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in a certain Quarterly Journal, how, supposing he had not been in such haste to announce it to the public before the public could read it, he would have contrived to reconcile the above statements with those views of the late great measure, in which he indulges? Here we have it proclaimed officially, that the colonists of Demerara had themselves anticipated one of the principal enactments of our Legislature ;'-one of the principal provisions of a measure which, according to this candid gentleman, was the unfortunate result of the Ministry having succumbed to 'pertinacity, ignorance, rashness, blind audacity, mean shuffling and intriguery, and hot, heavy, dogged stupidity!'
Before we close our notice of this work, we must extract the following specimen of slavery in the good old times,'-times long anterior to those last ten years,' on the history of which, as the enlightened philanthropist above alluded to assures us, ‘fu'ture times will pause with mingled wonder, contempt, and pity.' There is a popular negro song, the burden of which is,
"Take him to the Gulley! Take him to the Gulley!
This alludes to a transaction which took place some thirty years ago, on an estate in this neighbourhood, called Spring-Garden; the owner of which (I think the name was Bedward) is quoted as the cruelest proprietor that ever disgraced Jamaica. It was his constant practice, whenever a sick negro was pronounced incurable, to order the poor wretch to be carried to a solitary vale upon his estate, called the Gulley, where he was thrown down, and abandoned to his fate; which fate was generally to be half-devoured by the john-crows, before death had put an end to his sufferings. By this proceeding the avaricious owner avoided the expense of maintaining the slave during his last illness; and in order that he might be as little a loser as possible, he always enjoined the negro bearers of the dying man to strip him naked before leaving the Gulley, and not to forget to bring back his frock and the board on which he had been carried down. One poor creature, while in the act of being removed, screamed out most piteously "that he was not dead yet ;" and implored not to be left to perish in the Gulley in a manner so horrible. His cries had no effect upon his master, but operated so forcibly on the less marble hearts of his fellow-slaves, that in the night some of them removed him back to the negro village privately, and nursed him there with so much care, that he recovered, and left the estate unquestioned and undiscovered. Unluckily, one day the master was passing through Kingston, when, on turning the corner of a street suddenly, he found himself face to face with the negro, whom he had supposed long ago to have been picked to the bones in the Gulley of Spring-Garden. He immediately seized him, claimed him as his slave, and ordered his attendants to convey him to his house; but the fellow's cries attracted a crowd
round them, before he could be dragged away. He related his melancholy story, and the singular manner in which he had recovered his life and liberty; and the public indignation was so forcibly excited by the shocking tale, that Mr Bedward was glad to save himself from being torn to pieces by a precipitate retreat from Kingston, and never ventured to advance his claim to the negro a second time.'
There is a good deal of pleasing poetry interspersed throughout this volume, of which the following stanzas of a song, forming part of a metrical tale, called The Isle of Devils,' may serve as an example.
When summer smiled on Goa's bowers,
They seem'd so fair;
All light the skies, all bloom the flowers,
The mock-bird swell'd his amorous lay,
Soft, sweet, and clear;
And all was beauteous, all was gay,
• But now the skies in vain are bright
The pea-dove's call to Love's delight
And blushing roses vainly bloom;
And all is sadness, all is gloom,
For she is dead!'
In conclusion, we must add, that the pleasant impression which this work has produced, makes us desire to learn more respecting Mr Lewis. The man who left so good a journal, must have been an agreeable correspondent. He had, moreover, many distinguished literary friends. Did he correspond with them? and are any of his letters preserved and producible? If so, they would probably be found interesting. We should be glad, too, to see something of the nature of a memoir; and hope we may draw a favourable augury with respect to the probable appearance of some such production, even from the laconic brevity of the advertise'ment' to this journal; for, assuredly, it cannot be supposed that the reading world will be quite satisfied with being informed merely, that the following Journals of two residences in Jamaica, in 1815-16, and in 1817, are now printed from the MS. of Mr Lewis, who died at sea, on the voyage homewards 'from the West Indies, in the year 1818.'
ART. V.-1. Historical Researches into the Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Carthaginians, Ethiopians, and Egyptians. By A. H. L. HEEREN, Professor of History in the University of Goettingen. Translated from the German. 2 vols. 8vo. Oxford: 1832.
2. Historical Researches into the Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Principal Nations of Antiquity. By A. H. L. HEEREN, Professor of History in the University of Goettingen. Translated from the German. Asiatic Nations. 3 vols. 8vo. Ox
THESE five volumes contain a translation of the fourth edition of the celebrated Ideen of Professor Heeren. The title of the second portion of the translation ought to stand as the title of the whole; but it appears that the translation of the two volumes on the African Nations was published as a separate work, when no purpose was entertained of translating the remainder. The circumstance, that the two portions of the work were thus translated separately, and presented separately to the English reader, has occasioned some dislocation of the parts. In the original, the disquisitions on the Asiatic nations precede those on the African states; and the latter contain very frequent references to the former. An English student, therefore, who begins with the portion of the translation first published, will be somewhat perplexed by finding himself in the midst of a connected series of investigations. The General Introduction to the whole work, which contains Heeren's views of the origin of civil government in the nations of antiquity, of the political influence of religion, and of the distinctive characters of ancient and modern commerce, has been removed from its place, and prefixed to the volume on the Carthaginians. Of course, if the work in its English garb attracts the attention which it deserves, a second edition will give the opportunity of correcting these accidental changes, and of restoring the work to its original form.
