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The following statement of the cotton trade in England, has been received from intelligent correspondents in Liverpool; and we trust will be acceptable to our readers, as giving a view of that trade in our sister country.
"Our future prospects are connected with many circumstances so changeable in their nature, and they will be governed so materially by political events, either unforeseen, or the effects of which we cannot fully estimate, that our conclusions will be necessarily involved in much uncertainty. A review, however, of the transactions of the last year, may afford some data, enabling us to ascertain how far the means of consumption may be proportioned to the extent of our supplies. Upon a reference to a statement of imports, it will be found, that the quantity of cotton imported into Liverpool, in 1810, is about 320,000 bags, being about 55,000 more than we received in the preceding year. Our arrivals from the United States in 1809, were 124,000 bags, nad, in 1810, about 198,000, which is an increase in our supplies from thence, of 74,000 bags; but, on the other hand, our importations from all other places are 19,000 packages less than in 1809. Our stock, exclusive of what was held in the manufacturing towns, was, on the 1st of January, 1810, about 75,000 bags, and is now supposed to be not far short of 145,000, so that the addition which it has received, is greater than the excess of our import. Upon the supposition that these particulars are as accurate as the nature of the case will admit, it appears that the quantity taken out of this market, weekly, during the last year, may, upon an average, be about 4,500 to 5,000 bags, after making a deduction for the probable increase of the stock, in the possession of the dealers and spinners, above what they held on the 1st of January, 1810. We may further observe, that 568,000 packages have been entered at the various ports in Great Britain, in 1810, which exceeds the receipts of 1809, by 124,000 bags; and if we take the total stock, at the commencement of 1810, with the import of that year, the aggregate will be nearly 700,000 packages. Of this amount, it is calculated, that, during the same period, 300,000 bags have been manufactured, and about 30,000 exported, which leaves a total stock of 370,000 bags and serons, at the beginning of 1811. This quantity, after making a reasonable allowance for the comparative smallness of the Brazil and East India bags, is considered amply suflicient for twelve months' consumption, even if it should proceed in a ratio proportioned to that of 1810. From this statement it would appear that there is a prospect of a further accumulation of cotton in this country, unless our supplies should be diminished, or a more extensive demand be experienced for twist and manufactured goods. It is, however, to be apprehended, that the effects of the late commercial embarrasme..ts, not soon to be surmounted, and the continued want of disposeable funds, (which many still appear, but too sensibly, to experience,) will, with the largeness of our stock, operate unfavourably upon our market. Should those sections of the non-intercourse law, prohibiting the introduction of our manufactures, take effect, and our exclusion from the continent of Europe be rigorously enforced, we shall then be deprived of two great sources of demand, while the supplies of the raw material, continuing free and unrestricted, will accumulate to an extent to which our own consumption, although confessedly great, and annually increasing, cannot be expected to bear an adequate proportion. This view of the subject, although discouraging, seems to be suggested by the existing state of affairs; but we would willingly hope that there is a better prospect before us, if the belligerents, returning to a sense of justice, and to the course which a sound and liberal policy should dictate, withdraw the restrictions so long imposed upon neutral commerce. The continental markets being, in that case, re-opened, the supplies which they would receive from the United States, would tend greatly to diminish the magnitude of our imports, while, it is possible, that the obstacles, now presented, to the admission of British manufactures, might, at the same time, be partially removed."
The orders in council, since the receipt of the president's proclamation, having be come a subject of increased interest, a memorial was, in consequence, presented to ministers, describing the urgency of the case, and requesting an early disclosure of their intentions, as the continuance of our cxport trade to the United States must now depend upon the repeal of the measures in question. No reply has yet been received to this application, nor does it appear that any very sanguine hopes are now entertained, that our government, constituted as it is at present, will speedily abandon that system, which, as they have so long and so stre wously maintained, must
exist, until the grounds of retaliation are unequivocally removed. Our expectations, therefore, of an early and favourable change of measures, chiefly rest upon the prospect of a change of men and system.
