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African Nations, Researches on the Ancient, by Heeren, 87, 118-122;
the existence of an ancient Caravan trade amongst, considered, with
the routes they took, 122.

Ali, Mohammed, J. A. St John's interview with, 406; is engaged in wri-
ting his life, 407; personal appearance and habits of, 410.
America, injury done to, by the tariff, 188.

Asiatic Nations, researches on the ancient, by Heeren, 87; geographical
formation of Asia, 93, 94; habits of the people, 94, 95; commerce of
the, 95-97; languages of the, 97; Persian Empire, ib.-See Persia;
speculative philosophy has never attained to any excellency among
the, 365.
Astronomy, admirable observations on, by Mrs Somerville, 157, 158;
multiplicity and complexity of the tables required in, 270-274; Mr
Babbage's Calculating Machine peculiarly applicable to, 309.


Babbage's (Charles) communications regarding his Calculating Engine,
264; first announcement of, to the world, ib.; regarded by many in
the light of a philosophical curiosity, 265; time already taken in the
formation of, 265, 266; variety of numerical tables published-see
Numerical; precautions adopted by, in the calculation of his tables of
logarithms, 275; benefits to be derived from the invention, 283; method
of differences, selected as the basis of the calculations, 284; observa-
tions on a numerical table, 284, 285; examples showing the fourth
power of the natural numbers, 285-287; may be produced by the
operation of addition alone, 287, 288; each addition consists only of
two operations, 288; tables showing the method of calculating
addition and carriage, with explanation of the process, 290-295; na-
ture of the mechanism by which the adding process is effected, 295–
297; the same as to the process of carrying, 297-299; further me-
chanical contrivances for the machine calculating rightly, 299-302;
explanation of the means to enable it to print its calculations, 302-304;
explanation of the machine as it really is, 305-308; actual powers of
the machinery greatly transcend its original design, 308; peculiarly
applicable to calculations required in Astronomy, 309-311; informs
its attendants when an adjustment is required, 311; capable of
solving numerical equations which have rational roots, ib. ;-of calcu-
lating to the extent of thirty decimal places, 312; Mr Babbage led,
2 M


by the impossibility of bearing in mind the variety of motions, to the
contrivance of a scheme of mechanical notation, 313;-see Mechani-
cal Notation; its discovery has led to a multitude of mechanical contri-
vances, 319, 320; calculating machine invented by Pascal, 320; also
by several individuals, 321, 322; difference between them and Mr
Babbage's, as expressed by Mr Colebrook, 322, 323; report on, by
the Royal Society, 323-325; Government engaged Mr Babbage to
construct the calculating machine for national use, 325; has been
suspended-cause not known, 326; duty of Mr Babbage and Govern-
ment, 327.

Babylonian Empire, 113; antiquity of the City of Babylon, ib.; trade
of the, 113, 114; commerce of, on the Persian Gulf, 114, 115.
Barrow's (John) Excursions in the North of Europe, 372; visits St Pe-
tersburg, 373; sketch of the company and entertainment at the prin-
cipal table d'hôte, 374; visits Moscow, 375, 376; contrasted with St
Petersburg, 377; proceeds to Stockholm, 378; Copenhagen, 379;
sketch of the Norwegian Parliament, as seen by Mr, 380, 381; obser-
vations on the fiords of Norway, 381; description of the scenery be-
tween Christiania and Bergen, 382, 383; character of the peasantry,
384, 385; account of a village merry-making, 385; comparison between
Switzerland and Norway, 389.

Bentham's (Mr) Rationale of Evidence, the most original of his works,
447, 466, 467.

Britain, Great, report of trade between France and, 182; smuggling
carried on to a great extent with brandy and tobacco, 194; modification
of the duties on, would add greatly to the revenue, 194, 195.
British Art, progress and prospects of, 53; retrospect of, not a glorious
and inspiring theme, ib.; state of, from the accession of Henry VIII. to
Charles II., 54-56; first native spark of genius appeared in the person
of Hogarth, 57; Reynolds the first great painter England produced, 58;
has made no advancement since the death of Reynolds, ib.; British
artists are unrivalled in the art of painting in water-colours, ib.; ought
to be followed as professions by those in higher rank, 64; nothing
degrading in the course of study, 65–67; Britain far behind other
countries in having a public collection worthy of notice, ib.; effects a
good collection would have on young artists, 68-72; kind of collec-
tion to be preferred, 72, 73.

