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Dipyr from Connecticut. By A. ARZRUNI (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, ii, Ref., 9-10).-The author describes some crystals of dipyr from Canaan, Connecticut, presented to the University of Breslau by A. D. Roe. The crystals average 2 cm. long and 1 cm. thick. They are sometimes colourless and transparent, sometimes grey. The crystals-forms observed are coP∞, ∞P, P. The edges and angles are rounded. The axial ratio is a c 1: 0·4401, being that of meionite. The mineral exhibits a faint basal cleavage. There is no distinct prismatic cleavage as is usually stated in works on mineralogy. B. H. B. Heulandite. By P. JANNASCH (Jahrb f. Min., 1887, ii, Mem., 39-44). The author gives the results of analyses of heulandite (I and II) from St. Andreasberg and (III) from the Fassathal.

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All the varieties of heulandite analysed by the author contain strontium. (Compare Abstr., 1887, 453.)

B. H. B.

Mineralogical Notes. By H. TRAUBE (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, ii, Mem., 64-70).—1. Laubanite, a new Zeolite.-The author has analysed a specimen of a zeolite supposed to be desmine occurring with phillipsite on an unaltered basalt from Lauban in Silesia. The hardness of this mineral was greater than that of desmine, and the mineral exhibited no lustre. Analysis showed that this mineral is a new zeolite having the composition Al,Ca2Si5H12O21. The name of laubanite is proposed for it after the locality where it is found. Analysis gave the following results:

SiOg. Al2O3. FeO. CaO. MgO. H2O. Total.
47.84 16.74 0.56 16.17 1.35 17.08 99.74*

Sp. gr. 2.23

In chemical composition laubanite approaches nearest to laumontite; whilst it differs from phillipsite in the absence of sodium silicate, as well as in its proportion of water. Laubanite is snow-white in colour. It is transparent only in thin sections, and has no lustre. Its hardness is 4.5 to 5. It forms small monoclinic crystals, 3 to 5 mm. in


2. Laumontite and Scolezite from Striegau.-Colourless crystals of lanmontite are frequently found at Striegau on orthoclase and quartz, associated with desmine, epidote, and axinite. Externally, this mineral cannot be distinguished from fibrous snow-white scolezite. The latter occurs at the same locality in association with heulandite, but never

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in crystals on orthoclase. Analyses of the two minerals gave the following results: I, laumontite, II, scolezite :

SiO.. Al2O3. CaO. Na2O. H2O. Total.

I. 51.09 21.36 11.76
II. 46-48 25.53 13.38

15:35 99.56 0.68 13.69 99.76

Sp. gr.


2.31 B. H. B.

Trachytic Rocks from the Island of San Pietro. By F. EIGEL (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, ii; Ref., 92-93).-San Pietro, an island on the south-west coast of Sardinia, is composed principally of recent eruptive rocks. Analyses are given of (I) red liparite from Spalmatore, consisting of a dense fibrous ground-mass with sphærolites of chalcedony and disseminated sanidine and biotite, (II) black obsidian with sanidine and augite, and sphærolites of quartz.

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By J. M.

The so-called Trachyte-dolerites of the Vogelsberg. LEDROIT (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, ii; Ref., 81-82).-According to Tasche and Ludwig, the trachyte-dolerites of the Vogelsberg are rocks intermediate between trachyte and dolerite, containing oligoclase, labradorite, hornblende, augite, and magnetite. The author considers the name of trachyte-dolerite unsuitable for these rocks, and distinguishes two varieties, dolerite and plagioclase-basalt. The latter has a sp. gr. of 2.884, and is composed of olivine, plagioclase, augite, magnetite, apatite, and a colourless glass. Analyses are given of a trachyte-dolerite from Laubach (I), of a basalt from Michelneu (II), and of a basalt, very rich in augite, from Gedern (III).

SiO2. Al2O3. Fe2O3. FeO. CaO. MgO. KO. Na O.
I. 48.39 13.29 8.23 7.81 8.81 8.48 0.90 2.67
II. 47.38 12.51 12:47 7.13 8.83
III. 41:32 12.27 15.13 7.36 10.33


0.73 3.80


0.84 4.19

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The Pallasite from Campo de Pucará. By E. COHEN (Jahrb. f. Min., 1887, ii, Mem., 45—52).—The author has received a fragment, weighing 37 grams, of the pallasite found in 1879 at Campo de Pucará, in the State of Catamarca, in the Argentine Republic. From its remarkable resemblance to the pallasite of Imilac, Atacama, the author was induced to submit this meteorite to a careful investigation.

