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Eucharist declared lawful, cxxxvi.
292. See Bennett, Rev. Mr.
Church of England, relations of, with
Dissent, cxxxvii. 196; recent pub-
lications, ib.; national basis of, at
the Reformation, 199; two master
principles gradually established,
202; modern dogma against a
National Church, 203; league of
Nonconformists and High Church
Liberationists, 205-206; proper
policy of, towards both opponents,
207; a religious census deprecated,
208; question of utilising Dissent,
209; history and services of the
Latitudinarian School, ib.; prac-
ticable approaches for Dissenters,
216; changes suggested in litur-
gical forms, 217; relaxation of
Prayer-Book, 218; freer use of
pulpits by other communions, 219;
general intercourse and co-opera-
tion, 220; transient character of
present hostility of Dissenters,
222; national importance of the
Establishment, ib.; ministerial
energy the best means of defence,

223

duties of, since the late Edu-
cation Act, cxxxix. 229

abolition of separate taxation
of the clergy, cxl. 431; reforms
in the present century effected
without Convocation, 443; position
of the clergy and laity in, 444;
no necessity for a separate Council
of, 448 (see Convocation); its
national character, 450
Church (Early), revolutions in the
4th century, cxi. 422; materials
for history of that epoch, 425;
need of caution in using them,
426; social revolution under the
Roman Empire, 432; phases of
persecution, 433; Constantine's
opportune conversion, 435; ques-
tion of his spiritual authority, 437 ;
schism of the Donatists, 439;
Cæcilian, ib.; Council of Arles,

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his bust at the Vatican au-
thenticated, exxiv. 353; his treatise
De Gloria, 356; plagiarism of his
De Officiis, 357; M. de Conches
on his Letters, 377; his character
by Napoleon III., 414; unfairly
accused of cowardice, 415; and of
complicity in the death of Clodius,
416; his character vindicated by
Mr. Newman, 418

earliest MSS. of, cxxxvii.
64, 65; Petrarch's copy of his
Epist. ad Fam., 72; his 'Orator,'
73; Editio princeps of his collected
works, 90
Cimabue (John, 1240-1300), story
of his mode of study, cxxii. 85;
his altar-piece of S. Maria Novella,
¿.; his conventional treatment,

88

Cintra, Convention of (1808), cxii.

54

Ciphers, use of, by the Romans,

cxxiv. 354, 355

Circeo, Cape, naval defeat of the
Saracens off, cxviii. 368
Ciudad Rodrigo, capture of, cxvi. 58
Civilisation, its supposed require-
ments of centralisation, cxv. 331

Mr. Gladstone on the two
factors of modern, cxx. 165
Civil Service, the, value of perma-
nent officials in the conduct of
government, cxxxvi. 91; evils of
open competitive examinations,
108

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cry of Administrative Re-
formers' in 1855, cxxxix. 72; ob-
jections to official reports on con-
duct of subordinates, 89, 90; nom-
ination and competition compared,
357; evils of surrendering patron-
age, ib. 358; recent dissensions in
public offices, 556
Civitali (Matteo, Tuscan sculptor),

his different styles of sculpture,
cxxi. 544; his figure of Faith, ib.
Civita Vecchia (Centumcella), cap-
tured by the Saracens, cxviii. 366;
inhabitants removed to Leopolis,
ib. note; origin of its present
name, ib.

Clancarty (Donough Macarthy, Eari

of), episode of, described by, Ma-
caulay, cxiv. 309

Clapham (Surrey), early history of,
cxxxi. 161

Clare, Earls of, early residence of,
in London, cxxxi. 178
Clare, Viscounts, early history of,
cxiv. 384. See O'Briens
Clare (Fitzgibbon, Earl of, 1749-
1802), his career at the Irish bar,
cxxxiv. 65; made Attorney-Gen-
eral for Ireland, 66; Irish Chan-
cellor, ib.; his character and
talents, ib. 67

his appearance and character,
схххіх. 487

Clarence (Duke of, d. 1478), story of
his murder, cxv. 303
Clarence and Richmond district
(Australia), rival claims to, cxviii.
308; its annexation to Queensland
desirable, 309