British Artists, Lives of the most eminent, by Allan Cunningham, 48.-
See Cunningham.

Brydges's (Sir Egerton) Autobiography, 439; presents an elaborate pic-
ture of visionary repinings and morbid susceptibility, 439–445.
Burnes, Lieut., information he has given on the north-eastern provinces
of Persia, 102.


Calculating Engine, by Charles Babbage.-See Babbage.

Carthage, knowledge of, derived entirely from foreign sources, 118;
subjects divided into three classes, 119; foreign possessions of, 119,

120; land trade of, ib.; military affairs of, 120, 121; decline and fall
of the republic, 121.

Cary's (Rev. H. Francis) Poetical Translation of Pindar, 124; com-
pared with other translations, 124-127.-See Pindar.
Charles I., encouragement given to painting by, 55.

Commerce of the ancient Asiatic and African nations, 90-92.
Cousin's, Victor, history of philosophy, 359; speculative philosophy has
owed its advancement chiefly to the nations of Teutonic descent,
359; professes a system of impartial and universal eclecticism, 360;
defines the primitive system into four, 361; has discovered his system
fully manifested in India, 361, 362; agitation of abstract metaphysics
cannot be regarded as a symbol of high general culture, 362; the philo-
sophy of sensation developed in the Sanc'hyas of Capila, 362, 363; first
indistinct gleams of the ideal philosophy perceived in the doctrine Nyaya,
ascribed to Gotama, 363; traces of a spiritual philosophy found in the
Nyaya and Vedantà, ib.; no distinct school of scepticism found in
India, 364; mysticism attained maturity, and a widely prevailing in-
fluence, in the Oriental world, ib.; Oriental institutions unfriendly to
vigorous expansion of thought, 365; progress of philosophy in Greece,
365-367; in the middle ages, 367; Cousin's systems not discover-
able in the great masters of philosophy, 367, 368; contracts Locke's
doctrines within narrow limits, 368; strictures on the deductions he
draws from Locke's analyses of individual ideas, 370–372.
Crystallization, extracts from Mrs Somerville's work on Physical
Sciences, 167, 168.

Cunningham, Allan, lives of the most eminent British painters, sculp
tors, and architects, 48; prejudiced against Sir Joshua Reynolds, 49-
51; inconsistent at times in his remarks, 51, 52; partial to those who
do not deserve the title of eminent painters, 52, 53; his description of
the style of portrait-painting during the reign of the Stuarts, 57; his
character of Reynolds, 58.


Dacre, a novel, edited by the Countess of Morley, 475; much superior
to the usual run of novels, 475, 476; outline of the plot, 476; extracts
from, 477-486.

Douza, Janus, school of Leyden owes its existence and reputation to,
209; principles on which he proceeded, 209, 210.

Dutch Universities, constitution of the, 206-208.-See Leyden.


Ecbatana, site of, 101; magnificence of, and wealth congregated in, ib.
Education, fund granted by Government for the extension of, 486, 487;
cause of crime increasing with the progress of, 488.

Egypt, religion and civilisation of, were of Ethiopian origin, 121, 122.
Egypt, St John's Travels in, 405; interview with Mohammed Ali, 406
-410; personal appearance and habits of, 410-412; opinion that the
ancient Egyptians had an aversion to the sea contradicted, 412, 413;
Cairo is a hot-bed of vice, 413; account of the Almeh, 413-415;

corruption appears to be universal amongst all classes, 415; remarks
on Egyptian archæology, 416-418; sketch of the character of the
native population, 418; oppression the Fellahs have been kept in, 418,
419; make admirable soldiers, 419-421; cause of the failure in in-
troducing cotton-spinning into, 421-423; people have not been bene-
fited by the innovations of the Viceroy, 423; character of the Turkish
and Egyptian armies, and cause of the success of the latter, 424, 425.
England, state of the tenancy and culture of, 387; importance of agri-
culture, ib.; great discrepancy in the modes of managing land, 388-
391; causes of the general backwardness in adopting improvements,
391; is owing to the want of leases of a reasonable length, 392; evils
arising from, ib.; refutation of some plausible objections against the
granting of leases, 393-396; advantages resulting from leases, 396-
399; leases should be framed so as to hinder the overcropping and
exhausting of the land previous to their termination, 399-401; mis-
chievous effects arising from the old tenant claiming from the incomer
remuneration for, 401-404.

