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all times to be purchased. In reality, he omitted no method --and some of them were inconsistent with the disinterested spirit of a soldier, perhaps with the common feelings of the man-to accumulate money.
In 1796, when the Company's officers received brevet rank from his. majesty, Martin was included in the promotion of colonels to the rank of major-general.
'Some years before this period, he had finished a spacious dwellinghouse on the banks of the river Goomtee, in the building of which he had been long employed. This curious edifice is constructed entirely of stone, except the doors and window frames. The ceilings of the different apartments are formed of elliptic arches, and the floors made of stucco. The basement story comprises two caves or recesses within the banks of the river, and level with its surface when at its lowest decrease. In these caves he generally lived in the hot season, and continued in them until the commencement of the rainy season, when the increase of the river obliged him to remove. He then ascended another story, to apartments fitted up in the manner of a grotto; and when the further rise of the river brought its surface on a level with these, he proceeded up to the third story, or ground floor, which overlooked the river when at its greatest height. On the next story above that, a handsome saloon, raised on arcades, projecting over the river, formed his habitation in the spring and winter seasons. By this inge nious contrivance he preserved a moderate and equal temperature in his house at all seasons. In the attic story he had a museum, well supplied with various curiosities: and over the whole he erected an observatory, which he furnished with the best astronomical instruments, Adjoining to the house there is a garden, not laid out with taste, but well filled with a variety of fine trees, shrubs, and flowers, together with all sorts of vegetables.
In his artillery yard, which was situated at some distance from his house, he erected a steam engine, which had been sent to him from England; and here he used to amuse himself in making different experiments with air balloons. After he had exhibited to some acquaintances his first balloon, the vizir Assof-ud-Dowla requested he would prepare one large enough to carry twenty men. Martin told his highness that such an experiment would be attended with considerable hazard to the lives of the men: upon which the vizir replied, "Give yourself no concern about that-be you so good as make a balloon,"
The experiment, however, was never tried.
Besides his house at Lucknow, he had a beautiful villa, about fifty miles from thence, situated on a high bank of the Ganges, and surrounded by a domain, of almost eight miles in circumference, somewhat resembling an English park. Here he used occasionally to retire in the hot season.
In the latter part of his life he laid out a large sum of money in constructing a Gothic castle, which he did not live to finish. Beneath the ramparts of this castle he built casements, secured by iron doors and gratings thickly wrought. The lodgments within the walls are arched and barred, and their roofs completely bomb-proof. The castle is surrounded by a wide and deep ditch, fortified on the outer side by
stockades, and a regular covered-way; so that the place is sufficiently protected to resist the attacks of any Asiatic power. Within the castle he built a splendid mausoleum, in which he was interred; and on a marble tablet over his tomb is engraved the following inscription, writ ten by himself some months before his death :
'Here lies Claude Martin:
He was born at Lyons A. D. 1732.
His fortune, which amounted to 330,000l. sterling, was chiefly bequeathed to charitable uses. Self-interest,' he adds in his will, was his sole motive of action; and the sins of which he had been guilty, he admits to have been very great and manifold.' He concludes by praying for forgive ness of God, which he hopes this sincere confession of his wickedness will obtain.'
'Biographical Anecdotes of general Perron,' who came to India as a petty officer in Suffrein's squadron, and rose to the command of three brigades in Sindeah's service, are not very interesting. The character of brigadier-general Carnac' is more so he appears to have been an able general, a good scholar, and an amiable man.
The first of the Miscellaneous Tracts' is a meteorologic account of the weather at Madras, in the year 1790, by John Chamier, esq.' Madras is situated in 13° 4 north lat. and in 80° 33 east long. The medium height of the thermometer, for three or four years, seems to have been 80° 9: the greatest general height 87° 1; the least 75° 5. The mean heat of April was 83° 2. In the year 1790, the lowest point of the thermometer was 68° at sunrise, in January; the highest, 91°, in June.
