« PreviousContinue »
tion to the demand. Those of the western states and territories supply about equal quantity; that known by the name of the Wabash Saline, which belongs to the United States, making now 130,000 bushels. Valuable discoveries have also lately been made on the banks of the Kenhawa. But the annual importation of foreign salt amounts to more than three millions of bushels, and cannot be superceded by American salt unless it be made along the sea coast. The works in the state of Massachusetts are declining, and cannot proceed unless the duty on foreign salt should again be laid. It is necessary to shelter the works from the heavy summer rains by light roofs moving on rollers. This considerably increases the expense; and it appears that the erection of ten thousand superficial square feet, costs one thousand dollars, and that they produce only two hundred bushels a-year. favourable result is anticipated on the coast of North Carolina, on account of the difference in the climate; and works, covering 273,000 square feet, have been lately erected there.
M.scellaneous.Respecting the other manufactures enumerated in the former part of this report, no important or correct information has been received, except as relates to the two fellowing:
able than might have been expected from a view of the natural causes which impede the introduction, and retard the progress of manufactures in the United States.
The revenue of the United States being principally derived from duties on the importation of foreign merchandize, these have also operated as a premium in favour of American manufactures; whilst, on the other hand, the continuance of peace and the frugality of government, have rendered unnecessary any oppressive taxes, tending materially to enhance the price of labour, or impeding any species of industry.
No cause indeed has perhaps more promoted, in every respect, the general pros perity of the United States, than the absence of those systems of internal restrictions and monopoly which continue to disfigure the state of society in other countries. No laws exist here directly or indirectly confining man to a particular occupation or place, or excluding any citizen from any branch he may at any time think proper to pursue. Industry is in every respect perfectly free and unfettered; every species of trade, commerce, art, profession, and manufacture, being equally open to all, without requiring any previous regular apprenticeship, admission, or license. Hence the progress of America has not been confined to the improvement of her agriculture, and to the rapid formation of new settlements and states in the wilderness, but her citizens have extended their commerce through every part of the globe, and carry on with complete success, even those branches for which a monopoly had heretofore been considered essentially necessary.
Washington, April 17th, 1810.
Message of the President of th United American States to the Congress. Washington, Dec. 5. The president of the United States this day communicated, by Mr. Edward Coles his private secretary, the following message to the Congress :...
"Fellow-citizens of the Senate, and of the house of Representatives, "The embarrassments which have prevailed in our foreign relations, so much employed the deliberations of Congress, makes it a primary duty, in meeting you, to communicate whatever may have occurred, in that branch of our nationai affairs.
"The act of the last session of congress ⚫ concerning the commercial intercourse between the United States and Great Britain and France and their dependencies,' having invited in a new form, a termination of their edicts against our neutral commerce, copies of the acts were immediately forwarded to our ministers at London and Paris, with a view that its object might be within the early attention of the French and British governments.
"By the communication received through our minister at Paris, it appeared that a knowledge of the act by the French government was followed by a declaration that the Berlin and Milan decrees were revoked, and would cease to have effect on the first day of November ensuing These being the only known edicts of France; within the description of the act, and the revocation of them, being such that they ceased, at that date, to violate our neutral commerce; the fact, as prescribed by law, was announced by a proclamation bearing date the second day of November.
"It would have well accorded with the conciliatory views, indicated by this proceeding on the part of France, to have extended them to all the grounds of just complaint, which now remain unadjusted with the United States. It was particularly an ticipated that, as a further evidence of just dispositions towards them, restoration would have been immediately made of the property of our citizens seized under a misapplication of the principle of reprisals, combined with a misconstruction of a law of the United States. This expecta tion has not been fulfilled.
"From the British government no communication on the subject of the act has been received. To a communication from our minister at London of the revocation, by the French government, of its Berlin and Milan decrees, it was answered that the British system would be relinquished as soon as the repeal of the French decrees should have actually taken effect, and the commerce of neutral nations have been restored to the condition in which it stood. previously to the promulgation of those decrees.
"This pledge, although it does not necessarily import, does not exclude the intention of relinquishing, along with the orders in council, the practice of these novel blockades which have a like effect of interrupting our neutral commerce. And this further justice to the United States
is the rather to be looked for, inasmuch as the blockades in question, being not more contrary to the established law of nations, than inconsistent with the rules of blockade formerly recognized by Great Britain herself, could have no alleged basis other than the plea of retaliation alleged as the basis of the Orders in Council. Under the modification of the original Orders of Nov. 1807 into the Orders of April 1809, there is indeed scarcely a nominal distinction between the Orders and the blockades. One of those illegitimate blockades, bearing date in May, 1806, having been expressly avowed to be still unrescinded, and to be in effect, comprehended in the Orders in Council, was too distinctly brought within the purview of the Act of Congress, not be comprehended in the explanation of the requisites to a compliance with it. The British Government was accordingly apprized by our Minister near it, that such was the light in which the subject was to be regarded.
