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124. Sonchus palustris Sp. Pl. 793. The greatest marsh-tree sowthistle. expands its flowers about 6 or 7, and closes about 2 afternoon.-26. Lactuca sativa C. B. pin. 122. Sp. Pl. 795. Garden lettuce, opens its flowers about 7, and closes them about 10 forenoon.-27. Dens leonis Ger. 228. Raii Syn. 170. Leontodon taraxacum Sp. Pl. 798. Dandelion. It expands at 5 or 6, and closes at 8 or 9 in the forenoon. This flowers early in the spring, and again in the autumn.-28. Dens leonis hirsutus leptocaulos, hieracium dictus. Raii Syn. 171. Leontodon hispidum Sp. Pl. 799. Rough dandelion, or dandelion hawkweed. This plant opens its flower about 4 in the morning, and keeps it expanded till 3 afternoon. In May.-29. Hieracium minus præmorsa radice. Park. 794. Raii Syn. 164. Leontodon autumnale. Sp. Pl. 799. Hawkweed with bitten roots, or yellow Devil's-bit. The flowers open about 7, and keep in an expanded state till about 3 afternoon. It flowers in July and August.—30. Pilosella repens Ger. 573. Raii Syn. 170. Hieracium pilosella Sp. Pl. 800. Common creeping mouse-ear. It opens about 8 in the morning, and closes about 2 afternoon. Very common on dry pastures, flowering in June and July. -31. Hieracium murorum folio pilosissimo C. B. pin. 129. Raii Syn. 168. Hieracium murorum Sp. Pl. 802. The flowers of this plant expand about 6 or 7, and close about 2 in the afternoon. Upon old walls, flowering in June and July. This is called in English French or golden lungwort.-32. Hieracium fruticosum angustifolium majus. C. B. pin. 129. Hieracium umbellatum Sp. Pl. 804. Narrow-leaved bushy hawkweed. The flowers of this species expand about 6 in the morning, and remain open till 5 afternoon.-33. Hieracium fruticosum latifolium hirsutum C. B. pin. 129. Raii Syn. p. 167. baudum Sp. Pl. 804. Bushy hawkweed with broad rough leaves. are in their expanded state from about 7 in the morning till 1 or 2 afternoon. In woods, flowering in June and July.-34. Hieracium montanum cichorii folio. Raii. Syn. p. 166. Hieracium paludosum Sp. Pl. 638. Fl. Suec. 2. N° 702. Succory-leaved mountain hawkweed. The flowers expand about 6 in the morn-': ing, and close about 5 afternoon.-35. Hieracium hortense floribus atro-purpurascentibus C. B. pin. 128. Hieracium aurantiacum Sp. Pl. 801. Garden hawkweed with deep purple flowers, or sweet Indian mouse-car. The flowers are in their expanded state from 6 or 7 in the morning till 3 or 4 afternoon.—36. Hieracium luteum glabrum, sive minus hirsutum. J. B. Raii Syn. 165. Crepis tectorum Sp. Pl. 807. Smooth succory hawkweed. The flowers of this plant expand about 4 in the morning, and close about noon.-37. Hieracium alpinum scorzoneræ folio. Tourn. Inst. 472.-Crepis alpina Sp. Pl. 806. Mountain hawkweed with a vipers-grass leaf. These open about 5 or 6, and close at 11 in the forenoon.-38. Hieracium dentis leonis folio, flore suave-rubente, C. B. pin. 127. Raii Hist. pl. 231. Crepis rubra Sp. Pl. 806. Hawkweed of Apulia with
a flesh-coloured flower. The flowers remain in their expanded state from 6 or 7 in the morning till 1 or 2 afternoon.-39. Hieracium echioides, capitulis cardui benedicti C. B. pin. 128. Raii Syn. 166. Picris echioides Sp. Pl. 792. Langue de bœuf. On banks about hedges, and about the borders of fields, flowering in August. These expand about 4 or 5 in the morning, and never close before noon: sometimes they remain open till 9 at night.-40. Hieracium alpinum latifolium hirsutie incanum flore magno. C. B. pin. 128. Raii Syn. p. 167. Hypocharis maculata Sp. Pl. 810. Broad-leaved Hungarian hawkweed. These flowers are in their vigilating state from 6 in the morning till 4 afternoon.-41. Hieracium ramosum, floribus amplis, calycibus valde hirsutis, foliis oblongis obtusis: dentibus majoribus inæqualibus incisis Raii Suppl. 144. 76. Hypocharis Achyrophorus Sp. Pl. 810. This plant opens its flowers about 7 or 8 in the morning, and closes them about 2 afternoon.-42. Hieracium minus dentis leonis folio, oblongo glabro C. B. pin. 127. Hypochoris glabra Sp. Pl. 811. These expand about 9 in the morning, and close about 12 or 1 o'clock.-43. Hieracium falcatum alterum Raii Hist. 256. Lapsana calycibus fructus undique patentibus, radiis subulatis, foliis lyratis Hort. Ups. 245. Sp. Pl. 812. The flowers open at 5 or 6, and close between the hours of 10 and 1.