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cxxxv. 23, 24; the Singanfu in-
scription, b., note

China, rarity of horses in, cxxxviii.


China (Western), routes to, cxxvii.
357; recent rising of the Mahom-
edan Dungens, 358; province of
Yunnan, 359; extinction of over-
land trade with Burmah, 364;
province of Szechuen, 365; Tufeh
robbers and rebels, 366; Colonel
Sarel's expedition, ib.; mission-
aries at Chung-king, 369; relations
with Thibet, 370; origin of the
Nepaulese embassy, 371; the Toon-
ganees or Dungens, 375; their
religious organisation, 380; terri-
tory of Ili, 381; origin of the
Dungen insurrection, ib.; the
Sarts, ib. and note; spread of the
rising, 382; Eastern Toorkistan
described, 385; establishment of
Chinese power therein, 387; resist-
ance of the Khojas, ib.; betrayal
of Jehangheer Khan, 388; ferocity
of Wulee Khan Turra, ib.; arrival
of Toonganee rebels, 389; their
massacre at Kashgar, ib.; Foɔz-
urg Khan, governor of Kashgar,
390; succeeded by Yakoob Beg,
ib.; the town lost to the Chinese,
391; struggle between the Toon-
ganees and Kokandee adventurers,
ib.; Mr. Johnson's reception at
Khoten, b.; victories of Yakoob
Kooshbegee, 392; wise neutrality
of Sir John Lawrence, 393;
prospects of British trade, 394 ;
Russian policy of observation,
395; their occupation of Eastern
Toorkistan should be no cause of
alarm, 396; probable collapse of
Chinese power, ib.

territory of Yun-nan, cxxxvii.
296; survey of Emperor Kang-hi,
ib.; reports of Jesuit missionaries,
297; natural resources, ib.; Ma-
homedan revolt of 1856, 298;
success of Tu Wên-siu, 299; ex-

plorations of Dr. Clement Williams,
300; intercourse with Burmah,
ib.; Capt. Sprye's proposed trade
route, ib.; emporium of Bhamó,
301; Major Sladen's expedition,
302; the Shans, 304; Kingdom
of Pong,' 305; Kingdom of Tay-
yay, ib.; the Koshanpyi or nine
Shan States, 306; character of
the Kakhyens, 307; government
of Bhamo, ib.; opposition to
Major Sladen, 308; interview with
the Tsaubwa of Ponline, ib.; town
of Manwyne, 311; Shan women
described by Dr. Anderson, 312;
Muang-la, 313; suspension-bridges,
314; town of Momien, b.; return
journey, 316; accession to know-
ledge from the expedition, 318;
problem of the upper waters of
the Irrawaddy, ib.; difficulties of
penetrating Thibet, 320; embassy
to England from the Sultan of
Ta-Li Fu, ib.; downfall of Pan-
thay rule, 321; appointment of a
Political Resident at Bhamô, 322;
French colony on the borders of
Siam, ib.; abandonment of French
Cochin-China, 324; expedition of
Captain de Lagrée, 325; Lieut.
Garnier, 327; feasibility of trade-
routes, 329

Chinchona, cultivation of, in India,
cxviii. 507; introduced by Mr.
Markham from Peru, 508; its
febrifuge properties known to the
Indians,, ib.; brought to Spain by
Ana, Countess of Chinchon, 509;
called after her by Linnæus, ib.;
the French expedition of 1735, ib.;
expedition of MM. Ruiz and
Pavon, 510; species of, enumera-
ted in the 'Nueva quinologia,' ib. ;
its medicinal merits compared
with quinine, 511 and note; dis-
covery of chinchonidine, ib.;
neglect of, in Peru by the Spanish
Government, ib.; mission of Dr.
Weddell, 512; efforts of the

Dutch, ib. and note; introduction into India recommended by Dr. Royle, 513 (see Markham, Clements); the Chinchona Succirubra in Ecuador, 515; the Greybarks in Northern Peru, 516; the Chinchona Condaminea brought from Loxa, ib.; its successful cultivation at Ostacamund, 517, 518; first bark sent from India to England by Mr. Howard, 519; its cultivation at Kew, 520; and in Ceylon, ib.