"In this new posture our relations with these Powers, the consideration of Congress will be properly turned to a removal of doubts which may occur in the exposition, and difficulties in the execution, of the Act above cited.
"The commerce of the United States, with the North of Europe, heretofore much vexed by licentious cruizers, particularly under the Danish flag, has latterly been visited with fresh and extensive depredations The measures pursued in behalf of our injured citizens, not having obtained justice for them, a further and more formal. interposition with the Danish government is contemplated. The principles which have been maintained by that government in relation to neutral commerce, and the friendly professions of his Danish majesty towards the United States are valuable pledges in favour of a successful issue.
"Among the events growing out of the state of the Spanish monarchy, our attention was imperiously attracted to the change developing itself in that portion of West Florida; which, though of right appertain ing to the United States, had remained in the possession of Spain; awaiting the result of negociation for its actual delivery to them. The Spanish authority was subverted-and a situation produced, exposing the country to ulterior events, which might essentially affect the rights and welfare of the union. In such a conjecture, I did not delay the interposition required for the
occupancy of the territory west of the river Perdido; to which the title of the United States extends, and to which the laws provided for the teritory of Orleans are applicable. With this view the proclamation, of which a copy is laid before you, was confided to the governor of that territory, to be carried into effect. The legality and necessity of the course pursued, assure me of the favourable light in which it will present itself to the legislature; and of the promptitude with which they will supply whatever provisions may be due to the essential rights and equitable interests of the people thus brought into the bosom of the American family.
"Our amity with the powers of Barbary, with the exception of a recent occurrence at Tunis, of which an explanation is just received, appears to have been uninterrupted, and to have become more firmly established.
"With the Indian tribes, also, the peace and friendship of the United States are found to be so eligible, that the general disposition to preserve both continues to gain strength.
"I feel particular satisfaction in remarking that an interior view of our country presents us with greatful proofs of its substantial and encreasing prosperity. To thriving agriculture, and the improvements related to it, is added a highly interesting extention of useful manufactures; the combined product of professional occupations, and of household industry. Such, indecd, is the experience of economy, as well as of policy, in these substitutes for supplies heretofore obtained by foreign commerce, that, in a national view, the change is just ly regarded as of itself more than a recompence for those privations and losses resulting from foreign injustice, which furnished the general impulse required for its accomplishment. How far it may be expedient to guard the infancy of this improvement in the distribution of labour, by regulations of the commercial tarif, is a subject which cannot fail to suggest itself to your patriotic reflections.
"It will rest with the consideration of Congress, also whether a provident, as well as fair encouragement, should not be given to our navigation, by such regulations as will place it on a level of competition with foreign vessels, particularly in transporting the important and bulky productions of our own soil. The failure of equality and reciprocity in the existing regulation on this subject operates, in our ports, as a
premium to foreign competitors; and the inconvenience must increase, as these may be multiplied, under more favourable circumstances, by the more than countervailing encouragements now given them, by the laws of their respective countries.
"Whilst it is universally admitted that a well-instructed people alone can be permanently a free people; and whilst it is evident that the means of diffusing and improving useful knowledge form so small proportion of the expenditures for national purposes, I cannot presume it to be unseasonable to invite your attention to the advantages of superadding, to the means of education provided by the several States, a seminary of learning, instituted by the national legislature, within the limits of their exclusive jurisdiction; the expense of which might be defrayed, or reimbursed, out of the vacant grounds which have accrued to the nation within those limits.
"Such an institution though local in its legal character, would be universal in its beneficial effects. By enlightening the opinions; by expanding the patriotism; and by assimilating the principles, the sentiments and manners of those who might resort to this temple of science, to be re-distributed, in due time, through every part of the community; sources of jealousy and prejudice would be diminished, the features of national character would be multiplied, and great extent given to social harmony.
"But above all, a well constituted seminary in the centre of the nation, is recommended by the consideration, that the additional instruction emanating from it, would contribute not less to strengthen the foundations, than to adorn the structure, of our free and happy system of go
"Among the commercial abuses still committed under the American flag, and leaving in force my former references to that subject, it appears that American citizens are instrumental in carrying on a traffic in enslaved Africans, equally in violation of the laws of humanity, and in defiance of those of their own country. The same just and benevolent motives which produced the interdiction in force against this criminal conduct, will doubtless be felt by Congress, in devising further means of suppressing the evil.
"In the midst of uncertainties necessarily connected with the great interests of the United States, prudence requires a continuance of our defensive and precautio
nary arrangements. The secretary of war and secretary of the Navy, will submit the statements and estimates which may aid congress, in their ensuing provisions for the land and naval forces. The statements of the latter will include a view of the transfers of appropriations in the naval expenditure, and the grounds on which they were made.
"The fortifications for defence of our maritime frontier, have been prosecuted according to the plan laid down in 1808. The works, with some exceptions are completed, and furnished with ordnance. Those for the security of New York, though far advanced towards completion, will require a further time and appropriation. This is the case with a few others, either not completed, or in need of repairs.
