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of his work, 214; his life as a pri-
vate soldier, 216; his promotions
in the ranks, 219; his sketch of
the camp at Boulogne, 221; he re-
ceives his commission, 223; his
misdemeanour and arrest, ib.; his
criticism of his brother-officers,
224; his account of marauding in
the Grand Army, 226; on the sur-
render at Ulm, 227; quartered
near Salzburg, 230; his service
with the staff, 231; on the cam-
paign in Poland, 234; a prisoner
in Russia, 236; returns to Paris,
ib.; serves under Ney in Spain, ib. ;
and under Napoleon until Boro-
dino, 237; his dark picture of the
retreat from Moscow, b.; his
later services, 239; his retirement
after the retreat from Germany,

Fiction, works of. See Novels
Fictions, legal, Sir H. Maine's defi-

nition of, cxiv. 475

Fielding (Henry, 1707-1754), Mr.
Taine on his pictures of English
life, cxxi. 319

Gibbon's remark on, cxxxvii.
115; Thackeray's admiration of, ib.
Fierabras, the romance of, cxv. 367
Fifeshire, histories of, by Mr. Sib-
bald and Mr. Leighton, cxii. 489;
its peaceful condition in early times,
497; its physical aspects, 498
Fiji Islands, the, correspondence re-
specting, cxxxvi. 429; recent in-
terest in, created by deportation
of South Sea Islanders, ib.; murder
of Bishop Patteson, 43C; Bill for
suppression of slave-trade, 432;
importation of natives to Queens-
land, 432; that government ac-
quitted, ib.; Lord Normanby's
despatch, 433; consular despatch of
Mr. Pritchard, 435; offer of cession
to England, 437; Colonel Smythe's
visit and Report thereon, ib.;
nominal sovereignty of King
Thakombau, 438; population and

products, ib., 439; the Report
unfavourable to cession, 440; his
advice accepted, ib.; the ques-
tion revived, ib.; Melbourne
agents, ib.; Lord Belmore's
despatch in 1868, ib.; increas-
ing lawlessness, 441; cotton-
cultivation, ib.; petitions of white
settlers for protection, ib.; Austra-
lian adventurers, 442; address of
King Cakobau, 443; abortive con-
stitution of 1867, ib.; the King's
ministry, 444; his government op-
posed by committee of white re-
sidents, 445; Intercolonial Con-
ference at Melbourne, 446; Aus-
tralian correspondence, 447, 451;
unpopularity of Mr. Burt, ib.;
King Cakobau and the Volun-
teers, 452; Mr. McArthur's mo-
tion for a protectorate, 453; de-
bate in the Commons thereon,
454; alternative of annexation,
455; Mr. Gladstone's suggestion
to ascertain native feeling thereon,
456; defeat of amended motion,
457: question of naval command
of the Pacific, ib.; recent American
opinion as to harbours in the
Pacific, 458; island of Upolo, 459;
latest reports unsatisfactory, 460;
prospects of future action of the
Government, 461

annexation of, cxl. 581; de-
bates thereon, ib.

Filelfo (Francisco), patronage of, by
Nicholas V., cxxxvi. 130
Filioque, the clause embodied in the

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farming by large firms, 233;
capital exported by limited liabi-
lity companies, ib.; unknown secu-
rities, 236; high rates of interest
considered, ib.; argument of Mr.
Pereire thereon, 237; secret of
the financial power of, 240; rate
of interest governed solely by de-
mand, 243; impossibility of State
interference, ib.; foreign compe-
tition in loans, 244; objections
to increased issue of bank-notes,
246, 247; charges against the
currency laws, 248; legislation
powerless against panics, 249;
average rate of seven per cent. in
1864, 251

