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He then makes Sir Hans say, that the inhabitants of Jamaica stain their cottons with the bark of the cashew-nut tree. By this one would naturally conclude, that Mr. Miller has been endeavouring to prove, in opposition to the Abbé Mazeas's letter, that the art of painting or staining cottons of a fine deep black colour, equal to that discovered by the Abbé Sauvages, as described in his experiments on the Carolina toxicodendron, was practised by the English 40 or 50 years ago in Jamaica. If this was the case it is something surprising, that notwithstanding our great intercourse with that island, the calico printers of England never got intelligence of this valuable secret. Further, if Mr. Miller will consult Piso and Margrave, writers of the best authority on the Brasilian plants, he will find their accounts of the acajou exactly correspond with that delivered by Dr. Browne, in his History of Jamaica, as well as Sir Hans Sloane's: for they say, that the juice of this tree is equal in virtue, and mechanical uses, to the best gum-arabic. And if he still doubts, I shall lastly recommend him to go to the British Museum, and there he may see a most elegant specimen of the cashew-guin, which will put this matter quite out of all doubt.
P. S. Since the foregoing paper was read, Professor Sibthorp was so kind to deliver me an exact drawing of the fasi-no-ki in the Sherardian collection at Oxford, taken by the Rev. Mr. William Borlase, F. R. S. the title and synonym of which are both in the hand-writing of Dr. Dillenius, as the professor assures me. See fig. 6, pl. 7.
LVII. On the Number of the People of England. By the Rev. Richard Forster, Rector of Great Shefford in Berkshire. p. 457.
In vol. 49 of the Transactions, there is another medium advanced to determine the amount of the people in England: and this is the number of houses which pay the window tax, and which "amount to about 690,000, besides cottages, that pay nothing." To this is added, that "though the number of cottages be not accurately known, it appears from the accounts given in, that they cannot amount to above 200,000."
Mr. F. thinks that no general public accounts have been given in, of the number of the houses taxed to the window lights; and he thinks that the number of the cottages which do not pay, far exceeds the number of houses that are rated. To prove this, he counted the numbers of both sorts in several parishes, the results of which are in the annexed table.
Here we see, that out of 588 houses, only 177 pay the window-tax. Now if we say with the philosopher ex pede Herculem, and suppose that 200,000
taxable houses stand in the country, we shall have the following proportion, 177 588 200,000: 664406, for the whole number of houses that stand in the country, commonly so called.
Again, Lamborn parish, in which is a market town, contains 445 houses, of which 229 pay the window-tax. Now if we suppose, in like manner, 200,000 taxable houses to stand in country towns, we must then say 229: 445 :: 200,000: 388646, the whole number of houses that stand in country towns. The remaining 290,000 houses must be placed in cities and flourishing towns; and must have Dr. Brakenridge's proportion assigned them; on this supposition, we must say 690,000: 200,000 :: 290,000: 84,058, for the number of cottages in great towns; which, if added to the houses that pay, makes the whole number in large towns to be 374,058. These 3 sums added together make the total amount of houses in the nation to be 1,427,110.
The two former of these numbers should be multiplied by 5, and the latter by 6. The reason of this difference is the great quantity of servants kept in large towns. By this way of proceeding it appears, that the whole number of people now alive in England, is somewhat more than 7 millions and a half.
The militia act levies 32,000 men on the whole kingdom; and in the west riding of Yorkshire 1 in 45, it is said completed their quota. Now if this proportion be applied to the whole nation, 32,000 × 45 will give 1,440,000 for the number of ballotters; and this multiplied by 5, will amount to 7,200,000 for the total of our people. But he does not build any thing on this computation, as. many parts of the nation may have heavier quotas laid on them than the west riding.
But instead of speculating in From these theoretical ways, Mr. F. thinks it would be much better to make an actual statement of the baptisms in every parish, taken at different periods, 1702...1711 which he thinks a thing easy to be done; and accordingly annexes this account of 3 of them as taken by himself. This
table stands in need of no remarks: it speaks, he thinks, loud enough of itself,
that our people increase in a very rapid manner.
LVIII. An Answer to the Foregoing Account of the Numbers and Increase of the People of England. By the Rev. William Brakenridge, D. D., F. R. S. p. 465.
Dr. B. states, that being resolved to depend only on the most sure, and general observations, he applied to a public office, where he thought he might possibly get at the number of houses. And he there found, that from the last survey that was made since the year 1750, there were 690,700 houses in England and Wales that paid the window-tax, and the 2 shilling duty on houses; besides cottages that paid nothing. By cottages are understood those which neither pay to church or poor, and are, by act of parliament in 1747, in consideration of the poverty of the people, declared to be exempted both from the tax and the 2 shillings duty; and these only remain not accurately known, to ascertain the whole number of houses. However, they are so far known, that from all the accounts that are hitherto given in, they do not appear to be so many as 300,000: and from what Dr. B. saw in the books of that office, he thinks they were not much above 200,000. And therefore, if there are not 300,000 cottages, there cannot be a million of houses in the whole in England and Wales; and the rated houses are to the cottages more than 2 to one; of both which, according to the returns made, there is now about one in 17, or 58,800 empty throughout the kingdom. But if we were to allow that there are a million of houses in the whole; which is more than the gentlemen in the above mentioned office believe, and then deduct those that are empty, there could not be above 941,200 inhabited houses; and consequently supposing 6 to a house, about 5,647,200 people, or near about 5 millions and a half; which at the utmost, is what he insists on to be the real number.