Chinese Tartary, description of, cxxv. 34; nominal rule of the Chinese in, ib.

Chinese, their bad faith respecting

treaties, cxi. 103; their filthy habits contrasted with those of the Japanese, 108

their fondness for secret societies, cxvi. 407

their jealous preservation of writings, cxxiv. 358; respect for autographs, 359; importance attached to handwriting, 360; their style of painting, ib.

immigration of, to Australia, cxxix. 468

Chladni (1756-1827), his theory of meteoric light, cxxv. 264

his optical exhibition of the vibrations of sound, cxxvii. 117, 118

Chlorine, absorption of heat by, CXXX. 145

Chloroform, use of, as an anæsthetic, cxxxvi. 490

Choiseul-Amboise (Étienne François, Duke de, 1719-1785), brought into the Ministry by Madame de Pompadour, cxxv. 507; his administration, ib.; influence Over the King, 509; his dismissal, 510 Choke-damp, origin of, cxvii. 415 Cholera, outbreak in Arabia in 1854, cxxii. 513

epidemic of 1853–4 in London, cxxiii. 406; effects of sewage

pollution on, ib. 407; the Broad Street pump, 420

Cholera, its contagion explained, cxxxvi. 234, 235

Chorizontes, ancient school of Homeric critics, cxxxiii. 360; their arguments of dual authorship examined, ib. 398. See Homer Christ (Jesus), uninspired materials for the history of, cxix. 580; M. Rénan's conception of, 595; conclusive Scriptural evidence of the Resurrection, 601

His Person the central figure in Christian art, cxx. 94, 99; Catholic tradition of His falling beneath the weight of the Cross, 101; unreality of patriarchal types of, 102; paintings of incidents in the life of, 108; the Crucifixion a favourite theme for painters, 109; His figure in Leonardo da Vinci's 'Last Supper,' 111

Byzantine representation of, cxxi. 471

alleged letter of, to Abgar, Prince of Edessa, cxxiv. 347; account by Procopius, ib.; copies of the letter, ib.; the supposed letter of Lentulus, giving His portrait, ib., 348; opinions of the early Fathers as to His personal appearance, 349; ancient representations of, ib.; recent Lives of, 450; difficulty of presenting His human life in an historical shape, 451; His baptism by John, 458; His Galilæan ministry, ib. 459; viewed as the Incarnation of Divine Reason, 462; His veracity the strongest proof of miracles, 470; His character and ministry in Ecce Homo,' ib. 475

narrative respecting, in the Apocryphal Gospels, cxxviii. 95; Greek legend of His descent into Hell, 99

legends of His later appearance on earth, cxxxvi. 272, 279

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heathenism under Constantine,
cxi. 435. See Church, Early
formed a new epoch in in-
ternational law, cxii. 398

influence of, on monasticism,
cxiv. 324; Latin and Teutonic,
contrasted, 345

best appreciated by a study
of other religions, cxv. 379

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its spread ascribed by
Gibbon to natural causes, cxvi.

described by M. Salvador as
a compromise between Mono-
theism and Heathenism, cxvii.
200, 205; its relations with mo-
dern Judaism, 203

preparation of the world for,
cxix. 158; its relations with Mo-
saic revelation, 164

ascetic idea of the efficacy of
physical pain, cxx. 108; Mr. Glad-
stone on the ancillary relation of
the classics to, 163

supernatural basis of, cxxi.
431; M. Guizot's Meditations on,
553; exaggerated dangers of mo-
dern scepticism, 562

Asiatic conceptions of, exxii.
178; view of, by the Roman em-
perors, 179

early failure of, in Arabia,
cxxiv. 13; its truth essentially an
ethical question, 455; its reception
prepared by history, 457; futile
substitution of Reason for, 461,

the assault renewed by means
of the Imagination, ib. (see
Rénan, Ernest); authority of the
Gospel narrative, 464, 465; moral
aspect of, in 'Ecce Homo,' 468;
Faith considered as a test of, 473

Christianity, its ennobling conception
of morality, cxxx. 42; Mr. Lecky's
views of, 46; its regeneration of
society, 50; its influence on the
relations of the sexes, 54