In the two volumes of the translation which were first published, we had noted sundry inaccuracies and errors; but we were disarmed of our critical weapons, when we discovered, by the address prefixed to the second part of the translation, that the translator of the former part was the publisher himself Mr Talboys. All students of classical antiquity in this country, and especially the students of the University of Oxford, are indebted to Mr Talboys for the judgment and the zeal which he has exerted in endeavouring to make the works of Heeren accessible to English readers.
He first reprinted, with corrections and emendations, an American translation of the Sketch of the Political History of Ancient Greece; a treatise which made a part of the earlier editions of the Ideen. He then published, in like manner, a reprint of a translation of the Manual of Ancient History, with corrections and alterations supplied by Professor Heeren himself. He afterwards himself became a translator, and presented an English version of the two volumes on the Nations of Africa. These were speedily followed by the three volumes on the Asiatic Nations. The greater part of these volumes has been translated, we are told, by more professed scholars than Mr Talboys; but we conceive that it is to his good example that we are indebted for the benefit of their labours. And finally, we observe that Mr Talboys has continued to exercise his function as the introducer of Heeren to the English public, by publishing a translation of the Historical Manual of the Political System of the States of Europe and of their Colonies, since the discovery of the Indies. The discernment and the enterprise which he has manifested in the publication of this series of translations of works so valuable as Heeren's, raise him above the mere mercantile character of his vocation, and entitle him to be considered as a promoter of learning in this country. We trust that his labours are appreciated, as they deserve to be, in the venerable seat of learning to which he has attached himself.
The translations which are now before us have been revised by Professor Heeren himself, and have received his sanction. Some articles are added in the Appendix, which were not published with the German work. Among these are two very valuable dissertations, on the Commerce of Palmyra, and on the Ancient Commerce of the Island of Ceylon, which were written by Heeren in Latin. He has supplied, likewise, some articles which have never been published before.
We wish to present to our readers a brief summary of the contents of the whole work. The researches which are pursued in it are so various, and involve such abundant references, not merely to ancient authors, but to the narratives of modern travellers, that a complete examination of it would be a labour of great difficulty and great length. We shall, therefore, point out the general course of Heeren's investigations; and we shall direct the attention of the student to those theories which are the most original and the most ingenious, and which appear to be supported by adequate proof; but we shall do more than intimate our doubts, where the learned writer seems to have built upon his authorities more than the foundations will bear.
In the General Introduction, Heeren speculates upon the ori
gin of civil society and of government. We are not disposed to controvert the theory by which civil government is traced up to patriarchal and paternal authority; but it was, certainly, with some degree of doubt that we encountered the position, that the formation of cities implied the original equality of the citizens, and necessarily involved a democratical constitution; and our incredulity became astonishment, when we found this hypothesis followed by the conclusion, that Senates or Councils were of later origin than General Assemblies of the citizens, and that the appointment of Magistrates, with special offices and powers, was a yet later fruit of social experience. However specious this theory may seem, we believe that it is in direct contradiction to all that we know, from historical tradition, of the earliest constitution of the cities of Greece and Italy. Surely hereditary Chiefs (for such in all cases were the earliest Magistrates, even of the cities), and Councils of the Elders, were institutions derived from the patriarchal form of society. These speculations apply to the republican states of the ancient world. The great monarchies were formed by conquest. The conquering people held a supremacy over the subject nations; but in order to effect their conquests, and maintain their dominion, it was necessary that they themselves should be subject to a military despotism.
Throughout his work, Heeren insists strongly upon the intimate connexion of religion with the polity of the nations of antiquity. It is a profound and most instructive observation, that, the further back we trace the history of any nation, the greater appears to be the influence of religion upon the civil government. Even in the smallest republics, the sentiment of a common religion was necessary as a bond of union among the citizens. All others were liable to be broken by the dissensions of parties. But the bitterest political opponents acknowledged that they were the children of one mother, when they assisted at the customary rites of their native gods, and worshipped in the temples erected by the piety of their ancestors. Religion was, in an especial degree, the principle of unity in all the confederations of antiquity, and infused into them a spirit of nationality. Thus the temple of the Tyrian Hercules became the centre of the Phoenician league; that of Jupiter Latialis of the Latin confederacy; and the Greeks, notwithstanding their perpetual contests, felt that they were one people, when they were assembled to celebrate the festival of the Olympian Jupiter.
In the great monarchies, which were composed of a mixed multitude of nations of different religions, religion could not act as a bond of union; but it was of the greatest importance, inasmuch as it interposed the only species of legislation which had power