-44. Hedypnois annua Tourn. Inst. 478. Hyoseris hedypnois Sp. Pl. 809. The flowers open at 7 or 8, and close again at 2 afternoon.-45. Hieracium montanum alterum leptomacrocaulon Col. Raii Hist. 234. Lapsana chondrilloides Sp. Pl. 812. Mountain hawkweed with long slender stalks and small flowers. The flowers are in their expanded or vigilating state from 5 or 6 in the morning till about 10.-46. Cichoreum sylvestre Ger. em. 284. Raii Syn. 172. Cichorium Intybus Sp. pl. 813. Wild succory. On the borders of fields, flowering in August and September. The flowers open about 8 in the forenoon, and keep expanded till about 4 afternoon.-47. Calendula arvensis C. B. pin. 275. Raii Hist. 338. Calendula officinalis Sp. Pl. 921. Wild marigold. The flowers expand from 9 in the morning till 3 afternoon.-48. Calendula foliis dentatis Roy. Ludg. 177. Miller, p. 50, tab. 75, f. 1. Calendula pluvialis Sp. Pl. 921. Marigold with indented leaves. The flowers expand from 7 in the morning till 3 or 4 afternoon. Linneus observes of this plant, that if its flowers do not expand about their usual time in the morning, it will almost assuredly rain that day: with this restriction indeed that the plant is not affected by thunder-showers. Phil. Bot. 275.-49. Sonchus pedunculis squamatis, foliis lanceolatis indivisis sessilibus. Hort. Upsal. 244. Flor. Suec. 2, N° 690. Lactuca salicis folio, flore cæruleo. Amman. ruth. 211. Of this plant it is remarked, that whenever the flowers are in the expanded state in the night-time, the following day generally proves rainy.
LXVI. The Case of a Boy troubled with Convulsive Fits cured by the Discharge of Worms. By the Rev. Richard Oram, M. A. p. 518.
Joseph Postle, of Ingham in Norfolk, was subject to convulsive fits from his infancy, which were common and tolerable till he was about 7 years of age. At that time they began to attack him in all the varieties that can be conceived. Sometimes he was thrown on the ground: sometimes he was twirled round like a top by them: at others he would spring upwards to a considerable height, &c. and once he leaped over an iron bar, placed purposely before the fire to prevent his falling into it. He was much burned, but had been rendered so habitually stupid by his fits, that he never expressed the least sense of pain after this accident. His intellect was so much impaired, and almost destroyed, by the frequency and violence of his fits, that he scarcely seemed to be conscious of any thing, except that he was very voracious, and would frequently call for something to eat. There is no kind of filth which he would not eat or drink without distinction. He was much emeciated, and his body so distorted, that he was quite a cripple. His parents consulted a physician, who very judiciously considered his disorder as a worm case, and prescribed accordingly, but without success, being afraid to give too violent medicines to the boy. It was observed, that the disorder varied, and became worse at certain periods of the moon.
In these circumstances the boy continued to languish till he was about 11 years of age (July 1757), when he accidentally found a mixture of white lead* and oil, which had some time before been prepared for some purpose of painting, set by on a shelf, and placed, as it was thought, out of his reach. There was nearly a pint of this mixture when he found it; and, as he did not leave much, it is thought he swallowed about of a pint of it. There was also some lamp black in the composition.
This began soon to operate, by vomiting and purging him for near 24 hours most violently. A large quantity of black matter was discharged; and an infinite number of worms, almost as small as threads, were voided. These operations were so intense, that his life was despaired of. But he not only survived them, but experienced a most wonderful change and improvement after them; for he daily got better, from the time of his drinking the mixture, both in body and mind. He became rather corpulent, his appetite moderate, and his body erect. His understanding too was equally benefited.
On the same Subject, in a Letter from Mr. John Gaze, of Walket in Norfolk. p. 521.
This letter confirms the former account with scarcely any variation.
*It is not improbable, that a considerable portion of whiting might be used instead of pure white lead, which is frequently done; and this supposition is favoured by the mixtures not proving fatal the boy as such a quantity of white lead in all probability would.—Orig.