Apostolic controversies re-

specting, cxxxi. 492

effects of Roman superstition
on, during the first three centuries,
cxxxvi. 276

modern tendencies to apos-
tasy from, exxxviii. 556, 569

struggle between Petrine
and Pauline elements in, cxl. 495
Christian Art, oldest remains of,
cxxii. 81; wall-paintings in Cat-
acombs, ib.; mosaics in basilicas,
82; old Italian sculptures, 83;
craving for reality in the Floren-
tine school, 88
Christian inscriptions, discovery of,
in the Roman Catacombs, cxx.
219; early study of, 220; MSS. at
Einsiedeln and Kloster-Neuberg,
ib.; collection by Pietro Sabini
chiefly medieval, ib. 221; Aldo
Manuzio the younger, 221; loss of
Boldetti's manuscript on,223; other
epigraphists, ib.; polemical clas-
sification of, by Zaccaria and Den-
zetta, 224; labours of Marini, ib.,
225; historical importance of fixing
dates of, 227 (see Rossi, J. Bapt.
de); earliest specimen of, coeval
with Vespasian, ib. ; fragment with
monogram usually ascribed to Con-
stantine, 228; Rossi's hypothesis of
the earlier date of the monogram,
229; use of dates in, ib., 230;
tests for determining undated epi-
taphs, 230; specimens of, in Gaul,
231 (see Blant, M. Edmond de);
rare use of Greek on Roman epi-
taphs, 232; Latin solecisms, 234,
235; disuse of the Roman 'three
names on, 235, 236; fanciful
epitaphs, 237-239; proportion of
Christian soldiers at Rome, 239;
rare allusions to slaves or freedmen

explained, 240; exceptions to gen-
eral simplicity of, 241; the ex-
pression Ancilla Dei,' ib.; hopeful
spirit of, compared with pagan
epitaphs, 242, 243; importance of
further research, 249
Christian Sculpture. See Sculpture,

Christian VII. (King of Denmark,
1719-1775), description of, at his
accession, cxxiii. 494; repugnance
to his marriage with Matilda, 495 ;
symptoms of insanity, 497, 498;
his visit to Hanau, 499; Walpole's
description of him in England, ib.
Chromo-lithography, progress of the
art of, cxxv. 186 note
Chronology, method of, in ancient
Rome, cxx. 227

Chrysoberyl, or 'oriental chrysolite,'
exxiv. 243; specimens of, ib.
Chrysolite, the mineral described,
cxxiv. 246

Chrysoloras (Manuel, d. 1414), his
arrival at Florence, cxxxvi. 119;
his Greek lectures, 120
Chrysostom (John, Saint, d. 407),
his intercession for Eutropius, cxxi.

Church of England, position of, in
Australia, cxiii. 4; prospects of
religious thought in, 497

Clerical Subscription in, cxv.
577; origin of present regulations
thereon, 582; not obligatory at
first, 585; Elizabeth's Second Act
of Uniformity, 586; burdens im-
posed by Whitgift, 591; declaration
of voluntary assent superadded,
598; the Etcetera Oath, 597; strin-
gency of the Act of 1662, 599;
treatment of devotional forms as
doctrine, 603; form of assent should
be deferential, 606

its outward characteristics of
supremacy, cxviii. 564; those ad-
vantages absent in the Colonies,
505 (see Colonial Episcopate);

legal status of, compared with
Dissenters, 572

Church of England, the 'Vow' re-
solution in the Commons, cxx. 32;
union of civil and ecclesiastical
powers represented by, 287; doc-
trine of eternal punishment in,292-
296; Article on Justification by
Faith, 297; prospects of union, 307
doctrine of the Crown's su-
premacy, cxxi. 153; paramount
authority of the law, 154; theory
of interpretation opposed to that
of Rome, ib.; on the Decrees of
General Councils, 156 note; its
relations with the Common Law,
157; arbitrary tendencies of recent
clerical claims, 158; on the Mil-
lenarian doctrine and eternal pun-
ishment, 159; statute authority
of the Crown, 166 (see Ecclesiasti-
cal Courts); validity of lay-baptism
in, 172 note; duty of clergymen
to obey the law, 179; present
religious crisis in, 574; evils of
doctrinal litigation, 576; its mis-
sion to defend Christianity, 578

