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Charles I. of England (1600-1649),
his conduct previous to the Grand
Remonstrance, cxii. 465; his im-
peachment of the Five Members,
480; his military precautions in
the City a measure of self-defence,
b.; menacing conduct of the mob,
481; their illtreatment of the
Bishops, 482; his attempted ar-
rest of the Five Members not a
preconcerted coup d'état, 484; evi-
dence of Madame de Motteville,
ib.; complicity of Hyde and Falk-
land 'not proven,' 485

his statue at Charing Cross,
cxv. 550

his patronage of art, cxvii.
140; his hospitality to Rubens,

his patent to the Museum
Minervæ, cxviii. 486

his speech on opening his
first Parliament, cxx. 10; his con-
flict on religion with the Com-
mons, 11: demands supplies, 12;
meets the two Houses at Oxford,
15; his first Parliament dissolved,
16, 17; protests of his second
Parliament, 17; impeachment of
Buckingham, 18; his illegal levies
of money, 19; general forced loan,
ib.; the four resolutions, 22; con-
ference of Lords and Commons,
23; trimming resolution of the
Lords, ib.; his message on the
Petition of Right, 24; his asser-
tions of Divine right, 25; his eva-
sive form of assent to the Petition
of Right, 26; Eliot's motion for a
Remonstrance, ib.; his assent re-
newed in proper form, 27; dis-
claims the doctrine of ministerial
responsibility, 33; his distraints
for tonnage and poundage, ib.

his treatment of the Church
in Scotland, cxxxiv. 114

State Papers relating to
events in 1639-41, cxxxvii. 182;
dissolution of 1640, 183; persecu-

tion of heretics, 185; Strafford and
his Irish army, 188; Declaration
of the Scotch nation, 190; the
Lords' Remonstrance, ib.; petition
of the City of London, 191; dread
of Irish papists, ib.; attempts to
screen his conduct, 193; contrition
for his guilt to Strafford, 194
Charles II. (1630-1685), his letter
to the Presbytery of Edinburgh,
cxviii. 5; restoration of Episcopacy
in Scotland, 6

his importation of foreign
mares for breeding, cxx. 139; his
'Start' from Perth, 330

tenacious respect for law at
the Restoration, exxiv. 409

tyranny of his Scottish ad-
ministration, cxxxiv. 118; at-
tempted vindication thereof, 125
easy achievement of the
Restoration, exl. 472
Charles V. (Emperor of Germany

and King of Spain, 1500-1558),
his study of Caesar's campaigns,
cxxiv. 420

his first interview with Don
Carlos, cxxvii. 4; compared with
Philip II., 16

M. Bergenroth's documents
relating to his reign, cxxxi. 357;
alleged unfilial conduct to Doña
Juana, 365

portraits of, collected by
Heemskerck, cxxxii. 69; anecdote
of The Eagle,' 73; personal
Devices of, 74; the Plus Ultra, ib.;
grandeur of his title as Emperor,
77; bodily infirmities, ib.; appear-
ance described by Marillac,
Ascham, and Cavalli, ib. 78; in-
terview with Coligny, 79; his
fame not increased by his military
talents, 84; tradition of his early
love of sports, ib. note; anecdote of,
exhumed by Sir W. S. Maxwell,
ib.; contest with the Protestant
League, 85; capture of John
Frederick of Saxony, 86; his arro-

gant use of power, 90; his abdica-
tion described, 93; contemporary
accounts thereof, 95; Spanish
ballad thereon, translated, ib.;
alleged reservation of income not
confirmed, 97; funeral rites of, 98;
monument on the Escorial, 99;
traditionary worship of his me-
mory, ib.

Charles the Bald (of France, d. 877),
his usurpations in Andorre, exiii.

his grant of hereditary count-
ships, cxxvii. 85, 87
Charles V. (of France, 1336-1380),
his surname of 'the Wise,' cxix.

