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In the third chapter, Heeren, under the guidance of Aristotle, examines the government of Carthage; in the fourth chapter, its public revenue. A tribute was paid by the subject cities: its agricultural subjects paid a portion of their produce; and this was so excessive, as to be a frequent cause of discontent, and even of insurrection. Customs were levied in its harbours; and in the later period of the republic, the state was the proprietor and worker of mines in Spain. The fifth chapter is devoted to its navigation and maritime commerce. This Heeren shows to have extended to the British Isles. It was, in our opinion, the Carthaginians who carried forward the vague name of the Cassiterides, or Tin-Islands, to the coast of Cornwall. When Heeren seeks to identify them, first with the Scilly Islands, and then with certain islets in Mount's Bay, he seems to us to attach far too exact a meaning to a name which was used to cover ignorance. It is possible that the Carthaginians penetrated to the amber countries of the Baltic, although we cannot believe that the Phoenicians did; for Pytheas of Marseilles certainly visited them in the fifth century before the Christian era. In the opposite direction, we know, from Herodotus, that they sailed to the coast of Libya, and carried on a dumb trade for gold. In this way the Negro nations trade at this day. The scene of this trade must have been as far south as the Senegal.
In the sixth chapter, Heeren treats a subject, which had eluded the observation of preceding writers-the Land Trade of Carthage. After explaining the nature of the trade which is carried on at this day across the Great Desert of Sahara, between the nations which dwell on its northern border, and the Negro nations on the south of it, he shows that this trade existed in ancient times. He proves also, that the Carthaginians took a part in it, by means of the nomad tribes, which were subject to their dominion-especially the Nasamones. These formed caravans, which travelled along the coast of the Syrtes, and turned southward to the country of the Garamantes, the modern Fezzan. Here they joined the great caravans, which traded from Thebes in Upper Egypt to the country of the Atlantes, which Heeren places on the borders of Bornou. The routes are those which are followed by the caravans of the present day, which set out from Tripoli and Cairo. In the country of the Atlantes, he supposes them to have been met by the negro traders from Soudan. The authority for the existence of this ancient trade we will mention presently.
The seventh chapter is on the Military Affairs of Carthage. Its forces were composed, partly of its Libyan subjects; partly of Numidians, or horsemen, of the nomad tribes, which acknow
ledged its dominion; partly of Spanish, Gallic, and Ligurian mercenaries. This mixed army was under the command of Carthaginian officers, in every degree of military rank. The eighth and last chapter is on the Decline and Fall of the Republic. This Heeren ascribes to the predominance of the democratic party in the state, under the supremacy of the Barcine family; and to the system of war and foreign conquest which was essential to the maintenance of that supremacy. He looks He looks upon Hamilcar, Asdrubal, and Hannibal, as military demagogues, who destroyed the internal soundness and strength of the Republic, while they sought to extend its foreign dominion; so that a reverse in the fortune of war brought with it irretrievable ruin. This view of the subject may be true; but we have already expressed our opinion, that the origin of the evil is to be traced further back,— to the obstinacy with which the Carthaginians endeavoured to obtain possession of Sicily, after repeated experience that they had there met their match. It may safely be affirmed, that their moral and intellectual endowments were not such as to enable them to cope with the Greeks and Romans.
Of the masterly disquisitions on the Ethiopians and Egyptians, it is better to say little, than to give a meagre and insufficient sketch. The chapter on the geography of the Ethiopian nations contains many interesting observations on the native tribes of Africa, and especially on the distinction between the Berbers or Tuaricks, the descendants of the ancient Libyans; and the Moors or Arabs who have overspread the northern part of the continent. Heeren has been enabled, by the researches of Caillaud and Küppel, to give an account of the remains of the ancient Meroe. He shows, by an accumulation of argument, which amounts as nearly to demonstration as can be supposed to be possible in a subject so remote and obscure, that the religion and civilisation of Egypt were of Ethiopian origin. Colonies of the priestly and military castes gradually descended the valley of the Nile from Meroe to Memphis, reducing the native inhabitants to subjection, and erecting temples, which became the sanctuaries of the adjacent districts, and the centres of mighty cities. Egyptian tradition described the cities of Upper Egypt as more ancient than those of Lower Egypt, and looked to Ethiopia as the parent of its religious system and its hieroglyphic writing; and modern research has shown, that the whole valley of the Nile, through Nubia up to Meroe, is full of architectural monuments of the same species, but that the higher we ascend, the more manifestly ancient do they become. The successive settlements along the Nile were originally independent states; and it was not till a period comparatively late, although to us of remote antiquity, that
Egypt was united under one king. The earlier dynasties of Manetho, which have so grievously perplexed chronologers, must be considered as contemporary rather than successive. In the volume on Egypt, we call the particular attention of the reader to the third chapter, in which one hundred and forty-four pages are worthily devoted to the description of Thebes, and the magnifi cent monuments of Sesostris, or Rameses the Great.