Finance, English, money at two per
cent. in 1867, cxxvii. 242; enor-
mous import of bullion, 243; com-
mercial depression in spite of cheap-
ness of money, 244; failure of the
Crédit Mobilier, 245; collapse in
railway finance, ib. ; fall of deben-
tures, 246; universal nature of the
depression, ib.; inactivity of the
home trade, 247; fixity of note-
circulation, 250; effects of the
panic of 1866 thereon, ib.; gold
circulation in England and France,
253; supposed abundance of loan-
able capital examined, 255; foreign
borrowers, 257; fall in foreign
stocks, ib.; borrowing difficulties
of railways, 258; general reluc-
tance to lend the reason why
money is so cheap, 259; tight-
ness of capital in England and
France, 261; recent losses in
England, 264; losses increased by
mismanagement, ib.; distrust of
joint-stock enterprise, 265; re-
serves swallowed thereby, 266;
changes in negotiable' bills, 267;
system of Overend, Gurney, and
Co., ib.; money locked up in care-
ful banks, 268; discount and in-
terest distinguished, 269; mer-
cantile and foreign bills, ib.; evils

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of finance bills, 270; their disap-
pearance since 1866, ib.; want of
speculation in goods, 271; diminu-
tion in trade, 273; effects of fall
in price of cotton, ib., 274; de-
crease in raw materials, 275; ex-
ports, ib.; decline in movements
of bullion, 277; depression of
home trade, 279; reduction in
foreign trade due to cotton and
American difficulties, ib.; prospects
of improvement, 280
Finance, French, high rate of interest
in 1864, cxxi. 236; proposed re-
medy, ib. See Periere, M.

increase in circulation of
bank-notes from 1864 to 1867,
cxxvii. 252; proportionate reserve
of gold, ib.; tightness of capital
in 1867, 261; absorption of bul-
lion, 262; success of French rail-
ways, 263; City of Paris loans, ib.
Finch (Sir John), elected Speaker

by the Commons, cxx. 20; his
servility to the King, ib.; is held
down in his chair, 34

Fine Arts Commission of Sir R.

Peel, cxxxi. 409; failure of, as re-
gards mural painting, 411
Finhaven (Angus), ancient vitrified
fort at, cxx. 316

Finns, the, meagre literature of, cxl.
Fisher (Edward), his Marrow of
Modern Divinity,' cxiv. 421


(J. C.), his work on liturgi-
cal revision, cxiii. 12
Fisheries, Board of, in Scotland,
cxv. 39

Fitzinger (Herr), on the different

stocks of horses, cxx. 132; on
the Oriental origin of English
thorough-breds, ib.
Fitzroy (Admiral), his appointment
to the Meteorological Department,
cxxiv. 58;
his promotion of obser-
vations at sea, 59; origin of his
system of weather forecasts, 60;
his storm-signals, ib.; his death,

61; his labours necessarily imper-
fect, 62; his method of storm-
warnings, 66

Ffoulkes (Mr. E. S.), his letter to
Archbishop Manning on 'the
Church's Creed and the Crown's
Creed,' cxxx. 297; criticised in
the 'Dublin Review,' 313 note
Flamsteed (John, 1640-1719), the
first Astronomer Royal, cxl. 94;
his services, ib.
Flanders, wealth of the towns under
the Dukes of Burgundy, cxix.


Flaxman (John, 1755-1826), his ser-
vices secured by Wedgwood,
cxxvi. 227; visit to Rome, ib.
Flemings, settlements of, in Eng-
land and Scotland, cxii. 503

early colonies of, in Scotland,
cxii. 240
Flemyng (Dr. Malcolm), his treatise
on the cattle-pest of 1744-57,
cxxiii. 213; recommends inocula-
tion, 223

Fletcher (Andrew, 1653-1716), his
supposed collaboration with Shak-

speare in Henry VIII., cxxiii. 177
Fletcher of Saltoun, his share in the

Darien scheme, cxv. 13
Fleury (André Hercule de, Cardinal,
1653-1743), his tutelage of Louis
XV., cxxv. 472, 473; scheme for
his dismissal, 477; Prime Minister,
ib.; his ascendancy over the King,
anecdote of his modesty, 478
note; his foreign policy, ib. 480;
his parsimony, 480, 482; his
youthful airs in old age, 488 note
Flint, implements of, discovered near
Abbeville, by M. Perthes, cxviii.
260; evidences of design in, 263;
question of their genuineness, ib.;
tests of antiquity applied to, 264;
their origin discussed, ib.; their
entombment ascribed to the Mam-
moth Age of Cuvier, 265; depth
of the deposits, 270; similar dis-
coveries of, in England, 271, 278

