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Prehnite from Silesia. By A. BEUTELL (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, 1, Mem., 89-94).-1. Prehnite from Striegau.-Prehnite has recently been found in the granite of Striegau. Analysis gave the following

results:

SiO3. Al2O3. Feg03. CaO. Loss on ignition. Total.
43.29 25.58 trace 26.36

4.77

100.00

These results correspond with the formula Si3O12Ca2Al2H2. The mineral usually occurs in the form of compact masses, isolated crystals being occasionally met with. Thin sections under the microscope present the optical anomalies observed by Des Cloizeaux and Mallard in the prehnites of Connecticut and Arendal.

2. Prehnite from Jordansmühl.-An analysis of prehnite from Jordansmühl has been published by B. Schubert (Abstr., 1883, 35). To this the author now adds the results of an exhaustive crystallographical and optical investigation. The axial ratio he finds to be abc08420: 1: 1·1272.

B. H. B.

Porphyry from Horka in Prussia. By V. STEGER (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, 1, Ref., 42). — The porphyry occurring at Horka in Prussian Upper Lausitz exhibits a grey to dirty yellow ground-mass, containing numerous reddish-brown, small crystals of orthoclase and white crystals of oligoclase. Quartz occurs but rarely. As accessory constituents, the rock contains hornblende and sillimanite. Analysis gave the following results :

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In chemical composition, the Horka porphyry resembles most closely that from Vetakollen and Tyveholmen, near Christiania. It differs from these, however, in its percentage of phosphoric anhydride. B. H. B.

Analyses of Persian Eruptive Rocks. By E. DRASCHE (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, 1, Ref., 65-66).-No. 1. Augite andesite, from the Elburs, near Bumehin, containing plagioclase and augite in a reddishbrown ground-mass. No. 2. Olivine diabase from the same locality; pale brown augite forming small irregular patches between plagioclase needles. The olivine is for the most part altered. No. 3. Plagioclase basalt from Bumehin, exhibiting a porphyritic structure; augite, plagioclase, magnetite, and iron-glance, occurring in a colourless magma. The olivine originally present is entirely decomposed. No. 4. Black rock from Tschemerin Kuschkek, appearing under the microscope as a compact mass containing numerous granules, in which plagioclase, a chloritic mineral, and apatite have separated out.

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Investigations on Ore-veins. By F. SANDBERGER (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, 1, Mem., 111-113).-To complete his investigations on ore-veins, the author has collected pure material in quantity sufficient to enable a dry silver assay to be made of the silicates. The substances employed did not contain a trace of intermixed sulphides. The mica from the gneiss of Schapbach was found to contain 0·001 per cent. of silver, and the augite from the granular diabase of St. Andreasberg in the Harz also contained 0·001 per cent. of silver. Nine years ago the author proved that lead, antimony, zinc, cobalt, copper, nickel, and arsenic were present in this augite. Consequently the elements of all the Andreasberg ores are shown to be present in it. B. H. B.

Recent Alluvial Deposits in the Ij and the Zuyder Zee. By J. M. VAN BEMMELEN (Rec. Trav. Chim., 5, 199-218).—In this paper, analyses are given of the recent deposits of eminently fertile clay in the Zuyder Zee and Ij, with especial reference to the proportion of chlorides, sulphates, magnesiam and calcium carbonates, and phosphoric acid, together with the composition of the silicates. In some localities, there was a considerable accumulation of iron pyrites, especially on the small ancient islands, along the banks of lakes of brackish water, and in the soil in which plants have taken root and formed deposits of turf. The chemical changes which lead to this accumulation, consists in the simultaneous reduction of ferric oxide and sulphuric acid, accompanied by a slow disappearance of calcium carbonate. The ferrous sulphide thus formed is converted into pyrites as Bunsen has previously explained. Analyses of certain clays showed from 2 to 5 per cent. of pyrites. When these clays are dried and exposed to the action of the air, a contrary action takes place, the pyrites being reconverted into ferric sulphate, which is deposited in the form of a bright yellow, amorphous mould, this being ultimately converted by rain into a very basic insoluble sulphate. The paper is illustrated by numerous analytical results.

V. H. V.

Mineral Waters from Java. By S. MEUNIER (Compt. rend., 103, 1205-1207).-Three springs from Kapouran, near Boghor, in the kingdom of Konripan, were examined. The waters were found to contain the following proportions of solid matter in grams per

litre-Great Green Spring, 15.87; Hot Spring, 27·00; High Platform Spring, 28-78.

The relative proportions of the constituents are practically the same in all three springs:

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The portion of the residue insoluble in water consists of minute crystals of calcium magnesium carbonate, resembling those of dolomite.

These springs are characterised by the absence of carbonates and the presence of a large proportion of calcium chloride. They belong to a hydrological group, representatives of which are found in the Cauquenès, Chili; Tinguiririca, Peru; Savu Savu, in the Fiji Islands; Berg Giefshubel, Saxony; and Pitkeathly, Scotland.

C. H. B.

Organic Chemistry.

Russian Petroleum. By J. A. LE BEL (Compt. rend., 103, 1017 -1019).—It is well known that American petroleum consists mainly of paraffins, whilst Bakû petroleum consists mainly of naphthenes, CH2, and naphthylenes, CH-2. Boussingault has shown that Alsatian petroleum contains other hydrocarbons.