He found that the similarity of the two pallasites extends to their microscopic structure and chemical composition.

Two analyses of the metallic portion of the Campo de Pucará pallasite gave the following results (I and II) :

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For comparison, Frapolli's analysis of the Imilac pallasite (III) is added. The remaining 104 per cent. consists of magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus, B. H, B.

Organic Chemistry.

Substitution-derivatives of Methylene Chloride. By R. HÖLAND (Annalen, 240, 225-243).-Alcoholic ammonia and methylene chloride heated together at 125° yield hexamethylenamine and ammonium chloride. Chlorine, both free and as phosphoric chloride, decomposes methylene iodide, yielding methylene chloride and traces of chloroform. With methylene bromide, the same reagents at 190° yield carbon tetrachloride and carbon tetrabromide, iodine chloride and iodine trichloride; with methylene chloride at 220° both yield chloroform and perchlorobenzene; iodine bromide and methylene chloride at 200° yield iodoform and small quantities of iodomethylene chloride, CHICl2, and diiodomethylene chloride, CI,C12. The former is a colourless oil, boils at 131°, and has an irritating odour. The latter crystallises in small scales, melts at 85°, and boils with decomposition at 185°. Iodine tribromide and methylene chloride at 180° yield bromoform, carbon tetrabromide, and perbromethylene, C2Br. The author finds that the latter compound is also formed by heating CBr, at 220°. Potassium iodide and iodine when heated with methylene chloride in alcoholic solution at 200° yield ether, ethyl iodide, and methylene iodide; without alcohol no reaction takes place at 210°. Phosphoric pentiodide has no appreciable action on methylene chloride at 210°; free iodine at the same temperature yields methylene iodide.

When pure dry sodium glycerate, NaC,H,O,, is heated with methylene chloride at 100° for two hours, diglycerylmethylal (methylene diglyceryl oxide) CH2(O-CH2 CHOH CH2OH), is formed. This is an almost colourless syrup, soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water. It decomposes on distillation. L. T. T.



Preparation of Allyl Iodide and Allyl Alcohol. (Bull. Soc. Chim., 47, 875-877).-Allyl iodide may be conveniently prepared by the following modification of Berthelot and de Luca's


3 p

method (Ann. Phys. Chim. [3], 43, 257). 2000 grams of commercial glycerol, 60 grams of iodine, and 200 grams of red phosphorns are introduced into a tubulated retort and the whole well mixed. The retort is connected with a condenser and heated until frothing occurs, when the heat is regulated so that a gentle ebullition is maintained, and a solution of 440 grams of iodine in 160 grams of allyl alcohol is added drop by drop. The distillate of allyl iodide in the receiver is slightly coloured by iodine, and at the end of the operation is returned to the retort and redistilled, when it is obtained quite colourless. The whole operation lasts about five hours and a half. After its completion, the residue in the retort is further heated, and an aqueous distillate containing a small quantity of allyl iodide and a considerable amount of allyl alcohol (about 100 grams from the above quantities) is obtained; a certain amount of a viscous liquid, which appears to be a mixture of di- and tri-glycerol, is also formed. The yield of allyl iodide is about 637 grams, the theoretical yield being 661 grams. The advantages which the author claims for this process are that a large quantity of allyl iodide may be prepared at a time without any danger of an explosion; that only the merest traces of isopropyl iodide are formed; and that allyl alcohol is obtained as a valuable bye-product.

A. P.

Sulphuranes. By R. DEMUTH and V. MEYER (Ber., 20, 18301831). The authors give the name sulphuranes to the class of bisulphides, several members of which have been described by Mansfield (this vol., p. 122) and by V. Meyer (this vol., p. 228). The authors have proved the correctness of the general formula C2H'S C2H SR, by obtaining the ethyl vinyl ether of ethylene mercaptan, and proving it to be identical with ethylsulphurane. The compound OH C2H SEt was obtained by acting on ethyl hydrosulphide with ethylene chlorhydrin. This was treated with phosphoric chloride and converted into Cl-C2H, SEt, which with potassium hydrosulphide yielded SH-C2H, SEt. The sodium salt of the latter when treated with ethylene chlorhydrin gave OH C2H, S C2H, SEt, which when acted on by phosphoric chloride yielded Cl·C2H1 S·C2H, SEt; the latter when heated with alcoholic potash forms C2H, S C2H,SE, which is identical with the ethylsulphurane obtained from diethylene disulphide ethiodide. L. T. T.

