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on our illustrious dead-but a sonnet scritto, in Bath, per madamigella Gray che danzava con somma grazia e pari modestia, and a canzone to a bellissima ed ornatissima fanciulla in London; to whom he says that Italy can no longer blame the climate of England; for it has ceased to be dark and foggy, from the day when she first opened her starry eyes.

'Non biasmi Italia più l'Anglico cielo,
Cielo, che più non è nebbioso e scuro,
Dal di che apristi tu gli occhi stellanti.'

The longest of Pindemonte's poems is a satire upon the abuse of travelling. His lines upon what the Italian traveller will learn in England are exceedingly ridiculous, by their macaronic English.

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Punch and beef-steaks have, we believe, been incorporated. into all the languages of Europe; but we are pleased to find that toast and beer are likely to find a place in the next edition of Della Crusca. We have also the verb tostare, to toast a lady. Whatever relates to England is amusing, in this poet. He talks of the dukes Beckfort and Spencer; is very liberal in his praises of the English poets at Florence, whom he calls the worthy countrymen of Milton; and he states signora Thrale Piozzi to be the true Minerva of Albion.

(To be continued.)

ART. III.-Mémoires de l'Institut National des Sciences et des Arts. Sciences Mathématiques et Physiques. Tome IV. Memoirs of the National Institute of Sciences and Arts.

We turn to the fourth volume of the class of Moral and Political Sciences, which, as usual, opens with a brief history of its labours, extending through a term of eighteen months; viz. from the beginning of the year 8 (1800) to the middle of the year 9. In glancing at this part of the volume, we cannot but be struck at the mortality which has prevailed among the members of the class before us within that period. Its entire number, including foreign associates, extends only to forty-six; and of these it has lost not less than nine, being very nearly a fifth part of the whole. The volume having been so long delayed

beyond its intended period of publication, the prize-questions proposed for the years 8 and 9 have all of them been either answered, or withdrawn in consequence of no adequate answer having been received. At present, therefore, we have no prizequestion whatever.

Among the labours of the class, which are not printed in its collection of Memoirs, we find noticed

I. An attempt of M. Mercier, to revive the Doctrine of innate Ideas,' whose manner, rather than whose matter, is spoken of with approbation.

II. Two Memoirs from the Pen of M. Dégérando,' who, we understand, has succeeded to the seat in the Institute vacant by the death of M. Carafelli du Falga, who fell, as many of our readers may remember, in the memorable siege of Acre. These memoirs are on the fashionable subject-fashionable, we mean, in France-of pasigraphy, or universal language. Not less than four unedited and one printed memoir were presented to the Institute upon this topic last year: the printed memoir was written by M. Destuth-Tracy, and it has already fallen within our cognisance. M. Dégérando coincides with M. Tracy, in this second memoir, that pasigraphy can never become a universal language; by which, we suppose, he means that it can never be accomplished.

" III. A Memoir of M. Merlin, on the Necessity of a universal and uniform Code of Laws for the entire Kepublic.'For this memoir, which was written a few years ago, there was certainly a sufficient call, since not less than from thirty to forty thousand new laws were added to the unentombed ruins of the old, perplexing the magistrates beyond all possibility of illumination. The hope of the nation however, it seems, has since been fulfilled-Bonaparte has been made first consul-and M. Merlin's memoir is become useless. The first consul's code, it is added, is not, nevertheless, perfect; but it will be the best which has ever been enjoyed by any people. blessing,' says the class of moral and political sciences, to the 'We owe this hero who has compelled Europe to enjoy the sweets of tranquillity.'

Our limits will scarcely allow us to do more than notice the rest, which consist of, IV, a Dissertation on natural Rights in political Institutions, by M. Toulongeon. V. Memoir on Ostracism, by M, Legrand-Laleu. VI. Inquiries into the Legislation of Solon, and the Government of Athens. VII. a memoir entitled Phocion, by M. de l'Isle de Sales, offering the plan of a republic which may rest itself on the passions of mankind, without arming one class against another. VIII. Analysis of the Principles of the Circulation of Wares, and of the Influence of Money upon such Circulation, by M. Veron-Forbonnais. VIII. Memoir on Elections by Ballot, by M. Danou. IX. Journey

over the Vosges, a large Chain of Mountains on the Borders of Lorraine, by M. Gregoire. X, XI, XII, XIII. These numbers consist of continuations of inquiries into the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres relative to the state of Literature in France in different æras; on the present state of the labours undertaken for a collection of the ordonnances of the kings of France of the third race, of which we have formerly taken some notice, both by M. Anquetil; present state of the collection of the different historians of France, of charts and diplomas, and of the ordonnances of the Louvre, which are superintended conjointly by MM. Pastores and Camus, and which we have also noticed in their commencement. XIV. Account of an Expedition beyond the Sea, with a Return by Land, made in 1432 and 1433, by M. Legrand d'Aussy. XV. Memoir on the Application of the System of decimal Mensuration to Hydrography and the Calculations of Navigation, by M. Fleurieu. XVI. On the geographic Knowledge of the Ancients on the southern Coasts of Arabia, by M. Gosselin. XVII. On the Extent and Population of the ancient Kingdom of Poland, and on the Increase which its Partition has alloted to Russia, Prussia, and Austria. XIX. Several memoirs of M. Dupont de Nemours, contained in a packet from him to the present class of the Institute, in the course of his voyage. M. Dupont, our readers may recollect, is one of the members of the Institute nominated, about three years ago, to undertake, in South America, a voyage useful to the progress of science: his remarks principally relate to the natural history of the country and its productions, but offer nothing that needs detain us. His memoir on Vegetables, Polypi, and Insects, might easily be conceived to have been written, had he been acquainted with it, as a burlesque upon the cupidinous system of Dr. Darwin. The last paragraph extracted from it, in the history before us, is as follows:-- We are asked if polypi be acquainted with love. I know nothing upon this point, replies he. We have never yet caught them in the exercise of the tender passions: but God is all-good, Nature is all-generous, and ourselves allignorant. I do not decide in any way: I am only an inquisitive child.' XX. Memoir on a new zoological Chart, by M. La Cépède. M. La Cépède was the friend, and is one of the few fellow-labourers of Buffon who still survive him. We are surprised that this memoir is not inserted at full length. XXI. Observations on the Sikes of India, by M. Langlès. XXII. Memoir on the larger and smaller Travels of Thevenot. XXIII. Plan of a Voyage round the World, communicated by captain Baudin, for which he is now preparing, and which is destined to promote the progress of human arts and sciences. M. Baudin was to visit those parts of the globe which are at present totally unknown; and to sail under the direct sanction of the French