Clarendon (Earl of, 1800-1870),
his qualifications as Foreign Min-
ister, cxxiv. 297; his retirement
in 1866 a misfortune to the
country, ib.

his negotiations with Russia
respecting the Black Sea, cxxxiii.
267, 268

Clark (G. T.), manager of the Dow-
lais Ironworks, cxxx. 400; his evi-
dence on Trades' Unions, ib.
Clarke (Algernon), his report on
Steam Culture, cxxiii. 200
Classical busts and statues, question
of their trustworthiness, cxxiv.
351; risks to which they were ex-
posed, ib.; specimens of, 353
Classical education, imperfections
of, in public schools, cxxvii. 150.
See Public Schools
Classical Manuscripts, relative value
of existing MSS., cxxxvii. 57; lost
autographs, ib. 58; the mass not
older than 9th century, ib.; de-
generacy of language a safeguard
against forgeries, ib.; external evi-
dences of genuineness, 59; long con-
cealment no disproof, 60; abundant
⚫ evidence furnished by tradition, ib.;
remoteness of textual error proved
by early misquotations, ib.; au-
thority of age, 62; groups in rela-
tion to lost archetype, 63; MSS.
older than the 7th century, ib.;
antiquity of biblical MSS. com-
pared, ib. 64; testimony of colo-
phons, 65; MSS. of Tacitus, Livy,
and Virgil, 66; evidence derived
from corrections, ib.; from draw-
ings and handwriting, 67; errors
of author's amanuensis, 68; varia-
tions in autograph, ib.; imperfec-
tions and unrevised originals, ib.

69; theory of two recensions by
author, ib.; mistakes of contem-
porary copyists, 70; similarity of
writing in early MSS., ib. ; imita-
tions of old copies in Middle Ages,
ib.; common parentage of later
copies ascertained by collation,
71; MSS. between revival of
learning and printing, ib.; parent
MSS. found, 72; Poggio's dis-
coveries, ib.; rarity and corrupt
state of discovered archetypes, ib.;
authority of transcripts therefrom,
73; pedigree traced by colophons,
74; difficulties of determining
their relative value, 75; confusion
introduced by conjectural emenda-
tions, ib.; undue authority at-
tached to numbers, ib.; corrup-
tions of copyists caused by igno-
rance, 76; by wrong division of
continuous writing, 77; fancied
poetic licenses, 78; abbreviations,
ib.; differences of spelling a stum-
bling-block, 79; errors due to
caligraphy, 80; sciolism of scribes
and correctors, 81; intentional per-
versions of text, ib.; early origin of
textual criticism, 83; corruptions
of false critics, ib.; interpolations
of commentators, 84; glosses, ib. ;
depravations of scholastic teachers,
ib.; looseness of aesthetic criticism,
84; Italian ignorance of Greek at
the revival, 86; license of con-
jecture, ib.; false authority at-
tached thereto, 87; testimony of
first editors as to their materials,
ib. 88; their fragmentary and cor-
rupt character, ib.; their insuffici-
ency proved by later research, 91;
modern discoveries, 92; difference
between authentic and genuine, ib.;
authority of 'first editions,' 93;
progress of error checked by print-
ing, 94; analytical treatment by
subsequent critics of the text, ib.
'Classical Museum,' the, started by
Sir Cornewall Lewis, cxviii. 164

Classical study, decreasing import
ance of, cxx. 158; dominant system
of, at public schools, 160; Mr.
Gladstone's defence of, 163

present efforts to popularise,
cxxiii. 365; modern Greek verses,
366; defects in classical transla-
tions, 367; excellence of modern
scholarship, 383; necessity of
combining modern languages, ib.

pretended indifference of the
age to, cxxxiii. 530; influence of,
on recent English scholarship, ib. ;
broader view taken of the life of
antiquity, 531; essential to general
culture, ib.