official neglect of theology

in, cxxii. 104

its status under Elizabeth,
cxxiii. 147, 148

its alleged latitudinarianism
under Elizabeth, cxxiv. 499, 500

its traditions violated by the
'Ritualists,' cxxv. 461; doctrine
of its identity with the State, ib.;
absurd scheme of a 'Free National
Council,' 463

opportunities of reconciliation
by the Ritual Commission, cxxvi.
504; reforms proposed for laity
and clergy, 505-518; the parochial
system, 520; shortcomings of the
clergy, 521. See Rubric, Anglican

fixity of her position since
Establishment, cxxviii. 251; liberal
principles needed to combat exist-
ing dangers, 252; its educational
functions, ib.; arbitrary principles

of Tudors and Stuarts, 253; change
to religious liberty, ib., 254; fal-
lacies as to Establishment, ib.;
the theological argument exposed,
ib.; broad principles of Sir G.
Lewis, 255; viewed as a positive
institution, 256; rival theories of
Hooker and Chalmers on Estab-
lishments, ib.; nature of Church
property,257; national endowments
not the essential idea of Establish-
ment, 258; imperfect definitions
of Paley and Sir G. Lewis, ib.;
Establishment inseparable from
the idea of law, 259; supremacy
of the civil power at the Reform-
ation, 260; authority of the Crown,
261; spiritual pretensions of the
High Church party, 262; Presby-
terian scheme of the Westminster
Assembly, 266; Parliamentary
control over, retained by Cromwell,
ib.; Episcopal intolerance of dis-
sent after 1688, 267; disabilities
of Dissenters removed by Parlia-
ment, ib.; civil authority over
Ritualists, 268; advantages of
State connexion, 269; spiritual
peers, 271; legal principles of,
violated in the Colonies, 274;
latitude of theological opinion in,
ib.; is the bulwark of Protest-
antism in Europe, 275; she owes
her position to her legal character,
276; is the basis of the parochial
system, ib.; extra-legal meaning
of Disestablishment, ib.; endow-
ments not touched thereby, 278;
its boundaries as a National Church
should be enlarged, 285; recent
wise legislation, 286
Church of England, services of
Nonconformists to, cxxxiii. 408;
theories of Liberationists cri-
ticised, 410, 411; importance of
the Purchas and Voysey judg-
ments, 412; impartial spirit of
recent legislation, 413; growing
liberality and expansiveness in,

415; stir for reform among parties
in, 417; advances to Dissenters,
418; alleged tendencies to Dises-
tablishment, 420; deteriorating
effects thereof, ib. ; doctrinal causes
of secession from, 422; prospects
of federal union, 425
Church of England, moderate spirit
of compromise at the Reformation,
cxxxiv. 111, 112

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lifeless state of, in the last
century, cxxxv. 66; relations of,
with the Conservative party, 252;
its duration as an Establishment
depends on public opinion, 253;
Mr. Miall's recent motion for Dis-
establishment, 367; future import-
ance of the question in politics,
ib.; reticence of Nonconformists
as to Disendowment, ib.; their
ground of objection to Estab-
lishment, 369; fundamental legal
character of, ib.; the congé d'élire,
370; result of Disestablishment,
ib.; representatives of various par-
ties in, 373; advantages of legal
discipline in, ib.; reforms needed
in Church revenues, 375; value
of Episcopal life-peerages, 376;
evils of a congregational system,
377; former pictures of the paro-
chial clergy, 378; galloping
' ib. note; satires thereon
now obsolete, 380; devotion and
energy of present clergy, 381;
their status and usefulness would
be destroyed by Disestablishment,
disendowment would follow
of necessity, 383; Irish parallel
examined, 385; the country not
ripe for the congregational system,
386; argument of social inequalities
of Dissenters, 388-390; Disestab-
lishment not the proper remedy,
ib.; fallacies on Church and State,
391; progress of voluntary endow-
ment, 393; recent agitation due
to soreness of feeling, ib.

the Lutheran doctrine of the

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