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also a cylinder revolve about their own axes, which they do with great rapidity. Mercury has been made to rotate by means of voltaic electricity, and Professor Ritchie has exhibited in the Royal Institution the singular spectacle of the rotation of water by the same means, while the vessel containing it remained stationary. The water was in a hollow double cylinder of glass, and on being made the conductor of electricity, was observed to revolve in a regular vortex, changing its direction as the poles of the battery were alternately reversed. Professor Ritchie found that all the different conductors hitherto tried by him, such as water, charcoal, &c. give the same electro-magnetic results, when transmitting the same quantity of electricity, and that they deflect the magnetic needle in an equal degree when their respective axes of conduction are at the same distance from it. But one of the most extraordinary effects of the new force is exhibited by coiling a copper wire, so as to form a helix or corkscrew, and connecting the extremities of the wires with the poles of a galvanic battery. If a magnetised steel bar or needle be placed within the screw, so as to rest upon the lower and interior part, the instant a current of electricity is sent through the wire of the helix, the steel bar starts up by the influence of this invisible power, and remains suspended in

the air in opposition to the force of gravitation. The effect of the electro-magnetic power exerted by each turn of the wire is to urge the north pole of the magnet in one direction, and the south pole in the other; the force thus exerted is multiplied in degree and increased in extent by each repetition of the turns of the wire, and in consequence of these opposing forces the bar remains suspended. This helix has all the properties of a magnet while the electrical current is flowing through it, and may be substituted for one in almost every experiment. It acts as if it had a north pole at one extremity and a south pole at the other, and is attracted and repelled by the poles of a magnet exactly as if it were one itself. All these effects depend upon the course of the electricity, that is, on the direction of the turns of the screw, according as they are from right to left, or from left to right, being in the one case exactly the contrary of what it is in the other.

The effects of electricity in motion on magnets are not only precisely the same as the reciprocal action of magnetised bodies, but its influence in inducing magnetism in unmagnetised iron and steel is also the same with magnetic induction. The term induction, when applied to electric currents, expresses the power which these currents possess of inducing any particular state upon matter in

their immediate neighbourhood, otherwise neutral or indifferent. For example, the connecting wire of a galvanic battery holds iron filings suspended like an artificial magnet, as long as the current continues to flow through it; and the most powerful temporary magnets that have ever been made are obtained by bending a thick cylinder of soft iron into the form of a horseshoe, and surrounding it with a coil of thick copper wire covered with silk, to prevent communication between its parts. When this wire forms part of a galvanic circuit, the iron becomes so highly magnetic, that a temporary magnet of this kind made by Professor Henry of the Albany Academy, in the United States, sustained nearly a ton weight. The iron loses its magnetic power the instant the electricity ceases to circulate, and acquires it again as instantaneously when the circuit is renewed. Steel needles are rendered permanently magnetic by electrical induction; the effect is produced in a moment, and as readily by juxtaposition as by contact; the nature of the poles depends upon the direction of the current, and the intensity is proportional to the quantity of electricity.

It appears from what precedes, that the principle and characteristic phenomena of the electromagnetic science are, the evolution of a tangential and rotatory force exerted between a conducting

body and a magnet; and the transverse induction of magnetism by the conducting body in such substances as are susceptible of it.

The action of an electric current causes a deviation of the compass from the plane of the magnetic meridian. In proportion as the needle recedes from the meridian, the intensity of the force of terrestial magnetism increases, while at the same time the electro-magnetic force diminishes; the number of degrees at which the needle stops, and which mark where the equilibrium between these two forces takes place, will indicate the intensity of the galvanic current. The galvanometer, constructed upon this principle, is employed to measure the intensity of galvanic currents collected and conveyed to it by wires. This instrument is rendered much more sensible by neutralizing the effects of the earth's magnetism on the needle, which is accomplished by placing a second magnetised needle so as to counteract the action of the earth on the first, a precaution requisite in all delicate magnetical experiments.


THE science of electro-magnetism which has been under consideration, and must render the name of M. Oersted ever memorable, relates to the reci

procal action of electrical and magnetic currents: M. Ampère, by discovering the mutual action of electrical currents on one another, has added a new branch to the subject, to which he has given the name of electro-dynamics.

When electric currents are passing through two conducting wires so suspended or supported as to be capable of moving both towards and from one another, they show mutual attraction or repulsion, according as the currents are flowing in the same or in contrary directions; the phenomena varying with the relative inclinations and positions of the streams of electricity. It appears that the mutual action of such currents, whether they flow in the same or in contrary directions, whether they be parallel, perpendicular, diverging, converging, circular, or heliacal, all produce different kinds of motion, in a conducting wire, both rectilineal and circular, and also the rotation of a wire helix, such as that described and now called an electro-dynamic cylinder on account of some improvements in its construction; and as the hypothesis of a force varying inversely as the square of the distance accords perfectly with all the observed phenomena, these motions come under the same laws of dynamics and analysis as any other branch of physics. The theory of electro-dynamics, as well as actual experiment, confirms the identity between.

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