Claude (Lorraine, 1600-1682), his
picture of the Sermon on the

Mount,' cxx. 107

Claudius (Tiberius Drusus, Roman
Emperor, B.C. 9-A.D. 54), his lost,
work on Carthage, cxiv. 65
Clausewitz (General, 1780-1831),
his intelligent system of strategy,
cxxxiii. 583

Claverhouse, John Graham of. See
Dundee

Clayton (Mr.), his treaty with Sir
H. Bulwer, cxv. 21
Clayton and Bell (Messrs.), their
painted window at Doncaster,
cxxv. 181; windows at Lincoln,
184; and at Windsor, 185
Cleasby (Richard, 1797-1847), Ice-
landic-English Dictionary of, com-
pleted by G. Vigfusson, cxl. 228;
his parentage and education, ib.;
Dr. Dasent's memoir of, 229;
foreign travels, 230; attends lec-
tures at Edinburgh, 232; at Leip-
sig, ib.; friends at Munich, 233;
his return to England, 235; visit
to Upsala and inspection of the
Codex Argenteus, 236; death of
his brother, ib.; his theological
studies, 237; works at German
philology at Munich, ib.; at the
Queen's Coronation at Guildhall,
ib.;
revisit to Upsala and collation

of the Codex, ib.; his Icelandic
studies commenced, 238; his Ice-
landic teacher Gislason, ib.; first
project of a Dictionary, 239; cor-
respondence with Schmeller, ib.;
letters to Kemble and Sir J.
Lefevre, 240; his intended Lexi-
icon of ancient Scandinavian,
241, 242; flying visits to Copen-
hagen, 243; Grimm's encourage-
ment, ib.; last illness and death,
244; his character, ib.; ill-treat-
ment of his MSS., 245; the Copen-
hagen Committee of Editors, ib.;
Mr. Vigfusson's labours, ib. ; value
of the joint Dictionary, 246
Clement of Alexandria, on early
Egyptian writing, exvi. 105
Clement VI. (Pope, d. 1352), his

memory strengthened by concus-
sion of the brain, cxii. 535
Clement VII. (Pope Julian dei Me-
dici, d. 1394), destroys the Flo-
rentine republic, exii. 121

-his relations with Guicciardini,
CXXX. 11

siege of, in St. Angelo, des-
cribed by Heemskerck, cxxxii.
80-84

Clement XIII. (Pope, d. 1769), his

policy to the Jesuits in Portugal,
cxxxvi. 206, 207; his rupture with
King Joseph, 208
Clement XIV. (Pope, 1705-1774),
dissolves the Society of Jesuits,
cxxxvi. 209

Clements (Mr.), his invention of the
planing-machine, exxi. 604
Cleopatra (B.C. 69-30), Pascal's
remark on her nose, cxxiv.
342

Clerels (of Tocqueville), family of,
cxiii. 433

Clergy, parochial, alienation of their
incomes, cxvii. 363

former satires on, cxxxv.
377-380; vast improvement of,
in modern times, 381; present
voluntary efforts of, ib.

Clerk (Sir George), on native go-
vernment in India, cxvii. 18
Clerk of Eldin (John), his Essay on
Naval Tactics, cxxxvi. 559; his
valuable studies, 579; his system
of reform, 580
Cleveland (John, 1613-1659), the
ballad-monger of the Royalists,
cxiii. 95

verses on Strafford, ascribed
to, cxxxvii. 195
Cleves, Duchy of, rival claims to,
cxl. 108; conduct of Henry IV.
respecting, 109

Climate, in the Post-Pliocene period
of man, cxviii. 267; effect of
changes in, on geology, 301

comprehensive meaning of
the word, cxx. 473; imperfect
knowledge of its phenomena, 474,
475; limits to human control over,
ib.; local influences of forests upon,
478, 479; early condition of, in
England, 498