English Parochial System has done much to counteract the abuse of the
poor laws, 437.

Enthusiasm implies a higher degree of faith possessed by one individual
over another, 31, 32.


Fanaticism, by the author of Natural History of Enthusiasm, 30; mean-
ing of the term, 32; divided by the author into four branches, ib.;
leads to self-infliction, 32-34; the author of, does not analyze the
emotion which produces effects, 35, 36; analysis of the chapter that
The religion of the Bible is not fanatical,' 36-40; the author of,
declaims with bitterness against the Church of Rome, ib.; displayed
as much by the Protestant Church as by the Church of Rome, 40-45;
more prevalent in the upper than lower ranks of society, 46, 47.
Foundling Hospitals, bad on political, moral, and religious grounds, 241,

Fox, General, defence of his conduct when at Sicily, 24, 25.
France, Report of the French and British Commissioners on the commer-
cial relations between, and Great Britain, 182; close relationship which
ought to exist between the two countries, 183; causes of the jealousy
between them, 183, 184; value of the articles exported to, ib.; injury
done to, by the prohibition against the importation of iron and cotton,
185-188; foreign demand for French wines rapidly decreasing, on
account of the duties, 189; extracts from a petition laid before the
Chamber of Deputies, 190, 191; smuggling carried to a great extent
in, 192, 193.


German Universities, cause of their rise and success, 211-214.
Grainger on the Present State of the Tenancy of Land in Great Britain,
387. See England.

Grey (Earl), station he holds in public opinion, 520; retires from
public life, 520, 521.


Heeren's Researches on the ancient Asiatic and African nations, 87; great
praise is due to Mr Talboys for their translation and publication, 87,
88; falls into error in speculating upon the origin of civil society and
of government, 89; intimate connexion of religion with civil govern-
ment, 89, 90; mainly directs his researches to their commerce, 90—92;
disquisition on Asia, 93-118. See Asiatic Nations. Disquisition on
Egypt, Carthage, and the Ethiopians, 118-123.

Hindoos, the Vedas ascertained to be the most ancient of the sacred books
of the, 117; their manufactures and foreign trade, 117.

Hogarth, the first native painter England produced, 57; prices he pro-
cured for his most celebrated pictures, 70, 71.

Hospitals for providing provision for infancy or old age inexpedient, 241


India to be regarded as the first country where science and letters
were cultivated, 361; systems of philosophy discovered in the early
writings of, 362-365.

Ireland, introduction of Poor Laws into, 227; changes of opinion on,
229-232; position the subject is left in by the recorded opinion of
Parliamentary committees, 232-234; has greatly improved in capital,
agriculture, and manufactures, 234; distress still great amongst the
poorest class, ib.; national character taken into consideration, 235;
proper method of considering the question of, 237; provision made by
the law for the sick, 238; houses of industry erected, 239; how the
system has worked, 239, 240; what class is meant by the poor, 240,
241; asylum for natural infirmities still required, 241; poor laws have
always been found to lead to great evils, 243; relief to the able-bodied
poor can only be given gratuitously, or in exchange for labour, 244;
will have no more effect in, than elsewhere, 245-247; immigration of
Irish poor into England would be promoted by poor laws, 248-251;
Irish rents would be decreased by the, 251-253; failure of the potato
crop attributable to the miserable state of culture on estates which are
sub-let, 253, 254; effect of the introduction of poor laws on the mode
of managing landed estates, 255-258; effects of poor laws on the
peace of the country, 258, 259; tax on absentee estates, ib.
Irish Round Towers, 143. See O'Brien.

Irish, national character of the, 235.

Iron, French regulations against the importation of foreign, 185-188.
Italian Universities, 204; how endowed, ib.; sketch of the Universities
of Padua, 205; Pisa, 205, 206.


Kennedy on the Present State of the Tenancy of Land in Great Britain,
387. See England.

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