government. We have yet received no details of any part of his expedition. XXII. Memoir on the Manners, Customs, and Habits, of the People of Benin, by M. Palisot Beauvois. Benin is a superstitious but hospitable kingdom of Africa, and has been visited by M. Beauvois himself. We are surprised that this memoir also has not made its appearance at length. It evinces, if we mistake not, a degree of partiality which is too common among literary as well as other societies, but than which nothing can be more adverse to the cause of science. XXIII. Continuation of the Affinity of the corporeal and mental Powers of Man, by M. Cabanis. This work we have already noticed, so far as it had advanced, in two distinct memoirs. We spoke of it with some approbation, but as far too verbose and prolix. The present class of the Institute seem to have thought the same; and hence, instead of inserting the third memoir entire, they have only referred to it in their History. Its subject is the influence of a diseased diathesis upon moral affections and ideas. XXIX. Memoir on the Gauls, by M. Anquetil. XXX. Memoir on the Peace of Westphalia, by M. de l'Isle de Sales. XXXI. On the Classification of the Books of a Library, by M. Danou. XXXII. On the Establishment of Tithes in Favour of the Clergy. XXXIII. On Pilgrimages in France, both by M. Legrand d'Aussy. XXXIV. Memoir on the Garden which the French Republic possesses in America, by M. Dupont. XXXV. On the Navigation and Commerce of Genoa during the Middle Ages, by M. Papon. XXXVI. Researches into the geographic Knowledge of the Ancients relative to the Persian Gulf, by M. Gosselin. This memoirist is said, in the notice here given of his researches, to have detected various errors in Dr. Vincent's very valuable Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. It would have been but fair to have stated what these errors consist of, that, in the publication of his second partwhich we hope shortly to receive-the doctor might have an opportunity of correcting them, if clearly ascertained, or of defending his own positions, if unjustly accused. At present, we are left totally in the dark, and have certainly no more reason to confide in the geography of M. Gosselin than in that of our own very ingenious and learned countryman.

The volume now proceeds to historic notices of the life and death of two of the members of the Institute-M. James Antony Creuzé-Latouche, written by M. Champagne; and M. Legrand d'Aussy, by M. Levesque. Of the former, to whom our readers must be strangers, we need observe nothing more, than that the greater part of his life, and the few publications he produced, were devoted to agricultural economics: but we cannot suffer his collegue, whose name has so often occurred as a contributor in the labours of this class of the National Institute, to pass into equal oblivion. Peter John Baptist Legrand

was born at Amiens, June 3, 1737, and was surnamed d'Aussy, because his father was a native of Auxy-le-Château, in the department of Pas-de-Calais. He received his education in the college of the Jesuits at Amiens; at the age of eighteen entered into the society of his preceptors; and, a few years afterwards, had the honour of being elected to the rhetorical chair of this celebrated company at Caen. At the age of twentysix he was thrown on the world by the dissolution of the order, and was soon employed in the elaborate work of the French Glossary, projected by Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye, and in an examination of the very rich library of the marquis de Paulmy. Nominated, in 1770, secretary in the direction of the studies of the military school, he found that his scholar, the celebrated Laplace, was appointed professor; and it was this scholar of Legrand who shortly afterwards had, among others, in the course of his mathematical investigations, to sit as judge over the hero, the restorer of France, THE PACIFICATOR AND ARBITER OF EUROPE: le héros, le restorateur de la France, LE PACIFICATEUR ET L'ARBITRE DE L'EUROPE. But our eulogist is not the only man who has been deceived upon this point; it is enough for him to write as a philosopher, without pretending to the spirit of prophecy. Legrand d'Aussy afterwards cooperated, under the marquis de Paulmy, and again with the count de Tressan, in the Bibliotheque des Romans; after which he became still deeper engaged in collecting, translating, extracting, and commenting upon the fabliaux, or tales of the old French poets of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In 1782 he published, in three volumes, octavo, his Histoire de la Vie privée des Français; and in 1788 his far more celebrated Tour to Auvergne, which province he visited the preceding year, at the entreaty of his Jesuit brother Peter Theodore Lewis Augustin, who was then prior of the abbey of Saint André, in the town of Clermont. This Tour he first published in one volume, octavo; but he afterwards enlarged and republished it, in 1795, in three volumes of the same size. His contributions to the Institute were numerous, and, for the most part, possessed of merit : we have progressively paid him the tribute of applause which we apprehended to have been his due. For some years past, he had conceived the plan of a complete history of French poetry, and had even begun to carry it into execution; but he stood in need of all the treasures of the national library. Fortunately for him, he was nominated, in the year 4 (1796), conservator of the French MSS. of this library; and he now not only renewed his intention, but enlarged his scheme: he included in it the history of the French tongue; that of literature in all its extent, and all its various ramifications; as well as that of science, of arts, and their utility in different applications-a monument too vast for the life and

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