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orbis magnus from the syzygies with Jupiter to the quadratures, and subtracting it in passing from the quadratures to the syzygies; and then in any case there will be had the true place of the earth's aphelion or the sun's apogee.
In like manner will the variation of the moon be to the variation of the sun, as the mean motion of the moon's apogee in the time of the moon's revolution at the sun, is to the mean motion of the sun's apogee in the time of the sun's revolution at Jupiter: and therefore, since the motion of the moon's apogee in a synodic time is 3° 17′ 20′′, and the motion of the sun's apogee is 14" 15", in which time the sun revolves at Jupiter, putting the greatest variation of the moon at 35' 10", the greatest variation of the sun comes out 2′′ 32′′", which takes place when the sun is in the octants with Jupiter; in other places the variation will be to the greatest variation, as the sine of double the sun's distance from his quadratures or syzygies with Jupiter, is to radius very nearly.
Also, if the excentricity of the earth's orbit and Jupiter's were the same, the equation of the mean motion of the earth or sun, which arises from the various contraction and dilatation of the orbis magnus by the force of Jupiter, would be to the like equation of the moon, as the motion of the sun's apogee in the time of Jupiter's revolution, is to the motion of the moon's apogee in the time of the sun's revolution, that is, as 2′ 34′′ 41′′ to 40° 40′ 43′′: but this equation of the sun should be augmented in the ratio of the excentricity of Jupiter's orbit to the excentricity of the earth's orbit, or in the ratio of the greatest equation of Jupiter's centre, to the greatest equation of the sun's centre very nearly, that is, in the ratio of 5° 31′ 36′′ to 1° 6' 20": hence if the greatest equation of the moon's mean motion be 11' 50", the greatest equation of the sun's mean motion will be 2" 8"′′, viz. in Jupiter's mean distances from the sun. In other places it is proportional to the equation of Jupiter's centre. In all these circumstances the force of Saturn is neglected as insensible.
CX. A Journal of the Weather in Dublin for the Years 1753, 1754, 1755. By James Simon, F. R. S., S. A. p. 759.
This journal contains the register of the barometer, with the state of the weather, as to wind, rain, snow, &c. for every day in the three years 1753, 4, 5, and that for three times in each day, viz. morning, noon, and night.
CXI. An Account of what happened at Bergemoletto, by the Tumbling down of Vast Heaps of Snow from the Mountains there, on March 19, 1755: As taken by the Intendant of the Town and Province of Cuneo. Received from Dr. Joseph Bruni, Professor of Philosophy at Turin, and F. R. S. Communicated by Mr. Henry Baker, F. R. S. Translated from the Italian. p. 796. In the neighbourhood of Demonte, as in the upper valley of Stura, on the
left hand, about an hour and half distant from the road leading to the castle of Demonte, towards the middle of the mountain, there were some houses in a place called Bergemoletto, which on the 19th of March, in the morning, (there being then a great deal of snow) were entirely overwhelmed and ruined by two vast bodies of snow, that tumbled down from the upper mountain. All the inhabitants were then in their houses, except one Joseph Rochia, a man of about 50, who with his son a lad of 15, were on the roof of his house, endeavouring to clear away the snow, which had fallen without any intermission for 3 preceding days. Whence perceiving a mass of snow tumbling down towards them from the mountain above, they had but just time to get down and flee, when, looking back, they perceived the houses were all buried under the snow. Thus 22 persons were buried under this vast mass, which was 60 English feet in height, insomuch that many men, who were ordered to give them all possible assistance, despaired of being able to do them the least service.
After 5 days, Joseph Rochia having recovered of his fright, and being able to work, got upon the snow, with his son, and two brothers of his wife's, to try if they could find the exact place under which his house and stable were buried; but though many openings were made in the snow, they could not find the desired place. However the month of April proving very hot, the snow beginning to soften, and indeed a great deal of it melted, this unfortunate man was again encouraged to use his best endeavours to recover the effects he had in the house, and to bury the remains of his family. He therefore made new openings in the snow, and threw earth into them, which helps to melt the snow and ice. On the 24th of April the snow was greatly diminished, and he conceived better hopes of finding out his house, by breaking the ice, which was 6 feet thick, with iron bars, and observing the snow to be softer underneath the ice, he thrust down a long pole, and thought it touched the ground; but the evening coming on he proceeded no further.
