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two countries, 232; Scottish
mercenaries in, as early as the
twelfth century, 234; attractions
of Paris to educated Scotchmen in
the sixteenth century, 236; causes
of these special relations, 238;
Scotch connexion maintained by
emigrants to, 248; ties of common
religion before the Reformation,
249; French embassies resident in
Scotland, 251

France, gradual decline of aristo-
cracy in, cxix. 87; extinction of
the old territorial peerage, ib.;
obsequiousness of nobles to the
Court, 88; origin of highway
tolls in, 345; power of the Crown
over roads; 346; office of Grand
Voyer, ib.; bad state of roads in,
under Louis XIV., 356; system
of the Corvée, 357; obligations to
repair roads imposed on the com-
munes, 360; gloomy state of, in
the middle of the 15th century,
531; encroachment of crown vas-
sals under Charles VI., 535; con-
flict of the Crown with the Dukes
of Burgundy. See Charles the

-improvements in horse-breed-
ing in, cxx. 117; obstacles to co-
operative societies in, 434, 436; the
Association Alimentaire at Greno-
ble, 426, 436; position of inter-
dicted priests in. 437; strife of
clerical parties, 460; commercial
treaty with, 570; corsequent in-
crease of exports and imports with,
ib., 571; policy of, with respect to
Italian independence, 572

progress of religious tolera-
tion in, cxxi. 440

state of the Church in, just
before the Reformation, cxxiv.
87; rapacity of the clergy, ib.:
origin of Protestantism in, 88 (see
Reformation in France); disturb-
ance of her Prussian frontiers in
1866, 285; prospects of collision

with Prussia, 286; her interests
closely allied with those of En-
gland, 295; cession of Savoy and
Nice to, ib.

France, revived study of early na-
tional literature in, cxxv. 228

effects of annual levies
on the population, cxxvi. 280:
statistics of MM. de Lavergne
and Cochut, ib.; codification of
the law in, 360; influence of
French codes on the Continent,

morcellement of land in, be-
fore the Revolution, exxviii. 296 ;
peasants' jealousy of Socialism
since 1848, 300; restrictions on
land tenures, 301; subdivision of
estates, ib.

prepared state of, for war
in 1868, cxxviii. 249; Prussian
policy of Napoleon in that year,

unprepared for war in 1866,

cxxx. 452 note

recent war with Germany,
cxxxii. 480 (see Franco-German
War); neglect of preparations,
493 (see French Army); re-
sponsible for the war, 564; per-
verse diplomacy previous thereto,
565, 570; chronic instability of
institutions in, 577; vices of the
Second Empire, 578; popular re-
sponsibility for the war, 580; signs
of pacific ideas in, ib.; declaration
of the Government of National
Defence, 582

changes effected by the
Revolution, cxxxiii. 1, 3; causes
of present calamities examined,
ib.; democratic support of Impe-
rialism, 4; institutions contrasted
with those of Prussia, 5, 7;
elective sovereignty in, 11; ex-
tinction of monarchical traditions,
12; present state of anarchy, b.;
political fall of the aristocracy, 13;
early rapacity of nobles, ib.; sub-

division of land after the Revolution, 14; consequent hatred of social inequality, ib.; want of educated proprietors, ib.; religious turning-point of, in the sixteenth century, 16; degeneracy of moral influence of the clergy, 17; want of interdependence in relations of life and property, 18; restrictions on families, 21; town and provincial democracy contrasted, 22; selfishness of small proprietors, ib.; their want of public spirit, ih.; evils of democracy aggravated by Imperialism, 24; the peasants averse to the war with Germany, 25; military demoralisation, 26; Provisional Government of National Defence, 27; fed on falsehoods during the war, ib.; Trochu and Gambetta, 28; want of a National Assembly, 29, 30; present state of, due to 1789, ib.; temporary eclipse of, lamented, ib.; her intellectual superiority on the Continent, 31; her services to England, ib.; occasional differences of foreign policy, 32; early rights of interference in the German Empire, 465; her services to Germany after the Diet of Ratisbon, 478; cessions of the three Bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun to, ib.; and of Alsace and Lorraine, 479

France, Revolution after Sedan, cxxxiv. 251; Government of the 4th September, ib.; sketch of the late Commune, ib., 254 (see Paris Commune); municipal institutions of, 255 (see France, Communal); the new Assembly at Bordeaux, 522; ratification of peace, ib.; the Government withdraws to Versailles, 537; Paris re-captured from the Commune, 563

horse-breeding in, cxxxviii.