M. Taine on its influence on
English character, cxxi. 306

theories of, during the qua-
ternary period, cxxxii. 445
Clive (Robert, Lord, 1725-1774), his
treaty with Oude, cxvii. 9

obtains the cession of Bengal,
cxxix. 207; his makeshift double
government, ib. 208

Clode (Mr. C. M.), his Military

Forces of the Crown,' cxxxiii. 207;

his views on army government,235
Clodius (B.c. 52), challenged by Milo,
exxiv. 416; his enmity to Cicero,

417

Clôture, the, in the French Chamber,
cxxxiii. 73; recommended for the
House of Commons, ib. 80
Clouds, their phenomena illustrated,
cxxii. 432

Clovio (Giulio), copies of Heem-
skerck's designs ascribed to, cxxxii.
71

Coaches, early travelling by, in
England, cxix. 362

Coal, distribution of annual yield in 1854 over Great Britain, cxi. 87 note; exports of British coal to America, 90; high price of cannel coal there, ib.; anthracite chiefly used in American cities, ib. 91; defects of highly-bituminous coal, 92; use of anthracite for steam ships, 93; it must be mixed for locomotive engines, ib.; good steam coal rare on the Continent, 94

use of, in the working of iron, cxvi. 205

geological period required for its formation, cxviii. 299

high price of, during winter of 1872-3, cxxxvii. 456; causes examined, 457; ubiquitous demand, 462; increase of population, ib.; recent rate of extraction, 463; foreign consumers, 465; former fluctuations in prices, 466; Parliamentary inquiry, 467; coal-owners, colliers, and coal-merchants, ib. 469; diminished output, ib.; corrective influences on high prices, 471; vast quantity of coal, at present inaccessible, 472; researches as to probable duration of available coal, 473; culpable waste of, 476; 'pit heaps,' 477 and note; economy in fuel, 478; obstinacy of present pitmen, 480; co-operative system at the Whitwood Collieries, 481; mechanical coalcutters, 483; prospects of coalimportation, 486; coal-resources of Belgium, 487; of Westphalia, ib.; British North America, ib.; India, 488; China, ib.; United States, 489; importance of the coal-question, 490

Coalbrookdale, first iron bridge at, cxvi. 207

Coal-fields (North American and British), cxi. 68; latent mechanical strength of, 69; their national importance, ib.; Carboniferous rocks in Britain, 70; composed of

primeval vegetation, 71; fossil trees discovered, 72; theories of climate deduced from, 73; growth of seams, 74; vast periods required for their formation, ib.; chief elements of vegetation, ib.; mode of vegetable accumulation, 76; drifttimber in the Slave Lake, ib.; question of transportation, 77; the drift and peat-bog theories, ib. 78; theory of Professor Rogers, ib. 79; natural disposition of coalbasins, 80; convenient distribution of coal-fields in England, 81; their effect on population, ib.; need of survey of, in England, 82; estimate of their contents, b.; lowest working seams, 83; fears of future scarcity, ib.; various estimates thereon, ib. 84; the Newcastle field, ib.; immense drain on Staffordshire field, 85; resources of the South Wales field, ib.; total annual yield of British mines, 86; estimated areas of coal in different countries, 88 note; unbounded resources of America, ib. 89 (see Coal); the South Wales field described, 91; energy of American surveys, 94; neglect of inquiry in England, ib. 95 Coal-fields in Vancouver Island, cxix. 455

in Central India, cxxxv.

218 Coal-mines, difficulties of deep-working in, cxxxvii. 474; question of temperature, 475; Dr. Thudicum's investigations thereon, ib.

(British), scenes at the smelting furnace, cxvii. 409; waste of 'coal dust,' 412; dangers of the miners, ib.; mode of lowering, 413; choke-damp and fire-damp, 415; dangers of blasting, 417; abandoned workings, ib.; methods of ventilation, 418; accidents from falls of rock, 420; precautions against irruptions of water, 421;

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