Isodulcitol. By J. HERZIG (Monatsh. Chem., 8, 227-229).-The author confirms Fischer's and Will's description of the phenyihydrazine compound of this sugar (Abstr., this vol., pp. 652 and 715). When oxidised with silver oxide, isodulcitol is completely split up into acetic acid. Chromic acid gives the same result. G. H. M.

Isodulcitol. By B. RAYMAN (Bull. Soc. Chim., 47, 668-677, and 760-761).-Isodulcitol melts at about 90.9°, when heated at 100° to 105° for seven hours it loses a molecule of water, and at 130° it becomes brown and decomposes. Its rotatory power [a]D = +8.61°. It reduces Fehling's solution, the reducing power varying with the concentration; it immediately reduces ammoniacal silver solution,

forming a mirror. Knapp's reagent is also reduced. When added to an alkaline solution of picric acid, picramic acid is formed. It decolorises alkaline solutions of indigo or potassium ferricyanide; but gives no reaction with a bleached solution of rosaniline.

When isodulcitol is treated with iodine and potash, a mere trace of iodoform is obtained. With a-naphthol and concentrated sulphuric acid, it yields a bluish-violet coloration, and on the addition of water a dirty-green precipitate is thrown down; with thymol, it forms a crimson ring which rapidly becomes brown; with resorcinol, it yields a red coloration, a precipitate being formed on the addition of water. On mixing concentrated solutions of phenylhydrazine and isodulcitol, the compound C12H18N2O, is gradually formed; it is very sparingly soluble in alcohol. When phenylhydrazine hydrochloride, sodium acetate, and isodulcitol are heated in aqueous solution, the compound CH2NO, is produced; it crystallises from water, is of a yellow colour, melts at 171°, and seems to be identical with the compound described by Fischer and Tafel (this vol., p. 651).

On agitating 5 grams of isodulcitol dissolved in 230 c.c. of a 10 per cent. aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide with 30 grams of benzoyl chloride, an oily substance separates, which on cooling solidifies and may be recrystallised from alcohol; it consists of a mixture of tribenzoylisodulcitol, CH(C,H,O),О, and tetrabenzoylis dulcitol, C&H10(C2H2O),0. Glacial acetic acid does not seem to have any action on isodulcitol, but 4 parts of acetic anhydride heated at 120° with 1 part of isoduleitol yields isodulcitol monacetate, CHO, C2H30, which is obtained as a resin resembling monosuccinin. By heating 1 part of isodulcitol with 5 parts of acetic anhydride at 140°, mixture of isodulcitol diacetate and triacetate was obtained in the form of a resinous mass. By heating 1 part of isodulcitol with 10 parts of acetic anhydride and 1 part of sodium acetate for eight hours at 140°, a resinous isodulcitol tetracetate, C&H (C2H2O),O,, is obtained.


Isodulcitol dissolves in sulphuric acid without alteration, but nitric acid oxidises it energetically; on treating isodulcitol with a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids a very unstable isodulcityl trinitrate, CH, (NO2).Os, is formed; it is decomposed by water. On heating isodulcitol with dilute hydrochloric acid, humous substances, formic acid, and a non-volatile acid which reduces silver salts are formed. Hydriodic acid and phosphorus have no action on isodulcitol.

From the above results, the author concludes that isodulcitol and arabinose are aldehydes whose corresponding penthydric alcohols are not yet known, but may probably be obtained by the reduction of these two compounds; he further proposes to divide the sugars into the following three classes :

I. Tetravalent alcohol: erythrol.

II. Pentavalent alcohols: 1. (a) Normal, at present unknown, but possibly may be obtained by the reduction of isodulcitol and arabinose; (b) having a closed ring nucleus: quercitol. 2. The corresponding aldehydes and acetones: arabinose and isodulcitol.

III. Hexavalent alcohols: 1. (a) Normal: the physical isomerides mannitol, dulcitol, and perseïte; (b) having a closed ring nucleus: inosite. 2. The corresponding aldehydes: dextrose and galactose.

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