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whilst that from Drammen (I) and that from Vettakollen (III) must be regarded as products altered by the eruption. In the typical rock, albite-oligoclase-perthite predominates; in the Vettakollen rock the plagioclases of the first generation, which were absent in the typical rock, also occur; whilst in the Drammen rock the albite-microcline and orthoclase-albite-perthites prevail.

Seeing that the Christiania prædacite has hitherto been erroneously regarded as an orthoclase-quartz rock, the interesting question arises whether orthoclase-quartz rocks, in which potash felspars are in excess of soda felspars, are altogether absent from the eruptive rocks of the Silurian basin of Christiania. No analysis of the Drammen porphyry has hitherto been published. That given below (analysis IV), together with the results of the microscopical examination, prove the porphyry to be a true potash-felspar rock. The percentage of the constituents of the rock calculated from analysis is as follows:-Orthoclase 42, albite 20, quartz 34, chlorite 2, iron pyrites 0.7, zircon 0'5, titaniferous iron ore 0.3.

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Eruptive Rocks from Krzeszowice, near Cracow. By R. ZUBER (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, 1, Ref., 277-279).-The rocks are divided into two groups according to their petrographical character -syenite-porphyry, and melaphyre. The Zalas rock (analysis I) the author regards as syenite-porphyry. In this rock orthoclase occurs with plagioclase and biotite in a ground-mass of felspar, biotite, and hornblende. Near the surface the rock assumes a reddish colour, secondary quartz, hæmatite, and limonite occurring (analysis II). The dark-red rock occurring at Mienkinia, hitherto regarded as felsiteporphyry, is found by the author to be syenite-porphyry (analysis III). All the remaining eruptive rocks of the district are stated to be melaphyres. The rocks are sometimes compact, sometimes amygdaloidal. They consist of plagioclase, orthoclase, augite, and magnetite. Analyses are given of the rocks from Tenezyn (IV) and from Poçeba (V).

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Japanese Rocks. By B. Korô (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, 1, Ref., 285 -287). The author gives the results of a microscopic examination of various rocks collected in the provinces of Izu, Kai, and Kozuke. Analyses are given of the labradorite and pyroxene from the pyroxeneandesite of Tokio, plagioclase-basalt from Funabara, diabase from Hinazura Poss, Kai, pyroxene-andesites from Izu-San, Amagin-San, and Miôgi-San (Kozuke) (compare Jour. Geol. Soc., 40, 431-457).

B. H. B.

The Mazapil Meteoric Iron. By W. E. HIDDEN (Amer. J. Sci., 33, 221–226).-Only eight meteoric irons are recorded as having been seen to fall. To this short list the author adds a ninth. This meteorite was seen to fall near Mazapil, in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico, at 9 P.M. on November 27, 1885, during the periodical star shower of the Bielids. When received by the author, the meteorite weighed 3950 grams. Its present weight is 3864 grams. It is a flat irregular mass, having a smooth surface covered with deep depressions. Its greatest length is 175 mm., and its greatest width is 60 mm. The lines of crystalline structure are somewhat similar to those of the Rowton iron, and very unlike the Mexican irons. In appearance, the mass bears a remarkable resemblance to the Hraschina, Agram iron. An analysis of a small fragment of the new meteorite gave the following results:--

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Meteorites from Kentucky and Mexico. By G. F. KUNZ (Amer. J. Sci., 33, 228-235).-The author describes two new meteorites from Carroll Co., Kentucky, and Catorze, Mexico. The mass from Carroll Co. is especially interesting because it probably belongs to the same fall as the meteoric iron found on the altars of the Turner mounds, Little Miami Valley, Ohio. The Carroll Co. meteorite was found in 1880 at Eagle Station, about 60 miles from the mounds where Putnam found the meteoric iron and the ornaments made from it. The mass, which weighs 80 lbs., is almost square, measuring 19 cm. in thickness, 22 cm. in width, and 29 cm. in length. All the original crust has disappeared. The mass is largely made up

of fine yellow transparent olivine, resembling closely that of the Pallas iron. The meteorite belongs to the siderolites of Daubrée and to the pallasite-group. Its sp. gr. was found to be 441; the meteorite, like the Turner's mound and Atacama meteorites, consisting of three parts of olivine to one of iron. Analysis of the olivine gave the following results:

SiO2. 37.90

MgO. 41.65

FeO. 19.66

MnO + CoO. Total.
0.42
99.63

The metallic portion gave on analysis the following results:

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The balance is oxygen in the form of iron oxide, and undetermined constituents.