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Flourens (M.), his share in the Com-
mune of 1871, cxxxiv. 513; his
literary works and character, ib.;
his early life and adventures, 514;
his Communist programme of
foreign policy, ib.; popularity at
Belleville, 515; his contempt for
the Bordeaux Assembly, 522
'Flying Childers,' racing perform-
ances of, cxx. 125; pedigree of,
Foix, Counts of, their protectorate
of Andorre, cxiii. 352
Fontaine (John de la, 1621-1695),
M. Taine's theory of his Fables,
cxxi. 294
Fontainebleau, Peace of (1763), its
popularity in England, cxxvi.


Fontenoy, battle of (1745), cxx. 528;
official account of, 530

gallant conduct of the Black
Watch at, cxxv. 62
Fontevrault, Abbey of, its origin,
cxxvii. 90; tombs of Henry II.
and Richard I. at, 91, 92
Forbes, family name of, origin of,
cxxi. 343

(Professor James D.), popu-
larity of his Travels in the Alps,'
cxiii. 224; his observations on the
Mer de Glace, 234; his discoveries
respecting glacier movement, ib.;
his Viscous Theory,' 235; his pre-
sentiment of Faraday's discovery
of regelation, 239; on the veined
structure of glacier ice, 246

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Force, idea of, inseparable from

Science, cxxvii. 341

metaphysical obscurity of
meaning in the term, cxxxiii. 148,
152; various applications thereof,
in physical science, ib. 154
Ford (Richard, 1796-1858), his
'Handbook for Spain,' an instance
of real genius, cxxxii. 122
Foreign Enlistment Act (1819), oc-
casional suspensions of, cxiv. 583

principles of international
law discussed in debates on, cxxxv.
561; its bearing on the recent
American claims, 564, 571 (see
Geneva Arbitration); faultiness of
its provisions, 579

Forests, vast proportion of, on the
earth's surface, cxx. 476; devasta-
tion of, by fire, 477; destruction
of, in America, ib. 478; their in-
fluence on local climate, ib. ; value
of forest vegetation, 479
Forfar, County of. See Angus
Forli (Melozzo da, about 1438–1494),
painter of the Florentine School,
cxxxv. 136; his works, 138
Formularies, latitude of, in the
Church of England, exiii. 492;
absence of definitions of, 493
Forster (John, b. 1812), his defence

of the Grand Remonstrance on
the ground of necessity, cxii. 464;
his exaggerated praise of Pym,
474; attributes the arrest of the
Five Members to a premeditated
scheme of Charles I., 478; dates
the Civil War from that attempt,
480; on the Protestation of the
Bishops, 483

Forster, John, his 'Life of Sir John
Eliot,' cxx. 1; his merits as a bio-
grapher, 2

his 'Life of Landor,' cxxx.
217; merits thereof, 219; his
personal intimacy with Landor,
Forster (Right Hon. W. E., b. 1818),

his firm attitude on the Education

question, cxxxix. 220; his predic-
tions realised, 239
Forsyth (Mr.), his researches in
Eastern Turkestan, cxxxv. 20

his mission to Yarkund,

cxxxix. 314

(Mr. W.), his 'History of
ancient Manuscripts,' cxxxvii. 57;
his definitions of authentic and
genuine objected to, 92
Fortescue (Mr. Chichester, after-

wards Lord Carlingford, b. 1823),
his scheme of tenant-reform in Ire-
land, cxxv. 211; cardinal defect of
his Bill, 214

Forum at Rome, the, striking aspect
of, cxviii. 359; Pope Stephen III.
elected on the site of, 360; known
as the 'Tria Fata,' ib.
Fouché (Joseph, afterwards Duke of
Otranto, 1763-1820), overtures of
Metternich to, outwitted by Buo-
naparte, cxiv. 511

his intrigues during the IIun-
dred Days, cxxv. 329


Buonaparte's letters to, cxxvi.

