars has been vested in a rolling mill, and other apparatus. The true reason is, that those articles are imported free of duty; and the owner seems to be principally employed in casting bells, and other articles.
Zinc has been lately discovered in Pensylvania; and there are a few manufactures of metal buttons, and various brass
Manufactures of Lead.—Lead is found in Virginia, and some other places, but the richest mines of that metal are found in Upper Louisiana, and also, it is said, in the adjacent country on the east side of the Mississippi. They are not yet wrought to the extent of which they are susceptible; and, after supplying the western country, do not furnish more than two hundred tons annually to the Atlantic
The annual importations from foreign countries of red and white lead, amount to 1,150 tons. And those of lead itself, and of all other manufactures of lead, to 1,225 tons.
The principal American manufactures are those of shot, and colours of lead. Of the first, there are two establishments on a large scale at Philadelphia, and another in Louisiana, which are more than sufficient to supply the whole demand, stated at six hundred tons a-year. Five hundred and sixty tons of red and white
lead, litharge, and some other preparations of that metal, are made in Philadelphia alone. A repeal of the duty of one cent per pound on lead, and an equalization of that on the manufactures of lead, by charging them all with the two cents per pound laid on white and red lead, is asked by the manufacturers.
Various other paints and colours are also prepared in Philadelphia, and some other places.
Tin, japanned, plated Wares.-The manufacture of tin ware is very extensive, and Connecticut supplies the greater part of the United States with that article; but the sheets are always imported. The manufacture of plated ware, principally for coach-makers and sadlers, employs at Philadelphia seventy-three workmen'; and the amount annually made there, exceeds one hundred thousand dollars. There are other similar establishments at New York, Baltimore, Boston, and Charlestown.
Gun-Powder.-Saltpetre is found in Virginia, Kentucky, and some other of the western states and territories; but it is principally imported from the East Indies. The manufacture of gun-powder is nearly, and may at any moment be made altogether, adequate to the consumption; the importation of foreign powder amounting only to 200,000 pounds, and the exportation of American powder to 100,000 pounds. The manufacture of Brandywine, which employs a capital of 75,000 dollars, and 36 workmen, and is consider
ed as the most perfect, makes alone 225,000 pounds annually, and might make 600,000 pounds, if there were a demand for it. Two others near Baltimore, have a capital of 100,000 dollars, and make 450,000 pounds of a quality, said lately to be equal to any imported. There are several other powder-mills in Pensylvania, and other places; but the total amount of gun-powder made in the United States is not ascertained.
Earthen and Glass Ware.-A sufficient quantity of the coarser species of pottery is made every where; and information has been received of four manufactures of a finer kind lately established. One at Philadelphia, with a capital of 11,000 dollars, manufactures a species similar to that made in Staffordshire, in England; and the others, in Chester county in Pensylvania, in New Jersey, and on Óhio, make various kinds of queen's
Information has been obtained of ten
glass manufactures, which employ about 140 glass blowers, and make annually 27,000 boxes of window glass, containing each 100 square feet of glass. That of Boston makes crown glass equal to any imported: all the other make green or German glass, worth 15 per cent. less: that of Pittsburgh uses coal, and all the others, wood for fuel.
The annual importations of foreign window glass amounted to 27,000 boxes; the extension of the domestic manufacture, which supplies precisely one-half of the consumption, being prevented by the want of workmen.
Some of those manufactures make also green bottles, and other wares: and two works, employing together six glass-blowers, have been lately erected at Pittsburgh, and make decanters, tumblers, and every other description of flint glass, of a superior quality.
Chemical Preparations-Copperas is extracted in large quantities from pyrites in Vermont, New Jersey, and Tennessee. About 200,000 pounds of oil of vitriol, and other acids, are annually manufactured in a single establishment at Philadelphia. Various other preparations and drugs are also made there, and in some other places; and the annual amount exported, exceeds 30,000 dollars in value.
Salt. The salt-springs in Onondago and Cayuga in the state of New York, furnish about 800,000 bushels a-year; and the quantity may be increased in propor