The Catorze mass, weighing 92 lbs., was found by a miner near Catorze, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, in 1885. It is 315 cm. long, 34.5 cm. wide, and 20 cm. thick. The iron belongs to Meunier's caillite-group, and shows the Widmanstätten lines very clearly. The sp. gr. was found to be 7-509. Analysis gave the following results:Scale insoluble in HNO3. 0.69

Fe. 90.09

Ni + Co.

P.

9.07

0.24

Total.

100.00

B. H. B.

:

Organic Chemistry.

Action of Heat on Heptine. By A. RENARD (Compt. rend., 104. 574-576).-Heptine, C-H12, boiling at 103-105° was allowed to fall drop by drop into an iron tube which was heated to incipient redness, and was connected at the opposite end with a condensing arrangement. The products are a considerable volume of hydrogen mixed with a small quantity of gaseous hydrocarbons, a small quantity of carbon, and a large proportion of a brownish-yellow liquid which contains a small quantity of pentine, a large proportion of hexine, a small proportion of benzene, and a much larger proportion of toluene. This liquid also contains a considerable fraction boiling above 115°, about half of which boils between 115° and 180°, leaving a viscous residue which is solid at ordinary temperatures. This fraction has not been examined in detail, but it contains no hydrocarbons of the benzene series.

The pentine is either identical or isomeric with the pentine obtained by Greville Williams by the distillation of caoutchouc, or by Tilden in the pyrogenation of terebenthene.

Hexine, CH10, the lower homologue of heptine, boils at 70-73°, and is soluble in alcohol, ether, and acetic acid; vapour-density, 2.97. It

rapidly absorbs oxygen, but exerts no action on ammoniacal cuprous chloride or ammonio-silver nitrate. It is violently attacked by bromine with evolution of hydrogen bromide, but if its ethereal solution is treated with bromine it yields the additive product C&HBr2, which after the evaporation of the ether forms a heavy oil, but soon decomposes with evolution of hydrogen bromide. Ordinary nitric acid attacks the hydrocarbon violently, but acid of sp. gr. 115 acts more gradually with evolution of carbonic oxide and carbonic anhydride, but no nitrogen oxides, and formation of a solution of formic, acetic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Gaseous hydrogen chloride produces a deep blue coloration. Hexine does not, like heptine, form a crystallisable hydrate with water. In contact with sulphuric acid, it polymerises with development of heat, and when the supernatant layer is distilled it yields dihexine, C12H20, a colourless liquid which boils at 210-215°, does not alter in contact with the air, and is not attacked by sulphuric acid.

The principal products of the action of heat on heptine are hydrogen and toluene, together with smaller proportions of the lower homologues of heptine, pentine, and hexine. The benzene is doubtless a product of the decomposition of some of the hexine. C. H. B.

Bismuth Thiocyanate. By G. BENDER (Ber., 20, 723-726).Bismuth thiocyanate, Bi(CNS), is prepared by treating bismuth hydroxide with very dilute hydrogen thiocyanate solution (sp. gr. = 1006). The solution takes place very slowly, and a small quantity of a yellow substance separates, probably consisting of basic salts (Meitzendorf (Ann. Phys. Chem., 56, 63). The product is evaporated in a water-bath, when a red, amorphous substance separates; on cooling, pure bismuth thiocyanate separates in aggregates of rather large crystals mostly of a bright-orange colour, but also partly ambercoloured. The crystals are rhombic; a b c = 0·76134: 1:0·28423. It is decomposed by cold water into a yellow, amorphous substance and a red solution; when heated at 80°, it also decomposes. Cold nitric acid dissolves it with a red colour; in a short time an evolution of gas takes place, and a clear solution is formed containing all the sulphur in the form of sulphuric acid. N. H. M.