M. Wolowski's eulogy of,
cxxiii. 88; his principles of cur-
rency, 89, 90

Charles VI. (of France, 1367-1422),
his lunacy and disastrous reign,
cxix. 535

Charles VII. (of France, 1402-1461)

concludes the convention of Arras,
cxix. 537; his son Louis takes
refuge with Philip of Burgundy,
538; nicknamed the Monarch of
Bourges,' 539

Charles IX. (of France, 1550-1574),
story of, at the massacre of St.
Bartholomew, cxxiv. 95; his share
in the death of Coligni, 97, 98;
his miserable last years, ib.
Charles X. (of France, 1757-1837),
his triumphal entry into Paris as
Comte d'Artois, cxxv. 324; his
graceful demeanour, 326; his
character by M. Beugnot, 328

his conduct to the Martagnac
Cabinet, cxxxv. 359
Charles I. (of Spain). See Charles V.

Charles II. (of Spain, 1661-1700),

his delicate infancy, cxxix. 14;
Regency of the Queen-Mother, 15;
interference of Don Juan, ib.;
marriage with Marie Louise
d'Orléans, 16, 20; monotony of

Court life, ib. 27; sudden death of
the Queen, 29; his torpid habits,
30; his ghastly appearance, ib.;
his sepulchral fancies, 31; his con-
duct regarding the Spanish Suc-
cession, ib.; successive degenera-
tion of his race, 33; brutal
character of the people during
his reign, 34, 37; the embebecidos,

Charles III. (of Spain, 1716-1788),
his idle and useless life described
by Mr. Eden, cxiii. 376
Charles IV. (of Spain, 1748-1808),
his court reforms at the beginning
of his reign, exiii. 377
Charles (Archduke of Austria b.
1771), his brilliant military genius,
Cxxiii. 103

Charles Emmanuel I. (of Savoy),
his attempt to surprise Geneva,
cxi. 540
Charles Edward (Prince,1720-1788),
his early promise, cxiv. 147; for-
cibly expelled from France, 149;
his connexion with Miss Walk-
ingshaw, ib.; marries the Countess
of Albany, 152; his brilliant wel-
come at Rome, 153; residence at
Florence, 154; outburst of bru-
tality to his wife, 160; her divorce
from him, 166; acknowledges his
natural daughter, 167
Charles the Bold (Duke of Burgundy,

1435-1477), the typical represen-
tative of feudalism, cxix. 530; his
disputes with his father, 539;
their reconciliation after the affair
of Rubemprè, 542; heads the
coalition against Louis XI., ib.;
recovers the towns of the Somme,
543; his campaign against Liège,
547; pillages and burns Dinant,
548; his accession to the dukedom,
549; his Joyous Entry' into
Ghent, ib.; rejects the proposals
of Louis XI., 551; retakes Liège
after a revolt, ib.; his severe pun-
ishment of that town, 552; his

treaty with Louis at Péronne, 555; his third capture of Liège, 557; his vengeance on the town, ib.; abrogates the charter of Ghent, 559; offered the title of 'King of the Romans,' ib.; overtures of Sigismund of Austria to, ib.; he renews war against Louis, 562; his dreams of empire, 563; anachronism of his career, 564; his impetuous ambition, 565; he usurps the Duchy of Gueldres, ib.; his meeting with the Emperor of Austria at Trêves, 567; his encroachments in Lorraine, ib.; takes possession of Alsace, 568; his collision with the Swiss, 569; his parliament at Malines, 570; his vengeance on the Alsatians for their revolt, 571 Charles Theodore (Elector Palatine 1724-1799), his character, cxxxvii. 541; his relations with the Papacy, ib.