437, 442

France, grandeur of her national history, cxl. 201; sequence of Roman history preserved by, ib., 202; Municipalities, Feudalities, and the King, 208; the Church in the middle ages, 210; ouce the centre of influence over Europe, 214; the 'hundred years'' war with England, 215; the Salique law in, ib.; feuds of Orleanists and Burgundians, 217; quinquennial census of 1872, 383; backward state of agriculture, 384; population of, in 1866, ib.; subsequent decrease, 385; increase of foreigners, ib.; decline of population in various departments, 386; statistics of births and deaths, 387; scarcity of emigration, 388; numbers of families and households, ib.; one-third totally destitute of education, 389; large number of the clerical population, 390; proportion of trades, ib.; amount of cattle and live stock, ib.; effects of the late war, ib.; social causes of decrease of population, 391; limitation of families and indifference to education due to subdivision of property, ib.; oppressive system of conscription, 392

France (Communal), cxxxiv. 250; recent works on, ib.; defects of municipal institutions, 255; despotic tendencies of armed Communes, ib.; basis of municipal law, 256; M. Raynouard's definition, ab., 257; powers of the Crown, ib. ; communes distinguished from English borough-charters, ib., 258; various classes of, ib.; conceptions of municipal liberty, 259; early Provincial Estates, ib.; communal outbreaks in the middle ages, 201 (see Paris Commune); spirit of military sedition, 264; hostility of the Crown, ib.; communes under the Revolution, 265; exorbitant

local authority fatal to their in-
dependence, 267, 268; the Reign of
Terror, ib., 273
Franchise, political, probable effect
of gold movement on,

plural voting and universal
suffrage, cxxii. 271, 272; dangers
of unlimited extension of, ib. ; not
based on theoretical rights, 273;
transfer of power to the working-
classes, 275; objections to simple
reduction, 276; the cumulative
vote, 277; mischief of plural
voting, ib.; landlord influence in
the country, 280; limits to class
representation, 281; the borough
franchise, 282; qualifications be-
fore 1832, 283; question of uni-
formity, 284

need of extension, cxxiii. 277;
two causes assigned to recent
failures, 278; argument of popu-
lar indifference refuted, 279;
present state of opinion con-
trasted with that in 1832, ib.,
280; three phases of agitation
since then, ib.; opportune time
for considering question of exten-
sion, 283; clain not founded on
existing abuses, 284; debate on
Mr. Baine's Bill, ib., 285; argu-
ments of two Liberal sections,
285; Mr. Gladstone on abstract
rights, ib.; experience of existing
constituencies, 286; examples of
America and Australia not analog-
ous, 287; working-men in Parlia-
ment, 289; extension of, favour-
able to Conservatives, 290; ques-
tion of intelligence and indepen-
dence of new electors, 291;
'lateral reform,' 292; electoral
tests, b.; proposed Commission of
Inquiry, 294; present chances of
a Reform Bill, ib.; recent electoral
statistics, 588
Francis I. (of France, 1515-1547).

his policy regarding the Reforma-

tion, cxxiv. 89; religious persecu-
tions in his reign, ib.