We promised to mention the authority on which Heeren assumes the existence of an ancient caravan trade in Africa. has introduced this subject in the treatise on the Carthaginians ; but it would have been more properly discussed in the volume on Egypt; for the great centre of the trade was Thebes. Herodotus, in the fourth book of his History (cc. 181-185), has given an account of the tribes in the interior of the Desert in a very singular manner. He begins with Thebes, and describes certain insulated spots in the Desert, each producing water and salt, and therefore inhabited, lying at regular distances, one from the other, of ten days' journey. Heeren has perceived, with happy discernment, that this is a description of a caravan road and its restingplaces. If we are not mistaken, this happy interpretation is the origin of his love for tracing caravan roads in other countries. The first two stations are Ammonium, now Siwah, and Augila, which still bears the same name. These are at this day the first two stations of the caravans which set out from Cairo, and their distance from one another corresponds exactly with the measurement of Herodotus. There is a mistake, however, in placing Ammonium at no greater distance than ten days' journey from Thebes; and Heeren conjectures that Herodotus has omitted one stage, which ought to have been the Great Oasis. The next resting-place beyond Augila was in the country of the Garamantes. Here we might be at a loss; for the name Garamantes is vaguely applied by ancient writers; but Herodotus, besides fixing the position of his Garamantes by mentioning their neighbours, places them at the distance of thirty days' journey from the Lotophagi, who dwelt near Tripoli. The intersection of the two measurements on the Egyptian and Carthaginian roads brings us to the territory of Fezzan, the resort of the modern caravans. It must be confessed, that Heeren thinks it necessary to suppose another omission between Augila and Fezzan, and to make the whole distance twenty days' journey. This he does, apparently, because he is anxious to bring his caravans to Zuila, the modern resting-place; and Hornemann was seventeen days in travelling from Augila to Zuila. But Fezzan is an extensive, fertile district, 200 miles in breadth; so that, if the regular ten days of Herodotus be not interpreted too strictly, a resting-place on the
north-eastern border of Fezzan may be found, which will answer both his conditions. Herodotus certainly describes all his stations as lying in a line from east to west; but Heeren here turns considerably to the south, placing the two remaining stations, the Atarantes and the Atlantes, at Tegerry, and at the Tibboo, a town of Bilma on the borders of Bornou. It is not unlikely that he is right; for the continuation of the line to the west would lead nowhere but into the terrible Desert of Zuenziga. He has pointed out some very singular and amusing coincidences, between the brief descriptions which Herodotus gives of these successive tribes, and the accounts of modern travellers. Herodotus says, that the Garamantes have no language like other men, but shriek like bats. The Augilians told Hornemann, that the tribes in th mountains of Fezzan had a language like the whistling of birds.*
Heeren takes occasion, from the mention of Ammonium, to describe the oasis, and the remains of the ancient temple of Ammon, which has been brought to light by the researches of Browne, Hornemann, and Minutoli. It was a small, but massy structure, in the Egyptian style; the most distant offspring of the worship of Meroe.
Here we close our remarks. It would be superfluous to express our high opinion of the value of Heeren's work. We look upon him as having breathed a new life into the dry bones of ancient history. In countries, the history of which has been neglected as being too imperfectly known to afford lessons of political wisdom, he has taught us to look for still more interesting lessons, on the social relations of men, and the intercourse of nations in the earlier ages of the world. His work is not without defects. He is a diffuse writer-prone to repetition, frequently vague, and sometimes inaccurate. He does not
always carefully distinguish between his own conjectures and positive testimony; and he is apt to interpret his authorities into more than can fairly be extracted from them. He does not always cite his authorities with sufficient minuteness; and sometimes we have found him absolutely mistaken in his interpretation of them. But his purpose is always honest. He has a thorough love of his subject, and a sincere desire to discover and make known the truth. His work is as learned as a professed commentary on the ancient historians and geographers, and as entertaining as a modern book of travels. We trust that some portion of his spirit may be imbibed by our English scholars.
* Perhaps they meant no more than that it was unintelligible.
ART. VI.-Pindar in English Verse. By the Rev. HENRY FRANCIS CARY, A.M. 12mo. London: 1833.
HIS, at last, is Pindar. We do not mean to say that Mr Cary has uniformly given the exact sense of his original; nor that he is everywhere sufficiently bright and gorgeous in the splendid parts; nor that, rivalling the music of the Grecian tongue and numbers, he has been always able to untwist
'the chains that tie
The hidden soul of harmony:'
But we hold his translation to be a wonderful effort to transfuse into a modern, and in many respects an uncongenial language, one of the most difficult and peculiar of the ancient authors. It is well calculated, though without the aid of preface, commentary, or appendix, to satisfy an ordinary reader, who does not care to fathom every allusion, nor to have a history for every proper name. It will generally meet the demands of the critical scholar, who takes pains to verify its correctness in obscure passages. It is a book, which the lover of Pindar, whose memory is written over with the beauties of the great Lyric, will go through without stopping; and which will convey an image an idea of his genius and manner that admirable mixture of strength, softness; austerity, sweetness; simplicity, richness;-sometimes hard and vivid as the chastest statuary, sometimes florid and luxuriant as the warmest painting-to the unlearned mind, destitute of Greek.
We have often asked ourselves whether this were possible. Assuredly there is no lack of hinderances to the attainment of such an image. The best classical scholar can only read Pindar. He misses the brilliant and graceful accompaniments of the odes at their first publication. To us they are no longer choral and orchestic. We see no triumphal cavalcade of men or youths advancing and singing as they advance to temple, palace, or banquet-hall. We hear no music, in the staid and manly airs of the Doric melody, or the vehement and various measures of the Eolic, or the more pure and simple strain of the Lydian. We follow with our gaze no dance, trained and tempered to a happy medium between the gravity of the gymnopædic movement, and the wanton steps and mimic action of the light and ludicrous hyporcheme. We suspect, indeed, that Kuithan is wrong in imagining that any Pindaric ode was ever enlivened by a galopade on horseback, after the fashion of Mr Ducrow's equestrian cotil