His wife's brothers, who lived at Demonte, went with Joseph and his neighbours, to work upon the snow, where they made another opening, which led them to the house they searched for; but finding no dead bodies in its ruins, they sought for the stable, which was about 240 feet distant, and having found it, they heard a cry of "Help, my dear brother". Being greatly surprized as well as encouraged by these words, they laboured with all diligence till they had made a large opening, through which the brothers and husband immediately went down, where they found still alive the wife about 45, the sister about 35, and a daughter about 13 years old. These women they raised on their shoulders to men above, who drew them up, as it were from the grave, and carried them to a neighbouring house: they were unable to walk, and so wasted that they appeared like mere shadows. They were immediately put to bed,
and nourishments administered. Some days after the intendant came to see them, and found the wife still unable to rise from her bed, or use her feet, from the intense cold she had endured, and the uneasiness of the posture she had been in. The sister, whose legs had been bathed with hot wine, could walk with some difficulty; and the daughter needed no further remedies, being quite re
On the intendant's interrogating the women, they told him, that their appetite was not yet returned; that the little food they had eaten (excepting broths and gruels) lay heavy on their stomachs, and that the moderate use of wine had done them great good: they also gave him the account that follows: that on the morning of the 19th of March they were in the stable, with a boy 6 years old and the girl about 13: in the same stable were 6 goats, one of which having brought forth 2 dead kids the evening before, they went to carry her a small vessel full of gruel; there were also an ass and 5 or 6 fowls. They were sheltering themselves in a warm corner of the stable, till the church bell should ring, intending to attend the service.
That the wife wanting to go out of the stable to kindle a fire in the house for her husband, who was then clearing away the snow from the top, she perceived a mass of snow breaking down towards the east, on which she went back into the stable, and shut the door. In less than 3 minutes they heard the roof break over their heads, and part of the ceiling of the stable. The sister advised her to get into the rack and manger, which she did. The ass was tied to the manger, but got loose by kicking and struggling, and though it did not break the manger, it threw down the little vessel, which the sister took up, and used afterwards to hold the melted snow which served them for drink.
Very fortunately the manger was under the main prop of the stable, and resisted the weight of the snow. Their first care was to know what they had to eat: the sister said, she had in her pocket 15 white chestnuts: the children said. they had breakfasted, and should want no more that day. They remembered there were 30 or 40 loaves in a place near the stable, and endeavoured to get at them, but were not able, by reason of the vast quantity of snow. On this they called out for help as loudly as they possibly could, but were heard by nobody. The sister came again to the manger, after she had tried in vain to come at the loaves, and gave 2 chestnuts to the wife, also eating 2 herself, and they drank some snow water. All this while the ass was very restless and continued kicking, and the goats bleated very much, but soon after they heard no more of them. Two of the goats however were left alive, and were near the manger; they felt them very carefully, and knew by so doing that one of them was big, and would kid about the middle of April; the other gave milk, with which they preserved their lives. The women affirmed, that during all the time they were
thus buried, they saw not one ray of light; yet for about 20 days they had some notion of night and day; for when the fowls crowed, they imagined it was break of day but at last the fowls died.
The 2d day, being very hungry, they eat all the remaining chestnuts, and drank what milk the goat yielded, which for the first days was near 2lb. a day, but the quantity decreased gradually. The 3d day, being very hungry, they again endeavoured to get to the place where the loaves were, near the stable, but they could not penetrate to it through the snow. They then resolved to take all possible care to feed the goats, as very fortunately over the ceiling of the stable, and just above the manger, there was a hayloft, with a hole through which the hay was put down into the rack. This opening was near the sister, who pulled down the hay and gave it to the goats as long as she could reach it, which when she could no longer do, the goats climbed upon her shoulders, and reached it themselves.
On the 6th day the boy sickened, complaining of most violent pains in the stomach, and his illness continued 6 days, on the last of which he desired his mother, who all this time had held him in her lap, to lay him at his length in the manger, where he soon after died. In the mean time the quantity of milk given by the goat diminished daily, and the fowls being dead they could no more distinguish night and day; but according to their calculation the time was near when the other goat should kid, which as they computed would happen about the middle of April; which at length happened accordingly. They killed the kid, to save the milk for their own subsistence. Whenever they called this goat, it would come and lick their faces and hands, and gave them every day
2lb. of milk.
