A Catechism of Chemistry: Exhibiting a Condensed View of the Facts and Principles of that Science. Illustrated by a Number of Wood-cuts, and a Large Table of the Elements

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Oliver & Boyd, 1837 - 90 pages
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Page 90 - ... by the union of the oxygen of the air with the carbon of blood, of which these impurities are made up, are thrown off in the form of carbonic acid.
Page 253 - Temperature may be conceived to depend upon the velocities of the vibrations; increase of capacity on the motion being performed in greater space ; and the diminution of temperature during the conversion of solids into fluids or gases, may be explained on the idea of the loss of vibratory motion, in consequence of the revolution of particles round their axes, at the moment when the body becomes fluid or aeriform, or from the loss of rapidity of vibration in consequence of the motion of the particles...
Page 314 - Into a large glass jar inverted upon a flat brick tile, and containing near its top a branch of fresh rosemary, or any other such shrub, moistened with water, introduce a flat, thick piece of heated iron, on which place some gum benzoin in gross powder. The...
Page 253 - ... lower temperature, that is, can give an expansive motion to its particles, it is a probable inference that its own particles are possessed of motion; but as there is no change in the position of its parts as long as its temperature is uniform, the motion, if it exist, must be a vibratory or undulatory motion, or a motion of the particles round their axes, or a motion of particles round each other.
Page 349 - Salts formed by the combination of any base with fluoric acid. Fluidity. A term applied to all liquid substances. Solids are converted to fluids by combining with a certain portion of caloric. Flux. A substance which is mixed with metallic ore, or other bodies to promote their fusion ; as an alkali is mixed with silex, in order to form glass.
Page 353 - Malates. Salts formed by the combination of any base with malic acid. Malleability. That property of metals which gives them the capacity of being extended and flattened by hammering. It is probably occasioned by latent caloric.
Page 10 - I remember having been told, by Mr. Wedgwood, that nearly all the fine diversified colours applied to his pottery were produced only by the oxides of this single metal.
Page 358 - A name formerly given to various crystallized stones ; such as the fluor spar, the adamantine spar, &c. These natural substances are now distinguished by names which denote the nature of each. Stalactites. Certain concretions of calcareous earth found suspended like icicles in caverns. They are formed by the oozing of water, through the crevices, charged with this kind of earth. Steatites. A kind of stone composed of silex, iron, and magnesia. Also called French chalk, Spanish chalk, and soaprock....
Page 350 - Other grain contains a much less quantity of this nutritious substance. Grain. The smallest weight made use of by chemical writers. Twenty grains make a scruple ; 3 scruples a drachm • 8 drachms, or 480 grains, make an ounce ; 12 ounces, or 5760 grains, a pound troy. The advoirdupois pound contains 7000 grains.
Page 100 - All sorts of glass vessels and other utensils may be purified from long retained smells of every kind, in the easiest and most perfect manner, by rinsing them out well with charcoal powder, after the grosser impurities have been scoured off with sand and potash. Rubbing the teeth and washing out the mouth with fine charcoal powder, will render the teeth beautifully white, and the breath perfectly sweet, where an offensive breath has been owing to a scorbutic disposition of the gums.

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