Action of Potassium Permanganate on Dextrose in Neutral Solution. By A. SMOLKA (Monatsh. Chem., 8, 1-26).—When dextrose is boiled with excess of potassium permanganate, it is completely oxidised to water and carbonic anhydride with separation of a potassium hydromanganite, KH,MnO10- With excess of permanganate in the cold the action is the same, a trace of oxalic acid, however, being also formed.

By successively decreasing the amount of potassium permanganate, and allowing the action to take place at the ordinary temperature, there are obtained, in addition to water and carbonic anhydride, oxalic acid and formic acid, or the two latter alone, and a quantity of dextrose remains unaltered, depending on the amount of oxidising agent employed. The permanganate is reduced, partly to manganic, and partly to manganous oxide. The relative amounts of the products

of oxidation are variable even with the same proportions of dextrose and permanganate, and appear to be dependent on the temperature and concentration of the solutions. G. H. M.

Compounds of Phenylhydrazine with the Sugars. By E. FISCHER (Ber., 20, 821-834).-Previous experiments by the author have shown that those sugars which reduce Fehling's solution combine with phenylhydrazine to form crystalline compounds sparingly soluble in water (Abstr., 1885, 53). Thus dextrose or lævulose reacts with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride in presence of sodium acetate to form phenylglucosazone, CHO.(N2HPh), a change probably to be explained by the intermediate formation of a dextrose (or lævulose) phenylhydrazine, which reacts with two molecules of phenylhydrazine to form phenylglucazone, thus: (1) CeH2O + PhÑ2H2 = CH12O,N2HPh +H2O; and (2) CH12ON2HPh + 2PbN2H1 = CHO(N,HPh) + NH,Ph + NH3 + H,O. The intermediate dextrose phenylhydrazine forms small, colourless crystals melting at 144-145°, soluble in hot water and alcohol, insoluble in chloroform and benzene. It is decomposed by acids into the hydrazine and dextrose together with humous substances; on reduction with zinc-dust and acetic acid, it yields aniline and a basic substance to be described later.

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Similarly galactose forms galactose phenylhydrazine, crystallising in colourless needles melting at 158° (uncorr.), and phenylgalactosazone melting at 193-194°, and not at 182° as stated formerly.

Phenylsorbinazone, from sorbin and phenylhydrazine, crystallises in yellow needles melting at 164°; it was formerly described as a liquid. Phenyllactosazone differs from the above azones by its greater solubility in hot water; it is insoluble in ether and benzene. In the course of its formation its anhydride, CH,N,Os, is also obtained; this crystallises in yellow needles melting at 223-224°, insoluble in water, ether, and benzene.

Phenylmaltosazone crystallises in yellow needles sparingly soluble in water, more readily in alcohol.

It is further shown by means of the phenylhydrazine reaction that one of the products of the oxidation of mannitol with nitric acid, namely mannitose, is identical with lævulose, thus confirming Dafert's experiments. The other product combines with the hydr azine to form a substance, C12H18N2O5, melting at 188°, isomeric with dextrose phenylhydrazine, from which it is distinguished by its more sparing solubility in water.

In conclusion, it is remarked that a more precise definition of the word sugar is required, for in the text-books substances of the general formula C6H12O6 are classed together, all possessing to a greater or less degree the common property of sweetness, yet differing most markedly in their chemical behaviour. V. H. V.

Action of Nitric Acid on Sugar. By E. MAUMENÉ (Compt. rend., 104, 511).—Boutroux's failure to obtain hexepic acid was due to the employment of too small a quantity of nitric acid. Hexepic acid is absolutely identical with oxygluconic acid. C. H. B.

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