They say, during all this time, hunger gave them but little uneasiness, except on the first 5 or 6 days: that their greatest pain was from the extreme coldness. of the melted snow water, which fell on them, and from the stench of the dead ass, dead goats, fowls, from lice, &c. but more than all from the very uneasy posture they were obliged to continue in: for though the place in which they were buried was 12 English feet long, 8 wide, and 5 high, the manger in which they sat squatting against the wall, was no more than 3 feet 4 inches broad. For 36 days they had no evacuation by stool after the first days: the melted snow water, which after some time they drank without doing them harm, was discharged by urine. The mother said she had never slept, but the sister and daughter declare they slept as usual. The mother and sister say, that on the day they were buried their monthly evacuations were upon them, but they had not the least sign of them afterwards.
CXII. On some of the more Rare English Plants observed in Leicestershire By W. Watson, M. D., &c. p. 803.
This account of some of the more rare plants, growing spontaneously in Leicestershire, was transmitted to Dr. Watson, by Mr. Richard Pulteney, an apothecary at Leicester,* whom Dr. W. describes as a person of real merit, well skilled not only in whatever related to his profession, but also in various parts of natural history. That his botanical knowledge was very extensive, and that he was very zealous in promoting it. That he had already laid before the public, though
Dr. Richard Pulteney was born at Loughborough in the county of Leicester, on February 17th, 1730. His parents had 13 children, of whom he alone arrived at the age of maturity; and he himself was affected at an early period of life with a pulmonary complaint, which indicated considerable delicacy of constitution. Though the circumstances of the family were easy, yet they did not admit of an expensive education, and the subject of these memoirs was placed in an ordinary elementary school, and was afterwards apprenticed to an Apothecary. His taste for Natural History commenced in very early youth, and in his hours of relaxation he used to wander about the fields, examining the plants that he happened to see in his way. At the termination of his apprenticeship he settled in business at Leicester, where he remained some years. Having commenced an acquaintance and correspondence with Sir William Watson, he was by him introduced to the Earl of Macclesfield, (then President of the Royal Society,) Mr. Hudson, author of the Flora Anglica, and other scientific people; and it was suggested to him by the Earl of Bath, one of his patrons, and to whom he was in some degree related, that his situation in the profession was not adequate to his character. He therefore obtained, with much reputation, a diploma from the University of Edinburgh, in the year 1764. Not long after this period he removed to Blandford in Dorsetshire, where he continued to practise during the rest of his life. He was the author of many useful and ingenious papers, relative to botanical and other subjects, in the Gentleman's Magazine, and of many valuable papers in the Philosophical Transactions; and, conceiving that the science of Natural History in general would be benefited by a general view of the writings of Linnæus, he published a most elegant and agreeable work under that title, which appears to have met with its deserved reception and encouragement in the literary world. He afterwards published historical and biographical sketches of the progress of Botany in England, from its origin to the introduction of the Linnaan system. This publication is very highly esteemed, and affords a concise and satisfactory. view of the gradual improvements of botanical knowledge, and of the lives of its principal cultivators in this kingdom. Dr. Pulteney during his hours of leisure employed himself in the study of Natural History, and was possessed of a very valuable herbarium, a good collection of shells, &c. On the 7th of October, 1801, he was attacked with symptoms of pulmonary inflammation, and of this disorder he died on the 13th of the same month, in the 71st year of his age. He bequeathed his valuable Museum to the Linnæan Society of London.
During 40 years of successful practice, Dr. Pulteney acquired a very considerable fortune, his professional character stood very high, and his whole conduct in private life was exemplary and In his general intercourse with the world he was somewhat reserved, but to those of his more particular acquaintances, and to the young and inquisitive student, he was always open and communicative. In his person he was rather below the ordinary stature, and somewhat slender, with regular features and countenance, indicating unusual intelligence aud superiority of mind. His view of the writings of Linnæus has been republished, with large and curious additions, under the care of Dr. Maton, from whose memoirs the preceding account is chiefly extracted.