Charles III. (of Lorraine, d. 1608),

his beneficent rule, cxii. 62 Charles IV. (of Lorraine, d. 1675), his character, cxii. 65; his treacherous conduct to France, 68; abdicates, 69; his bigamy, 71; returns to Lorraine, ib.; a soldier of fortune, 72; alliance with Spain, 73; cedes Lorraine and Bar to France, 75; his fall and death, 76 Charles V. (of Lorraine, d. 1690), the 'good genius' of Lorraine, cxii. 77; a candidate for the throne of Poland, 78; generalissimo of the Austrian army, ib.; his campaign against the French, 79; his premature death, 80 Charlesworth (Dr.), his claims as reformer of the insane, cxxxi. 423 Charlotte (Princess, 1796-1817), Miss Berry's description of, cxxii. 324, 325

her marriage, cxxxvi. 379; her unfilial remark on her parents, ib.; rupture of her intended Dutch

marriage, ib.; her death described by Stockmar, 381 Charlotte (Queen, d. 1818), her appearance described by Stockmar, cxxxvi, 380

accused by the Opposition of feigning a belief in the King's recovery, cxxxix. 193

Charm, the word applied to sound, cxxviii. 80

Charolais (Madame de), contrives to find a mistress for Louis XV., cxxv. 480; her dissipations at Paris, 481 note Charpentier (M.), his dilatation theory of glacier motion, cxiii. 231

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Chartists, their agitation a hindrance to electoral reform, cxxiii. 282 Chartres, the Cloaked Peace' of (1568), cxxx. 374 Chateaubriand (François Auguste,

Vicomte de, 1769-1848), his dignified resistance to Buonaparte's tyranny, cxi. 232; his friendship with Madame de Récamier, 233 Châteauroux (Duchess of, previously

Madame de la Tournelle), mistress of Louis XV., cxxv. 490; her court intrigues, 491; thwarted by Maurepas, 493; with Louis at Metz, 494; her dismissal, 495; her recall and death, 496 Chatham (William Pitt, Earl of, 1708-1778), opposes the peace of 1763, cxxvi. 13; influence of his memory, ib.; sent for to replace Grenville, 18; made Privy Seal under the Duke of Grafton, 21; his popularity in America, 40

his talents as a War Minister, exxvii. 568; his fervent patriotism,


his way of speaking described by Grattan, cxxxiii. 293 Chatillon, Conferences at, in 1814, cxii. 250

Chattanooga, battle of, brilliant

tactics of the Federals at, cxxi. 256

Chaucer(Geoffrey, 1328-1400), habits of home travel illustrated in his "Canterbury Tales,' exviii. 241

his poetic character,cxxi.298; M. Taine's translations from, 299 tales of, borrowed from Ovid, cxxv. 225; recent French editions of, 231; Thynne's Animadversions on, 251

recent editions of his text, cxxxii. 1; want of a critical and illustrative edition, ib.; his Shakspearian qualities, 2; dramatic power and happy expression, ib. ; early popularity of, 3; text of 'Canterbury Tales' still imperfect, 5; the Chaucer Society, 6; first edition by Thynne, 8; Stowe, Speight, and Urry, ib., 9; Dr. Morell, 10; rules of versification, 11; services of Tyrwhitt, 12; the Harleian MS., 13; Mr. Morris' edition thereof, 14; need of further collation, 16; comparison of Society's text, 17; emendations, 20; defective readings in Harleian text, 21; allusion to seamanship, 25; to natural science, 26; words explained, 29; his knowledge of literature, 33; need of verbal interpretation, 34; illustrated by contemporary writers, 40; phrases needing explanation, 42 Chauvelin (Germain Louis de, 16851762), his scheme of Italian independence, cxxv. 478; Fleury's jealousy of, 480; exiled, ib. Cheapen, Shakspeare's use of the verb, cxxx. 104

Cheapside, origin and early history of, cxxxi. 171

Cheer, to, early use of the word, cxi. 463

Cheltenham, insufficient water-supply of, cxxiii. 387

Cheltenham College, classical and modern departments of, cxx. 176

Chemistry, revolution in, caused by spectrum analysis, cxvi. 302 its wide functions as a science,

cxx. 489, 490

application of molecular science to, cxxx. 142

knowledge of the earth's crust derived from, cxxxi. 51; application of, to planetary science,


foundation of, as a part of physicial science, cxxxiii. 155; its vast domain, ib.; the atomic theory regarded as the modern basis of, 156; recent researches in, ib., 161; want of a single system of, 162