Objects worthy of observation between Agra and Calcutta, by colonel Ironside,' are of local importance, and only short notices. The manner of hunting and sporting by the English, in Bengal, by the same author,' will not admit of abridgement. The following account of a bird, little known, merits, however, to be more generally communicated.
Florekins are amongst the non descripta, I believe, in ornithology. A drawing can alone exhibit an adequate representation of this fine bird; it harbours in natural pastures amongst the long grass, on the extremity of lakes, and the borders of swampy grounds, lying between marshy soils and the uplands. Hence its flesh seems to partake, in colour and relish, of the nature and flavour of both the wild duck and the pheasant; the colour of the flesh on the breast and wing being brown, but on the legs perfectly white, and the whole of the most de licate, juicy, and savoury flavour conceivable.
There are only three claws to its feet; the roots of the feathers of the female are of a fine pink colour.
• When the cock rises up, some fine black velvet feathers, which commonly lie smooth upon his head, then stand up erect, and form a tuft upon his crown and his neck.
When set by dogs, it lies close, and scarcely ever rises till the fowler is so near as almost to tread upon it. The nest of it is made amongst the grass.
"You read of them in descriptions of ancient knightly festivals of the Nevilles, Percys, Mortimers, Beauchamps, Montacutes, De Courceys, Mohuns, Courtenays, and Mowbrays, under the name, I believe, of flanderkins; but whether they were then natives of England, I am uncertain.
The height of the cock florekin of Bengal, from the ground, when he stands, to the top of his back, is seventeen inches.'
The height from the ground to the top of his head, when he holds it upright, is twenty-seven inches.
The length from the tip of his back to the end of his tail, is twenty-seven inches.' P. 19.
One other extract, from this curious communication, may be allowed.
• It is somewhat extraordinary, but nevertheless a fact, the influence of fascination possessed by the tiger, and all of his, the feline species, over many other creatures. 'Spied by deer particularly, they stop at once, as if struck by a spell, while the tiger lies still, his eyes fixed on them, and quietly awaiting their approach, which they seldom fail to make gradually within his spring; for the large royal tiger cannot run speedily or far. The glow of their eyes is fierce and powerful. I myself once passed a royal tiger in the night near a wood, and could plainly perceive the scintillations from his eyes. He was deterred from approaching us by the light of flambeaux, and the noise of a small drum which we carried, and was beat by a servant for the purpose of scaring him away.
Wherever tigers roam or couch, a number of birds continually collect or hover about them, screaming and crying as if to create an alarm. But the peacock seems to be particularly allured by him; for the instant a flock of pea-fowl perceive him, they advance towards him directly, and begin strutting round him with wings fluttering, quivering feathers, and bristling and expanded tails. Of this enticement the fowlers also make their advantage; for, by painting a brown cloth screen, about six feet square, with black spots or streaks, and advancing under its cover fronting the sun, the birds either approach towards them, or suffer them to steal near enough to be sure of their mark, by a hole left in the canvas for them to fire through.
• Several other instances of the fascination of animals I have myself been witness to in Bengal. Three or four times, where a line of troops were marching in a long uninterrupted series, passed a herd of deer; I observed that when their attention was taken off from grazing, by the humming murmuring noise proceeding from the troops in passing, they at first and for a while stood staring and aghast, as if attracted by
the successive progression of the files, all clothed in red. At length, however, the leading stag, "vir gregis ipse," striking the ground, snorted, and immediately rushed forward across the ranks, followed by the whole collection, to the utter dismay and confusion of the soldiery thus running into the very danger one naturally supposes they must have at first been anxious to avoid. The men, who were apprized by the sound of their approach, stopped, and made way for them. Over the heads of the others, who were heedless and inattentive, they bounded with wonderful agility, and fled over the plain. Driving one evening along the road in a phaeton, and pretty fast, I perceived a young heifer running near the carriage, with her eyes intently fixed upon one of the hind wheels; by the whirling of which the animal seemed completely struck and affected. Thus pursuing her object for about a quarter of a mile, she, by a sudden impulse, rapidly darted forward towards the wheel, which then striking her nose, the attention of the creature became interrupted by the violence of the friction, and was, of course, withdrawn: she then immediately stood stock still, and presently after turned about slowly and made off.