Francis I., sketch of, before the battle
of Pavia, cxxxii. 79; his alleged
mot disproved, ib.
Francis Joseph (Emperor of Austria,
b. 1830), his interview with Wil-
liam I. at Gastein, cxxx. 436;
his moderate reply to Bismarck's
menaces in 1866, 447

Francis (Saint, of Assisi, 1182-
1226), his veneration for writing,
cxxiv. 359
Francis (Duke of Lorraine), his
Austrian sympathies, cxii. 84; his
transfer of Lorraine to France, 85
Francis (Sir Philip, 1740-1818), his
friendship with Windham, exxiii.
566; his oratory described, 567

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Memoirs of, by Mr. Parkes,
completed by Mr. H. Merivale,
cxxvii. 166; identified with Juni-
us,' ib.; his early life, 167; private
secretary to Lord Kinnoul, 168; his
mission to Lisbon, ib. ; his exten-
sive reading, 169; becomes Pitt's
amanuensis, ib.; his marriage,
170; private secretary to Fox, ib.;
chief clerk to Mr. Welbore Ellis
at the War Office, 171; his first
connexion with polemics, ib., 172;
his contributions to the 'Public
Advertiser,' ib.; the first letter
signed 'Junius,' 173; his affec
tion for his father, 174; his wor-
ries at the War Office, 175; his in-
timacy with Calcraft, ib., 176; his
sensitive vanity and morbid energy,
ib.; his anxiety for promotion, 177;
mystery about the post of Deputy-
Secretary-of-War, 178; his hatred
of Lord Barrington, ib. ; leaves the
War Office, 179; anecdote of his
voyage to Calais, ib.; Calcraft's
legacy to him, ib.; meditates
settling in Pennsylvania, 181;
appointed member of the first
Indian Council through Lord Bar-
rington, ib.; his jealousy of the

Indian judges, 183; his hostility
to Warren Hastings, 184; his ad-
vanced views on Indian Govern-
ment, ib.; his love of cards and
gallantry, 186; his intrigue with
Mrs. Grand, 187; his grumble
and petulant sneers, 190; his
compact with Hastings on the
Mahratta war, 192; duel with
Hastings, ib.; he leaves India, ib.;
his unpopularity in England on
his return, 193; enters Parlia-
ment, ib.; his cherished hatred of
Hastings, ib.; excluded from the
prosecution, 194; his social repu-
tation in London, 195; is refused
the Governor-Generalship of India,
ib.; his intimacy with the Prince
of Wales, 196; his grievance
against Fox, ib.; he quits Parlia-
ment, 197; his domestic tender-
ness, ib.; his last production and
death, 198; claims to the author-
ship of Junius' examined, ib. ;
external evidence of time in his
favour, 200; his denials and
alarms when questioned, 202; the
secret not confided to his friends,
ib., 203; motives of his Indian ap-
pointment, ib.; evidence of spell-
ing and hand-writing in his
favour, 204; circumstantial evi-
dence pointing to his authorship,
ib., 210; his character like that
of 'Junius,' ib.; argument of his
dualism of nature, 211; Mr. Hay-
ward's adverse views, 212; general
preponderance of proof in his fa-
vour, ib.

Francisca (Pietro Della), Florentine
painter of the 15th century, cxaXV.
136, 138
Franco-German War (1870-71),

the campaign of August 1870,
cxxxii. 480; preparations on
both sides contrasted, 491, 497;
strategical conditions of, influ-
enced by the minor German
States, ib.; immediate base of the

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campaign, 498; concentration by
railways and telegraphs, ib. ; three
courses open to the French, 499;
their plan of operations, 500; the
skirmish at Forbach, 503; peril-
ous situation of the French on 3rd
August, 504; German unity of
action, ib.; superiority of the
'chassepot,' 505; dispositions of
the Prussians, ib.; their plan of
combination, 506; Douay's defeat
at Wissembourg, 508; defensive
position of acMahon, 509;
shameful retreat from Woerth,
510; French efforts at concentra-
tion, 511; Frossard forced from
Spicheren, ib.; retreat to Metz,
512; Napoleon resigns his per-
sonal command, ib.; French re-
treat on Chalons, 513; Prussian
advances into Lorraine, ib.; King
William assumes chief command,
514; Pont-à-Mousson, ib.; Mars-
la-Tour, 515; Bazaine's westward
retreat stopped, 516; German ex-
penditure of life, ib.; Bazaine
shut in Metz, ib.; subsequent
operations against MacMahon, ib.;
his flank march foiled, 517; dis-
aster of Sedan, 518; Capt. Jean-
nerod's desponding view of French
prospects, ib.; effect of, on Euro-
pean States, 555; France respon-
sible for the war, 564; previous
diplomatic controversy, 565; origi-
nal theme of quarrel, ib.; the
Hohenzollern candidature, ib.; the
Duc de Gramont's preposterous
claims thereon, 567; British medi-
ation invoked, 568; Lord Gran-
ville's remonstrance, ib.; French
plea of insult to Benedetti, 56);
British appeal to the Protocol of
the Paris Congress, ib.; infatuation
of the Ollivier ministry, ib.; Ger-
man unity of resentment against
dictation, 570; French delusions of
military superiority, 571; Belgian
neutrality, ib.; French proposals