Chenevix (Dr.),Bishop of Waterford, his friendship with Lord Chesterfield, cxvi. 239 Cherbourg, immense naval resources of, cxiii. 298


Cherubini (Maria Luigi, 1760-1842), quarrel of Berlioz with, cxxxiii. 47 Chesney (Major G.) his Indian Polity,' exxix. 200; his able survey of Indian government, 228 Chesterfield (Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of, 1694-1773), his friendship with Dr. Chenevix,cxvi. 239

Chetham Society, the, cxxv. 233 Chevalier (Michel), his work on the Protective System, cxi. 277

on the probable fall in the value of gold, cxii. 1 ՏՂԱ limited scope of his inquiry, 4; predicts excess of gold supply, 10; and paper currency in trade, 11; underestimates retail absorption of metal, 14; fallacy of his argument on the gold price of silver, 21; on change of monetary standard in France, 27

his proposal of a monetary alliance between England and France, cxxiv. 389

his letter on the Ballot in France, cxxxi. 551

Chevreuse (Duchess, de),her hostility

to Buonaparte, cxi. 226
Chiari, battle of (1701), cxvi. 512
Chiarini (Abbé L.), his brilliant
translation of the Talmud, cxxxviii.

Child (Dr.), his experiments on spon-

taneous generation, cxxv. 405
Childers (Right Hon. Mr.), his naval
administration attacked by the
"Quarterly Review,' cxxxiii. 122;
his conduct vindicated, ib., 144.
See Admiralty, Board of

his retirement from the Cab-
inet, cxxxiv. 569
Chillingworth (William,1602-16-44),
his doctrine of religious belief,
cxxi. 442

his criticism of Infallibility,
cxxxii. 402
Chimpanzees, at the Zoological Gar-
dens, cxi. 177; short life of, 179
China, state of affairs in, on Lord
Elgin's arrival, exi. 97; practical
nullity of treaties with, 103; De
Tocqueville on the natural degra-
dation of, 105

geographical knowledge of,

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Roman Catholic missions to,
cxviii. 560

varieties of pine-trees intro-
duced from, cxx. 372

recent civil war in, cxxii.
176; abortive attempts to nullify
treaties, 180; origin of the insur-
rection, 181; loose system of
centralisation 183; choice of a
capital, 184; offer of Russian
intervention declined, ib., 185;
measures of regeneration, ib.;
steamers and railways, 186, 187;
question of standing army, 188;
need of consolidation, ib.; argu-
ment for European reforms, 189;

strong central government required,
191; rights of Europeans, 192;
position of the Taepings, 193
China, popularity of devil-worship
in, cxxix. 329; paradoxes of
Chinese character, 330; Lord
Elgin thereon, 331 note; prospects
of regeneration, 332

increased intercourse with,
cxxxiii. 176; national traditions of
self-assertion, 177; neglected study
of the people, ib. ; modern changes
not realised by them, 178; shock
to their pretensions, 179; commer-
cial importance of, undervalued,
180; Report of Shanghai Chamber
of Commerce, 181; direct trade
with England in 1868, ib., 182;
coasting trade, ib.; British and
Indian Revenue returns, 183;
distribution of exports, 184; in-
crease shown by statistics, 185;
question of the opium trade, ib.;
attempted revision of the Treaty
of Tien-tsin, 186; hindrances to
trade, 187; problem of 'pushing'
trade, 188; grievance to merchants
from excessive inland taxation,
189; merchants' demands, 190;
difficulties of foreign interference,
ib.; obstacles to material progress
come from without, 191; native
antipathy to foreigners, 192; hos-
tility of mandarins, ib., outrages
at Tien-tsin, 194; the Missionary
question, 195; proximity of Russia,
ib.; anti-foreign influences on the
Government, 196; the Burling-
hame Mission, 197; English policy
examined, 198; intervention should
be limited to protection of property
and treaty rights, 202; native
absorption of trade, ib.; question
of naval protection, 203; Tseng-
kwo-fau, ib.; Li-hung-chang, 204;
recent hostility to the French,
205; position of, compared with
Turkey, 206

introduction of Christianity,

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