In this state of uncertainty, intelligence of an important nature has been received in Paris papers of the 27th ult. From the annual exposé of the state of the French nation, it would appear, that the complete and virtual repeal of the Berlin and Milan decrees is still conditional, and will depend upon the precarious revocation of the orders in council, or upon the the line of policy which the American governinent may pursue. This important document is dated the 10th ult, and addressed to the Emperor, by M. Champagny, who, in adverting to the commercial policy of Great Bris tain, makes use of the following words, "Your Majesty will persevere in your decrees, sa long as England persists in her Orders in Council. You will oppose to the maritime blockade, the continental blockade; and to the plunder on the seas, the confiscation of English merchandise upon the continent. It is my duty to acquaint you, that there is henceforth no hope of bringing your enemies to more moderate ideas, but by persevering in this system.
A letter has also been addressed to the president of the council of prizes, in which it is observed, that, in consequence of the American government having engaged to cause its rights to be respected, all cases pending, relative to the seizure of American vessels, subsequent to the 1st November, shall not be decided upon according to the principles of the Milan and Berlin decrees, but shall remain suspended, being, in the mean time, held under sequestration, till the 2d February next, when, in consequence of the United States having fulfilled their engagement of causing their rights to be respected, such vessels, with their cargoes, shall be restored to the rightful
Exchange on London has through this month continued in Belfast, at 81 to 9 per cent; and in Dublin, at 84, 9, and 9 per cent, Discount on bank notes has latierly risen in Belfast, to 24 and 24 per cent, in exchange for guineas.
From December 20, 1810, to January 20, 1811.
In phalanx firm the fiend of frost assail;
Break his white towers, and pierce his crystal mail;
Melt with warm breath the fragrant gums, that bind
And as in air the laughing leaflets play,
And turn their shining bosoms to the ray;
Nymphs! with sweet smile each opening flower invite
AMONG the various phænomena which nature is daily presenting, one which annually occurs, has been little noticed, this is the flowering of plants at particular seasons, and so fixed is the law by which they are bound, that human ingenuity has not yet been able to break this immutable decree; the snow-drop cannot be made to delay its flowering beyond the usual period for snow, without appearing by the shortest delay greatly injured, nor can the spring flowering Crocus's be made to flower in the autumn, or the autumnal flowering ones in the spring, and it is only after many years of propagation, that plants from a country where they have been accustomed to an earlier spring, or those from the southern hemisphere, accommodate themselves to this climate.
Many valuable and beautiful plants might be introduced from the southern extremity of America, and Van Diemen's land; but although the climate is analogous to
our own, our intentions might be frustrated before they could accommodate themselves to a change of six months, in their period of foliation or fructification. It is plain that our country might derive important advantages, if the power of accelerating or retarding the vegetating principle could be discovered; but this like many other. objects is probably only attainable by the attention of several observers being directed in the same course it might be worth trying by those who have the convenience, if the progress of vegetation could be retarded with impunity by placing some roots in an ice-house, or accelerated by putting them in a hot-house, and this alternately; first placing, for instance, snowdrop roots in the hot-house, afterwards in the ice-house, and then in the hot-house again, and trying by this means to flower them two or three times in one year.
Jan. 9, Snow-drops (Galanthus nivalis) and Bell flowered Squills (Scilla Campanulata) appearing above ground.
11 Woodlark (Alauda Arborea) singing.
From December 20, 1810, to January 20, 1811.
As it often happens that while the snow falls and lies inlan the valley of Belfast is entirely free from it; can the wind blowing across the nar w sea between Scotland and Ireland be so much warmed by the passage as not to generate snow until it has passed 15 or 20 miles inland, and given out its maritime temperature? Can we conceive, the Belfast lough to assist in diffusing this maritime warmth farther inland, when the wind comes in that direction, for it is often observed that the grounds on each ride of this valley have a covering of snow, while the Belfast valley is not covered until long afterwards, or when a greater cold comes to prevail?
The same variable weather which has continued for such a length of time, yet marks. this period.
December 21, 23, .......
Wet and stormy, snow lying on the mountains, with, it has been said, much Thunder and Lightning.
Dark dry day.
Showers and squalls.
Dark dry day.
Showers and squalls.
Dark dry weather, somewhat frosty.
Dark dry day.
Some snow showers.
Fine frosty, with breezes.
Dark with some hail showers.
Dry day, wet stormy night
Showery frosty morning,
Stormy with showers.