to Denmark, 572; accommodation
for the wounded, 573; corruption
of French discipline, 581; inviola-
bility of French soil urged by the
Government of National Defence,
582; Bismarck's claims for future
security, ib.; his interview with
Jules Favre on 20th September,
583; consequences of the war on
the future of Europe, 584; adop-
tion of Prussian system discussed,
585; prospects of pacific policy in
Germany, ib. 588; position of
England, ib.

Franco-German War (1870-1871),
aversion of the French peasantry
to, cxxxiii. 25; demoralisation of
French troops, 26; the Provisional
Government of National Defence,
27, 29; collapse of the Anglo-
French Alliance, 32; superiority
of previous military training of the
Prussians, 215; use of photo-
graphy in, 351, 353; enormous
Prussian indemnity, 475; the
quarrel traced back to Louis XIV.,
477; German rights to Alsace and
Lorraine merely those of conquest,
479, 480; military works on, 545;
difficulties of present criticism
thereon, 546; previous state of the
contending parties contrasted, 547;
special causes of French defeat,
548; Prussian tactical reforms
after 1866, 549, 552; their use of
company columns, 553; skirmish
movements at Spicheren, ib.;
Capt. May's Tactical Retrospect,'
555; looseness of French battalions
in manoeuvring, 558; chief actions
not won by artillery, 559; its em-
ployment at Mars-la-Tour, 560;
at Gravelotte, 562; causes of the
disaster at Sedan, 563; German
cavalry, 566; services of the
Uhlans, 567; engineers, 571; use
of pioneers, 573; capture of French
fortresses, 574; railroads and tele-
graphs, ib.; staff systems com-

pared, 577, 579; Prussian organ-
isation, 580; Col. Borbstaedt's
excellent history, 581; superi-
ority of Moltke's strategy, 583;
errors of the French, 584; use-
lessness of later French levies, 585,
Franco-German War, news at Paris
of Bazaine's surrender, cxxxiv. 512;
French sufferings during the siege,
520; the capitulation, 521; peace
ratified by the new National As-
sembly, ib., 522; Prussian entry
into Paris, 524

enormous influence of rail-
ways in, cxxxv. 150; studies of
Austrian officers on, 151; M. An-
nenkoff's commentary, ib.; con-
veyance of German troops to the
frontier, 153; removal and sutter-
ings of the wounded, 155; Ger-
man regulation of traffic, 156;
first instance of movements di-
rected from the rear, ib.; Prussian
study of topography, 157; their
Etappen Inspektion for supplies, ib.,
159; regulations for the wounded,
160; private organisations for their
relief, ib.; duties of the Etappen
Railway Director, 161; Post-
master, ib.; and Inspector of Tele-
graphs, 162; defects of French
system of transport, 163; failure
of their Intendance, ib.; lessons
for England, 164; French defeats
on the Loire, 165

mortality of horses in,
CXxxviii. 437

its effects on the population
of France, cxl. 390
Frankfort, negotiations at, in 1814,
cxii. 246

Franklin (Benjamin, 1706-1790), his
study of his English ancestry,
cxxi. 328

his negotiations at the French
Court criticised by Sir W. Pulte-
ney, cxxv. 76

Fraser (Dr. Bishop of Manchester,

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