Beyond all other animals, however, serpents possess most eminently this occult power: frequently are they seen revolved on the branches of trees, or on the ground, meditating their prey, either birds, squirrels, rats, mice, bats, frogs, hares, or other animals."
Of the sports of the field, in Hindustan, by the same author.' This article also does not admit of abridgement. English hounds lose their scent after about a year; and they are liable, as well as European spaniels and pointers, to frequent disorders in the bowels, which soon destroy them.
Accounts of feats of strength, activity, and legerdemain, in Hindustan, by colonel Ironside.' The Hindus, in these feats of activity, seem to excel the Europeans.
An inquiry into the nature of the winds which prevail in the Indian seas,' from colonel Capper's work, has been already noticed. The narrative of a voyage, however, to Cochin China has never yet been printed, and is peculiarly important and interesting. It includes a sketch of the geography of the country, with some particulars of the manners, customs, and history, of the inhabitants, by Mr. Chapman. The object of the tract before us is to recommend a settlement in this part of Asia, where the internal contests of the inhabitants furnish the highest probability of success. suppose the proposal has been reviewed by those best able to judge of its propriety. The adventures of the author we cannot abridge, but shall add a short account of the country.
The breadth of the country bears no proportion to its length. Few of the provinces extend further than a degree from east to west, some less than 20 miles: Donai, which is properly a province of Cambodia, is much larger.
The whole country is intersected by rivers, which, although not
large enough to admit of vessels of great burthen, yet are exceedingly well calculated for promoting inland commerce.
The climate is healthy, the violent heat of the summer months being tempered by regular breezes from the sea. September, October, and November, are the season of the rains; the low lands are then suddenly overflowed by immense torrents of water which fall from the mountains. The inundations happen generally once a fortnight, and last for three or four days. In December, January, and February, there are frequently rains brought by cold northerly winds, which distinguish this country with a winter different from any other in the East. The inundations have the same effect here as the overflowings of the Nile in Egypt, and render the country one of the most fruitful in the world. In many parts the land produces three crops of grain in the year. All the fruits of India are found here in the greatest perfection, with many of those of China.
No country in the East produces richer or a greater variety of articles proper for carrying on an advantageous commerce, cinnamon, pepper, cardemoms, silk, cotton, sugar, Agula-wood, Japan-wood, ivory, &c. Gold is taken almost pure from the mines; and before the troubles great quantities were brought from the hills in dust, and bartered by the rude inhabitants of them for rice, cloths, and iron. It was from them also the Agula and Calambae woods were procured, with quantities of wax, honey, and ivory.
The animals of Cochin China are bullocks, goats, swine, buffaloes, elephants, camels, and horses. In the woods are found the wild
boar, tyger, and rhinoceros, with plenty of deer; the poultry is excellent, and the fish caught on the coast abundant and delicious. The flesh of the elephant is accounted a great dainty by the Cochin Chinese. The breeding of bullocks is little attended to; their flesh is not esteemed as food, and they are made no use of in tilling the land, which is performed by buffaloes. They are totally unacquainted with the art of milking their cattle.
The aborigines of Cochin China are called Moys, and are the people which inhabit the chain of mountains which separate it from Cambodia. To these strong holds they were driven when the present possessors invaded the country. They are a savage race of people, very black, and resemble in their features the Caffrees.' P. 85.
The Moys are evidently the Malays; and the present race. is very clearly of Chinese origin. Cochin China affords numerous articles required by the Chinese; and the possession of this country would, in our author's opinion, secure the trade of China, with peculiar benefits, when we consider the connexion of the emigrant Chinese with every part of the parent country. The vicinity of Japan and the Philippines would give us considerable advantages in commerce; while Turon Bay would be a secure asylum for the Indiamen who lose their passage to China. On this subject we can offer no opinion, but have often urged the utility of a settlement in the neighbourhood, or on the cast of China, to com