At Tiflis, a petroleum is obtained with a composition similar to that of the American oil, and in the Crimea heavy and light petroleums are obtained from neighbouring strata. The following table gives the sp. gr. of corresponding fractions of oil from different

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0.89

Tschungnelek (Crimea) .. 235-245

The Crimean oil contains 87-4 per cent. of carbon and 12.5 per cent. of hydrogen. The differences in sp. gr. are greater than the differences in the amount of carbon, and these differences do not remain constant when the more volatile fractions are examined:

:

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The more volatile fractions of the Crimean oil are very similar to the corresponding fractions of the oil from Bakû, and differences only become evident with the fractions boiling above 150°. The sp. gr. of the Russian oils agrees with that of toluene hydride, with which Beilstein and Kurbatow regard them as identical. It may also be supposed that the Russian oil contains naphthenes belonging to the trimethylene series; in this case it should contain a term CH10, boiling at 30-35°, with a sp. gr. about 0·04 higher than that of the corresponding fraction of American oil. If, on the other hand, these. naphthenes are hydrides of the benzene series, the first term would be CH12, boiling at 70°.

It is found that fractions of Bakû oil boiling at 30-35° have a sp. gr. which agrees closely with that of the same fraction of American oil, and also with that of pentane boiling at 30°. The differences only become evident with the fractions above 60°, and it may be taken that the Russian oils boiling above 60° contain no naphthenes, a result which confirms Beilstein and Kurbatow's conclusion as to their identity with the benzene hydrides.

C. H. B.

Action of Heat on Ethylene. By L. M. NORTON and A. A. NOYES (Amer. Chem. J., 8, 362-364; compare Abstr., 1886, 604 and 781). Ethylene was slowly passed through a hard glass tube heated to dull redness, the escaping gases passed through condensing tubes, ammoniacal cuprous chloride and bromine, samples of the gases being ultimately collected. After a month, 15 c.c. of liquid had been condensed, and was found to contain benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene; only a very slight precipitate was formed in the cuprous solution. There were about 300 grams of bromides of unsaturated hydrocarbons, consisting largely of ethylene bromide; but methylene, propylene, and butylene bromides were also present, as well as a solid bromide.

The solid bromide is identical in composition and properties with the crotonylene tetrabromide obtained from coal-gas, from crotonylene from erythrol and from oil-gas, it is, therefore, divinyl, CH: CH CH:CH2. The escaping gases consisted of methane and ethane. The author believes that the aromatic hydrocarbons are formed directly from the ethylene without the intermediate formation of acetylene. H. B.

Reaction of Organic Bisulphides and Bisulphoxides with Potassium Sulphide. By R. OTTO and A. RÖSSING (Ber., 19, 3129 -3132). When the bisulphides of ethyl, amyl, phenyl, paratolyl, or benzyl are treated with potassium sulphide in alcoholic solution, they are converted into the corresponding mercaptides according to the

equation X2S2 + 2K2S = 2XSK + K2S2, the reaction thus seeming to be general for organic sulphides.

Potassium bisulphide seems to be without action on these bisulphides.

In like manner the thiosulphonates of the general formula RSO, SR are decomposed by potassium sulphide into the potassium salts of the thiosulphonic acids and potassium mercaptides.

In a foot-note, the following boiling points are given:-Paratoluene hydrosulphide 190-2-191.7°. Paratoluene bisulphide begins to boil at 307° (thermometer in liquid), but is in great part decomposed during the distillation. Phenyl bisulphide begins to boil at 320°, but is also in great part decomposed on distillation.

A. J. G. Action of Alcohols on Aurophosphorous Chloride, By L. LINDET (Compt. rend., 103, 1014-1017),-Triethyl chloraurophosphite, Et PAUCIO,, is obtained by allowing absolute alcohol to drop on a mixture of dry aurous chloride and phosphorus, both of which are immediately dissolved. The product is mixed with water, and the insoluble, oily ethereal salt is separated, Ethyl phosphite dissolves aurous chloride, and yields an oil identical in appearance with triethyl chloraurophosphite, but the product could not be purified. The ethereal salt is also obtained by dissolving aurous chloride in a solution of ethyl phosphite in alcohol, prepared by Railton's method of allowing phosphorus trichloride to drop into a large excess of absolute alcohol.

Triethyl chloraurophosphite is a liquid which solidifies to a white, crystalline mass at about -10°. It is not volatile, and is stable when exposed to air at the ordinary temperature, but begins to decompose at 100°; sp, gr, = 2025. It is insoluble in water, but dissolves in alcohol, ether and benzene. Ammonia dissolves it readily, with formation of the compound Et,PAuCIO, + 2NH,, which is obtained in somewhat deliquescent leaflets by evaporating the ammoniacal solution at 40°. This compound dissolves in water, and when the solution is acidified the ethereal salt is precipitated. Triethyl chloraurophosphite also dissolves in potassium hydroxide solution, and is reprecipitated on adding an acid. If the solution is concentrated on the water-bath, or in a vacuum at the ordinary temperature, the ethereal salt separates as an oil mixed with crystals of potassium hydroxide, but both dissolve on addition of water. 100°, potassium chloride and potassium aurite are formed, but the ethereal salt is not completely decomposed unless evaporated to complete dryness in presence of excess of potassium hydroxide. Under these conditions, gold separates in the metallic state.

Propyl, butyl, and amyl alcohols yield similar products.

At

Trimethyl chloraurophosphite, Me,PAuCIO,, is obtained by the action. of pure methyl alcohol on aurous chloride and phosphorus. It forms slender, colourless needles, which melt at 100-101°, alter slightly when exposed to air, and do not volatilise without decomposition. It is insoluble in water, and is somewhat less soluble than the ethylcompound in alcohol, ether and benzene. It also dissolves in methy C. H. B.

alcohol.

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