But now the gentleman who objects to these calculations, thinks that Dr. B. has made the number of houses too few, and that in the whole there are above 1,400,000 houses, of which he imagines there are more than 700,000 cottages ; for he supposes them to be more than the rated houses; and thence he infers, that there are about 7 millions and a half of people in England and Wales. But Dr. B. is so far from thinking that he has under-rated them, that he suspects he has rather made them more than they are. However, this controversy will soon be determined he says, there being now orders given to all the officers concerned in the window-tax, to make an exact return of all the cottages, as well as the rated houses, in each of their several districts.
Dr. B. then examines the mens and process by which Mr. F. computes, in making the number of persons in England to amount to about 7 millions; and these says Dr. B. are too imperfect and too small to authorize such a conclusion. And as to what the gentleman mentions concerning the militia, he seems, says
Dr. B. to be much mistaken. For if the proportion be as he says, that one in 45 is levied, this directly proves the number of people in England and Wales to be about 5 millions and a half, according to my calculation; because the electors or balloters are the fencible men, or those able to carry arms. And if the whole levy be 32,000 then 45 multiplied by 32,000 will give 1,440,000 for all the fencible men in England. But Dr. Halley has clearly showed that the fencible men are one quarter of the whole people, children included; and therefore 4 times 1,440,000, or 5,760,000, will be the whole number of the people; which is nearly what he made them before.
LIX. On the Effects of Electricity in Paralytic Cases. By Benjamin Franklin, Esq. F. R. S. p. 481.
The following is what Mr. F. at present recollects, relating to the effects of electricity in paralytic cases, which have fallen under his observation. Some years since, when the newspapers mentioned great cures performed in Italy or Germany, by means of electricity, a number of paralytics were brought to him from different parts of Pennsylvania, and the neighbouring provinces to be electrised; which he did for them at their request. His method was to place the patient first in a chair, on an electric stool, and draw a number of large strong sparks from all parts of the affected limb or side. Then he fully charged two 6 gallon glass jars, each of which had about 3 square feet of surface coated; and he sent the united shock of these through the affected limb or limbs; repeating the stroke commonly 3 times each day. The first thing observed was an immediate greater sensible warmth in the lame limbs that had received the stroke, than in the others: and the next morning the patients usually related, that they had in the night felt a pricking sensation, in the flesh of the paralytic limbs; and would sometimes show a number of 'small red spots, which they supposed were occasioned by those prickings. The limbs too were found more capable of voluntary motion, and seemed to receive strength. A man, for instance, who could not the first day lift the lame hand from off his knee, would the next day raise it 4 or 5 inches, the 3d day higher; and on the 5th day was able, but with a feeble languid motion, to take off his hat. These appearances. gave great spirits to the patients, and made them hope a perfect cure; but he did not remember that he ever saw any amendment after the 5th day: which the patients perceiving, and finding the shocks pretty severe, they became discouraged, went home, and in a short time relapsed; so that he never knew any advantage from electricity in palsies, that was permanent. And how far the apparent temporary advantage might arise from the exercise in the patients journey, and coming daily to his house, or from the spirits given by the hopes of suc
cess, enabling them to exert more strength in moving their limbs, he will not pretend to say.
Perhaps some permanent advantage might have been obtained, if the electric shocks had been accompanied with proper medicine and regimen, under the direction of a skilful physician. It may be too, that a few great strokes as given in his method, may not be so proper as many small ones; since, by the account from Scotland of a case, in which 200 shocks from a phial were given daily, it seems that a perfect cure has been made. As to any uncommon strength supposed to be in the machine used in that case, he imagines it could have no share in the effect produced; since the strength of the shock from charged glass, is in proportion to the quantity of surface of the glass coated; so that his shocks. from those large jars must have been much greater than any that could be received from a phial held in the hand.
LX. Observations on the late Comet in Sept. and Oct. 1757; made at the Hague by Mr. D. Klinkenberg. Translated from the Low Dutch. p. 483. Mr. K. observed this comet from Sept. 16th in the morning, till Oct. the 11th in the morning; and found its situations, according to his method, as follows:
Sept. 16, at 4 h. ante mer. The comet in 10° 15′ with 10° 10' North.
But the last 2 observations will, in his opinion, differ the most; because when made he was in some doubt about the adjustment of his instruments; and the comet was then far advanced into the morning rays.
As his above-mentioned observations on the comet appeared too incorrect to undertake a calculation for ascertaining its path by the theory, he contented himself with effecting it by a construction. By this means he found on a figure, whose globular or spherical diameter was 134 Rhineland inches, as follows: That the comet was in its perihelion the 21st of October, at 2 in the afternoon : the place of the perihelion 3° in Leo. The comet's distance in the perihelion from the sun was about 34 parts, of which 100 make the mean distance between the sun and the earth. The inclination of the comet's orbit with the ecliptic