Fouquet (Nicolas, Marquis of Belle-
isle, 1615-1680), cause of his fall,
cxxiv. 373; his casket opened by
the King, ib.; pretended letter
of Madame de Maintenon to, ib.
374; his other correspondents, ib.

Fox (Charles James, 1748-1806),
his bargain with George III., cxv.

his India Bill, cxvii. 23
his appearance described by
Miss Wynn, cxix. 307

remarks and epitaph on, by
Landor, cxxx 229

would never talk in John-
son's presence, cxl. 531; Talley-
rand's admiration of, ib.
Fox, Captain (U.S. Navy), his

efforts to relieve Fort Sumter,
cxxiv. 186; thwarted by Lincoln,
190; appointed Assistant-Secre-

his ener-

tary of the Navy, 192;
getic exertions, 196
Foxe (John, the Martyrologist,
1517-1587), his vindication of
Cardinal Pole, cxix. 258
France, taxation in, cxi. 240 (see
Taxation, French); commercial re-
lations with England, 277; Cheva-
lier on the protective system,
Treaty of Commerce, 278; slow
progress of free-trade opinions,
281; history and condition of
French tariff, ib.; selfish greed of
the middle classes, 282; rise of the
protection system, 284; Treaty of
1813, 285; England's prohibitive
policy retaliated, ib.; Pitt's Treaty
of 1786, 286; policy of the Con-
stituent Assembly, 287; of the
Restoration, 288; Republic of '48,
289; opposition to free trade
under the Empire, ib.; existing
prohibitions, 290; present state
of commerce, 293; mischievous
effects of restrictive tariffs thereon,
298; results of increased commer-
cial interchange with England,
303; antiquity of local names in,
537; piety of the Gallican Church
in the 17th century, 430; immoral
annexation of Savoy and Nice by,
535; negotiations with Sardinia
before the war, ib.; disregard of
the Treaties of Paris, 548, 551.
See Savoy

France, intellectual revival of, in
1815, cxii. 162; her claims to
'natural frontiers,' 240; territo-
riai arrangement of 1814, 245;
leading objects thereof, 252;
of the ballot in, 284

the natural rival of Italy,
cxiii. 261; assumes the co-pro-
tectorate of Andorre, 352; mis-
take of the Roman expedition, 455;
effects of the Revolutions on, 458

progress of agriculture in,
cxiv. 348; impoverished state of,
after 1815, ib.; increase of domes-


tic rural buildings, 350; Turgot's
beneficent reforms, 351; tithes and
seignorial charges on land, 352;
confiscated lands, 353; effects of
the Revolution on the rural popu-
lation, 354; allotment of the soil,
355; increase of agricultural pro-
duce, 356; departmental divisions,
ib.; cultivation in the Nord, 357;
beet-root sugar, 358; the cottier
system, 359; large estates near
Paris, 360; Valley of the Loire,
362; farming in Maine and
Anjou, 363; variety of products,
365; improvements in rural life,
367; primitive condition of Berri,
ib.; prosperity due to peace, 368;
agricultural reforms of Napoleon
III., ib. 369; confused state of the
law in former times, 457; juris-
diction in, compared with that
in England, 458; M. Thiers' theory
of the Hundred Days, 486: men-
dicity of the official press, 489;
constitutions of the Hundred Days
and of the first Restoration com-
pared, 493; power and composi-
tion of the Chambers, ib.; censor-
ship of the press abolished, 494
(see Napoleon Buonaparte); poli-
tical parties in 1815, 504; the
Fédérés, 506

France, invasion of, by Edward
IV., cxv. 301; reaction against
centralisation in, 323; evils of im-
munity of public functionaries from
the law, 329; defects of political
character in, 350; permanent
value of Councils-General, 352;
dangers of state patronage, 353
commercial treaties with,
130; Lord Auckland's
scheme for the partition of, 142
her Russian policy previous
to the Crimean War, cxvii. 316

evils of the Monarchy from
Louis XIV. to 1789, cxviii. 141;
alliance of, with Scotland, 230;
links of sympathy between the

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