LXVII. On the Extraordinary Heat of the Weather in July 1757, and its Effects. By John Huxham, M. D., F. R. S. p. 523.
By accounts it appears that the heat at London was not so great in the beginning of July 1757, as at Plymouth by 2 or 3 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer. We had again, after much rain at the close of the month, and in the beginning of August, excessive heat, viz. on the 8th, 9th, and 10th of August, which mounted the mercury in that thermometer to 85; nay, on the 9th to near 86. Dr. H. never before remembered the mercury in that thermometer to exceed 84.
The consequences of this extremely hot season were hæmorrhages from several ' parts of the body; the nose especially in men and children, and the uterus in women. Sudden and violent pains of the head and vertigo, profuse sweats, great debility and oppression of the spirits, affected many. Putrid fevers in great abundance; and a vast quantity of fluxes of the belly, both bilious and bloody, with which the fevers also were commonly attended. These fevers were always ushered in by severe pains of the head, back, and stomach; vomitings of green and sometimes of black bile, with vast oppression of the præcordia, continual anxiety, and want of sleep. These were soon succeeded by tremores tendinum, subsultus, delirium, or stupor. The pulse was commonly very quick, but seldom tense or strong; was sometimes heavy and undose. The blood oftentimes florid, but loose; sometimes livid, very rarely sizy: in some however, at the very attack, it was pretty dense and florid. The tongue was generally foul, brown, and sometimes blackish, and towards the crisis often dry. The urine was commonly high coloured, and in small quantity; frequently turbid, and towards the end deposed a great deal of lateritious sediment. A vast number were seized with this fever, during, and soon after, the excessive heats; though but few died in proportion. Long and great heats always very much exalt the acrimony of the bilious humours; of which we had this summer abundant instances. Bleeding early was generally beneficial; profuse, always hurtful, especially near the state
of the fever.
LXVIII. On the Fossil Thigh-bone of a large Animal, dug up at Stonesfield, near Woodstock, in Oxfordshire. By Mr. Joshua Platt. p. 524.
This was the thigh-bone of a large animal, probably belonging to the same creature with the vertebræ formerly found in the same place by Mr. P. in a slate-stone pit at Stonesfield, near Woodstock. The bone, and stone, in which it was bedded, weighed no less than 200 lb.
The bone was 29 inches in length; its diameter, at the extremity of the 2 trochanters, was 8 inches; at the lower extremity the condyles formed a surface
of 6 inches. Both the extremities appeared to be a little rubbed by the fluctuating. water, in which Mr. P. apprehended it lay some time before the great jumble obtained, which brought it to the aforesaid place; and whence he imagined it to have been part of a skeleton before the flocd. For if it had been corroded by any menstruum in the earth, or during the great conflux of water before the draining of the earth, it must have suffered in other parts as well as at each end, but as the extremities only are injured, such a partial effect can be attributed to the motion of the water only, which caused it to rub and strike against the sand, &c.
The small trochanter was broken in lifting it out of the hamper, in which it was brought to Mr. P.; but not unhappily; since all the cancelli were by that means discovered to be filled with a sparry matter, that fixed the stone of the stratum, in which it lay. The outer coat or cortex was smooth, and of a dusky brown colour, resembling that of the stone, in which it was bedded. One-half of the bone was buried in the stone: yet enough of it was exposed to show that it was the thigh-bone of an animal of greater bulk than the largest ox. He had compared it with the recent thigh-bone of an elephant; but could observe little or no resemblance between them. If he might be allowed to assume the liberty, in which fossilists are often indulged, and to hazard a vague conjecture of his own, he would say it might probably have belonged to the hippopotamus, to the rhinoceros, or to some such large animal, of whose anatomy we have not yet a competent knowledge.
The slate-pit, in which this bone was found, was about of a mile northwest from Stonesfield, on the declivity of a rising ground, the upper stratuin of which was a vegetable mould about 8 or 10 inches thick; under this was a bed of rubble, with a mixture of sand and clay, very coarse, about 6 feet deep, in which were a great number of anomiæ both plain and striated, and many small oblong oysters, which the workmen called the sickle-oyster, some of them being found crooked, and bearing some resemblance to that instrument; but all differing from the curvi-rostra of Moreton. Immediately under this stratum of rubble was a bed of soft grey stone, of no use; but containing the echini ovarii, with great mamillæ, the clypeati of different sizes, all well preserved; and also many anomiæ and pectines. This bed, which was about 7 or 8 feet in depth, lay immediately above the stratum of stone, in which the bone was found.
This stratum was never wrought by the workmen, being arenarious, and too soft for their use. It was about 4 or 5 feet thick, and formed a kind of roof to them, as they dug out the stone, of which the slates were formed; for they worked these pits in the same manner as they do the coal-pits, leaving pillars at proper distances to keep their roof from falling in. This last bed of slate-stone was about 5 feet in depth, and lower than this they never dug. So that the whole