Wet and stormy.
The Barometer has been during this period mostly above
On the 4th the
roads about Lurgan, Dromore, and Comber, had much snow on them, while the ground even the highest hills as far as could be seen from Belfast was entireLly free from it.
29; on the 25th of December, it was however as low as 28-5, and on the 28th, it was as high as 30-5.
The almost stationary position of the Thermometer about 35°, has been astonishing while the Newspapers mention a prevalence of severe frost about London; on the 5th of January only it was as low as 31°, while on the 17th it was as high as 50°. The S. Westerly wind has blown 13; N.W. 3; N.E. 5, and Easterly 6 times.
FOR FEBRUARY, 1811.
On the first, The Moon passes the meridian at 49 min. past 6; the Pleiades being above her, and Aldebaran with the Hyades, to which she is directing her course, to the east of her. The third of the Bull, or nearest of the Hyades, she passes at ten minutes before five, on the following morning. Jupiter is now to the west of her, and the group around the planet and the Moon, consisting of the three first stars of the Ram, Menkar, with the small stars in the head of the Whale, the third of the River directly below her," Orion, Aldebaran, with the Hyades and the Pleiades, will for a long time fix our attention. At six she is fifty-four degrees, thirteen minutes, from the second of the Twins.
On the fifth, The Moon is on the meridian at 3 minutes past ten, having above her the two first stars of the Twins, and below her, the two 1st of the Little Dog. The great Dog is now to the west of the meridian, and with the group of the preceding night, adds lustre to the western hemisphere. At nine, the Moon is thirty-nine degrees, thirty two minutes, from the first of the Lion, and forty degrees, thirty-nine minutes, from Aldebaran.
On the tenth, she is perceived to have travelled through the barren space under the Lion, and she passes the nineteenth of this constellation at thirteen minutes past midnight, directing her course under the second, towards the seventh of the Virgin. Of course, during the night, we note to the east of her, the five stars in triangle of this constellation. At nine, she is fifty-seven degrees, two minutes, from the second of the Twins.
On the fifteenth, We perceive that she is directing her course towards Mars, who is on the other side of the two first stars of the Balance. The groupe formed by the first of the Virgin, the two first of the Balance, Mars, and the stars of the Scorpion, will fix the attention of the traveller.
On the twentieth, The Moon rises between Venus and the two first stars of the Goat, but nearest to the planet.
On the twenty-sixth, The Moon is seen in the evening under the group formed by the three first states of the Ram, the Pleiades, Aldebaran, Jupiter, and Menkar, with the small stars in the head of the Whale.
Mercury is stationary on the 12th; at the beginning of the month he is too near the Sun to be discovered; but may be easily seen toward the latter end of the month. The Moon passes him on the 21st.
Venus is a morning star, and adorns the sky long before the break of day. Her motion is direct through 21°. In the middle of the mouth, we see her over the stars in the head of the Archer, and on the 19th she passes over the small double star called D, the star being 59 minutes south of her. The Moon passes her on the 19th.
Mars is on the meridian a few minuets before 6 on the morning of the 1st, and on the 25th, at 8 minutes past 5 in the morning; his motion is direct through 13 degrees. He passes Herschell on the 8th, but at a considerable distance, being 14 degree from him northward. The Moon passes him on the 16th.
Jupiter is on our meridian at 20 min. past 6 on the evening of the first, and at a quarter past 5 on the 19th. His motion is direct through 24 degrees, and he is in the middle of the pleasing group, formed by the three first stars of the Ram, Menkar, Aldebaran and the Plieades, being near the point where the lines drawn from the 1st of the Ram to Aldebaran, and from the Pleiades to Menkar cross each other. The Moon passes him on the 1st and again on the 28th.
Saturn is on our meridian at 36 min. past 8 on the morning of the first, and at half past 7 the 19th. His motion is direct through 2 and one-twentieth degreees. The Moon passes him on the 18th.
Herschell is on the meridian at 10 min. past 6 on the morning of the first, and at 51 min. past 4, on the 21st. His motion is direct through 11 minutes, being nearly in a line with that drawn from the 1st of the Balance to the 2d of the Scorpion; the Moon passes him on the 15th.