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scent, however, of the hot-house rose is not so exquisite as that of the flower produced in the open air. Five shillings have been given for a rose at Christmas, to blush in the bosom of some expensive fair one.-See an interesting little Poem on this subject in Conversations on Natural History,' vol. i, p. 159.

The oak, the beech, and the hornbeam, in part, retain their leaves, and the ash its keys. The common holly (ilex aquifolium), with its scarlet berries, is now conspicuous; and those dwarfs of the vegetable creation, mosses, and the liverwort (lichen), now attract our notice.-See T. T. for 1817, p. 358.

The redbreast is still heard to chaunt his cheerful strain,' and the sparrow chirps. No bird more frequently meets our eye than this, and if it does not charm the ear by its voice, it amuses the mind by its familiarity and craftiness. It frequents our habitations, and is seldom absent from our gardens and fields. Though its note is only a chirp, in a wild state; when early reclaimed, it may be taught to imitate the strain of the linnet or goldfinch. Few birds are more execrated by the farmers, and none, perhaps, more unjustly. It is true, indeed, they consume a considerable quantity of grain and fruit, but then it should be considered that a pair of them will destroy upwards of three thousand caterpillars in a week. Nor is the utility of these birds limited to this circumstance alone: they likewise feed their young with butterflies and other insects, which, if suffered to live, would be the parents of numerous caterpillars.

The shortest day, or winter solstice, happens on the 21st of December; and the joyful season of Christmas is now approaching.

Towards the end of the month, woodcock shooting commences.

With shattered wing reversed and plumage fair
Wide scattering in the wind, headlong he falls.

The pliant branches to his weight give way,
And the hard frozen ground his fall returns.
See how the joyful dogs, exulting, press
Around the prostrate victim, nor presume
With lawless mouths to tear his tender skin.
Obedient to my voice, one lightly brings
The lifeless bird, and lays it at my feet.
Thus oft when skimming o'er some thorny brake,
Struck by the shot, the wounded bird has dropt
Full in its centre, through the tangled briars
The trusty dog his painful passage works,
Nor leaves, till from the dark abyss he drags
The fluttering prey, and yields it to my hand.
FOWLING, a Poem.

Of the snipe (scolopax gallinago), which becomes a prey to the fowler in this and the following month, there are more than forty varieties, mostly breeding in Europe, and subsisting on insects. Some of these wild-fowl frequent moors, others delight in swampy bushes, and others in the open fields.-See T. T. for 1816, p. 351.

In this month, those wild animals which pass the winter in a state of torpidity, retire to their hiding places. The frog, lizard, badger, and hedgehog, which burrow under the earth, belong to this class. The hedgehog or urchin is among those inoffensive animals to which superstition once affixed malignant qualities. The witches in Macbeth name its cry among those of evil omen :

Thrice the brinded cat hath mewed;
Twice and once the hedge-pig whined.

And Caliban complains of it as one of the creatures that his master, Prospero, sent to torment him: For every trifle they are set upon me

Sometimes like apes that mew and chatter at me,
And after bite me; then like hedgehogs, which
Lie tumbling in my bare footpath.-

And the vulgar still believe that hedgehogs are unlucky, and even more actively mischievous; for, that they eat the roots of the corn; suck the cows,

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causing their udders to ulcerate; and many other misdemeanours are laid to the charge of this poor little beast; who, being guilty of none of them, lives in remote hedge-rows, copses, and the bottoms of dry ditches, under leaves and fern, and feeds on beetles, worms, and flies. Sometimes, with its snout, it digs up the roots of the plantain among the grass, and makes them a part of its food.

The bat is now found in caverns, barns, &c. suspended by the claws of its hind feet, and closely enveloped in the membranes of the fore feet. Dormice, squirrels, water-rats, and field-mice, provide a large stock of food for the winter season.

On every sunny day through the winter, clouds of insects, usually called gnats (tipulæ & empedes), appear sporting and dancing over the tops of evergreen trees in shrubberies; and they are seen playing up and down in the air, even when the ground is covered with snow. At night, and in frosty weather, or when it rains and blows, they appear to take shelter in the trees.

The farmer is happy to avail himself of a hard frost, when the earth burns frore' and cold performs the effect of fire,' or of the sun, to dry the roads, to get the dung-cart, and carry out his manure, ready for the ensuing season of sowing spring corn.

Whatever inconvenience may be experienced from the cold and long nights of winter, all is compensated by the cheerful blaze of the evening fire with the social circle round it, and the subsequent retreat to a comfortable bed; and those who experience this happiness cannot express their gratitude to Him who affords it to them, better than by extending the blessing to those who want it, by assisting in making their cottages comfortable, mending their windows, supplying them with firing, clothing, and bedding.

Having recommended to our readers the practice of benevolence to others, and gratitude to the Divine Being for all the favours they enjoy, we must repeat, at the close of this annual volume, what cannot too often be insisted on-that the Seasons' are emblematic of human life; and that the pride of SUMMER, the riches of AUTUMN, the rigours of WINTER, and the buds and flowers of SPRING, alike remind us of our terrestrial progress, our decay, death, and renovation in another state of being.

I have seen the green-budding spring,
The scenes of my hope it illumed;
I've seen the gay SUMMER'S bright beam,
On its stay I fondly presumed.

I've seen yellow AUTUMN's rich stores,
I hoped its delights would abide;
And WINTER'S chill blasts I have heard,
The spoils of the groves spreading wide.
Since then Spring, the parent of joys,
Is followed by WINTER'S bleak wind,
Ah! why should I foster the hope
Perpetual pleasures to find?

But despair not, for WINTER's harsh storms
Are the nurse of the hopes of the Spring;
Both the smiles of Summer's bright days,
And AUTUMN's rich treasures, they bring.
So the stern WINTER's day of our life,
And the tempests that over us rove,
Shall yield to the durable smiles
Of SPRING, ever-blooming above.

D. €.



Time's Telescope



For the various SAINTS, see the word. The Roman Numerals refer
to the Introduction.

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August, explained, 186
Autumn, morning's walk in, 234


Bacon, John, 187
Bacon, Lord, 78
Barthelemy, Abbé, 113
Basaltes, xxvi

Becket, Thomas à, 161
Bede, venerable, 118
Bee, lines to, 72, 130
Berkeley, Bp., 6
Beveridge, Bp, 51
Beziers, ceremony at, 87
Bible Society, 52

Birds, lines on the instinct of, 105
Bismuth, xlix

Blow-pipe, advantages of, xxxix
Boulton, Matthew, 190
Boyle, Robert, 307

Buffon's Theory of the Earth, xiii
Burnett's Theory of the Earth, viii
Butler, Samuel, 222
Butterfly, lines to, 109


Calendar, poetical, 26
Camden, William, 280
Cerium, lii

Characters of Minerals, xxxvi
Charles V, 220

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