"The improvements, in quality and quantity, made in the manufactory of cannon; and of small arms, both at the public armories, and private factories, warrant additional confidence in the competency of these resources, for supplying the public exigencies.
attention of Congress. The buildings at the seat, fixt by law, for the present academy, are not so far in decay, as not to afford the necessary accommodation. But a revision of the law is recommended, principally with a view to a more enlarged cultivation and diffusion of the advantages of such institutions, by providing professorships for all the necessary branches of military instruction, and by the establishment of an additional academy, at the seat of government, or elsewhere. The means by which war as well for defence, as for offence, are now carried on, render these schools of the most scientific operations an indispensible part of every adequate system. Even among nations whose large standing armies and frequent wars afford every other opportunity of instruction, these establishments are found to be indispensible, for the due attainment of the branches of military science, which require a regular course of study and experiment. In a government, happily without the other opportunities, seminaries where the elementary principles of war can be taught without actual war, and without the expense of extensive and standing armies, have the precious advantage of uniting an essential preparation against external danger, with a scrupulous regard to internal safety. In no other way, probably, can a provision of equal efficacy for the public defence, be made at so little expense, or more consistently with public liberty.
"These preparations for arming the militia, having thus far provided for one of the objects contemplated by the power vested in congress, with respect to that great bulwark of the public safety, it is for their consideration, whether further provisions are not requisite, for the other contemplated objects, of organization and discipline. To give to this great mass of physical and moral force, the efficiency which it merits, and is capable of receiving, it is indispensible that they should be instructed and practised in the rules by which they are to be governed. Towards an accomplishment of this important work I recommend for the consideration of congress the expediency of instituting a system which shall, in the first instance, call into the field, at the public expense, and a given time, certain portions of the commissioned and non-commissioned officers. The instruction and discipline thus required gradually diffuse through the entire body of the militia that practical knowledge and promptitude for actual service, which are the great ends to be pursued. Experience has left no doubt, either of the necessity, or of the efficacy of competent military skill, in those portions of an army, in fitting it for the final duties, which it may have to perform.
"The corps of engineers, with the military academy, are entitled to the early
"The receipts into the treasury during the year ending on the 30th of September last (and amounting to more than eight millions and a half, of dollars) have exceeded the current expences of the government, including the interest of the public debt. For the purpose of reimbursing at the end of the year 3,759,000 dollars; of the principal, a loan, as authorised by law, had been negociated to that amount, but has since been reduced to 2,750,000 dollars: the reduction being permitted by the state of the Treasury, in which there will be a balance remaining at the end of the year, estimated at 2000,000 dollars. For the probable receipts of the next year, and other details, refer to statements which will be transmitted from the Treasury; and which will enable you to judge what further provisions may be necessary for the ensu ing.
"Reserving to future occasions, in the course of the session, whatever other communications may claim your attention, !
the British Constitution, which contemplates the prerogatives of the Crown, not as the property of the King, but as trusts reposed in him for the benefit of the people, without whose continued agency the people will be defrauded of their most essential rights, and the glorious fabric of the English Constitution remain defective and imperfect.
That from the fullest confidence in the mature age, and amiable character of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, we observe with the most lively satisfaction, that the houses of Lords and Commons regard him as the fittest person in the present emergency, to whom to commit on behalf of his Majesty, and in trust for his people, the exercise of those preroga tives which, in the person of the King, are necessarily suspended by his Majesty's indisposition.
'That it is with feelings of the greatest apprehension that we understand it to be in the contemplation of those who at present act as his Majesty's confidential servants, to annihilate, for a time at least, some of the most essential prerogatives of the crown, and to limit and fetter some of its most important functions, in the person of the Prince of Wales, as Regent, because it appears to us that such an attempt is as insulting to the character of the Prince, as it is derogatory to the principles of our form of government. We desire to see the power and majesty of the crown and the will of the people, always fully and fairly represented in the Parliament of
That the petitions to the houses of Lords and Commons, now produced to this meet
ing by the town clerk, be adopted as the
act of this meeting; and that the Common Seal of this Corporation being thereto respectively affixed, the same be signed by the town clerk, and presented, in the name of the Mayor, Aldermen, Common Council and Livery, to the houses of Lords and Commons.
That the petition to the house of Lords be transmitted by the town clerk, presentation, to the right honourable lord Holland, our Recorder; and the petition to the house of Commons, to Daniel Parker Coke, and John Smith, esqrs. our Representatives therein, requesting their support of the principles of the petitions.
That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the town clerk, and published in such manner as the Mayor may direct.
That the thanks of this meeting be given to the Mayor, for calling this meeting in pursuance of the requisition made to him for that purpose, and for his attentive and impartial conduck in the Chair.
By order of the Meeting,
GEORGE COLDHAM, Town Clerk.