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Valentine, after a year's imprisonment at Rome, was beaten with clubs, and then beheaded, in the Via Flaminia, about the year 270.

The custom of choosing Valentines and of sending love-letters on this day, is discussed at length in our volume for 1814, p. 32.

The first inventor of this custom (observes Mr. Hutchinson) must have been some benevolent female, who studied to encourage the intercourse of the sexes; for by such means intimacies might arise, productive of love and marriage engagements: or otherwise the first design of these lots was, that those who shared in the dances, and diversions, might have their proper partners assigned, without hazarding the confusion and displeasure which must necessarily arise in the liberty of choice. See T. T. for 1814, p. 33, note, for an elegant jeu d'esprit on this subject; T. T. for 1815, p. 52; and our last volume, p. 40.

*14. 1779.-CAPT. COOK murdered AT OWHYHEE.
When Cook-lamented, and with tears as just
As ever mingled with heroic dust-

Steered Britain's oak into a world unknown,
And in his country's glory sought his own;
Whenever he found man, to nature true,
The rights of man were sacred in his view.
He soothed with gifts, and greeted with a smile,
The simple native of the new-found isle;
He spurned the wretch that slighted or withstood
The tender argument of kindred blood;
Nor would endure that any should control
His free-born brethren of the southern pole.

*17. 1563.-MICHEL ANGelo died, ÆT. 88. He was equally celebrated as a sculptor, painter, and architect; having superintended the building of St. Peter's Church, at Rome, for more than seventeen years. Few men have passed through life with more honour and esteem than Michel Angelo, whom popes and princes looked up to as one of the wonders of the age. This eminence he obtained by indefatigable application, and the steady pursuit of perfection.


gorously sober, and inclined to solitude, nothing interfered with his studies and labours. He lived in a state of celibacy; and was accustomed to say that his art was his wife, and his works his children who would perpetuate his memory.


His valuable Greek and Hebrew Lexicons will ever cause his name to be revered by the learned and the pious.


Matthias was, probably, one of the seventy disciples, and was a constant attendant upon our Lord, from the time of his baptism by St. John until his ascension. Upon the death of Judas, St. Peter recommended to the consideration of the Christians assembled at Jerusalem the necessity of supplying this vacancy: and two were appointed; Joseph, called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. It was determined by lot in favour of the latter, who was accordingly numbered with the eleven apostles. Matthias employed the first years of his ministry in Judea afterwards he travelled eastward, his residence being principally, according to St. Jerome, near the river Apsarus, and the haven Hyssus, Here he continued for some time, but was at last murdered by the barbarous natives. The gospel and traditions published under his name are considered spurious.

Astronomical Occurrences


THE Sun enters Pisces at 26 m. after 4 in the morning of the 19th, and he rises and sets during this month as stated in the following


Of the Sun's Rising and Setting for every Fifth Day. February 1st, Sun rises 27 m. after 7. Sets 33 m. after 4



18 ·



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Equation of Time.

The following table shows what must be added to the time, as indicated by a good sun-dial, to obtain the mean time corresponding to the same instant on every fifth day of the month, viz.


Sunday, Feb. 1st, to the time by the dial add


Wednesday, 11th,
Monday, 16th,
Saturday, 21st,
Thursday, 26th,

New Moon,

First Quarter,

Phases of the Moon.

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4 morning.

1 morning.

27 m. past midnight.

Moon's Passage over the First Meridian.

The Moon will be on the first meridian at the following times during the present month; and consequently, if the weather be favourable, she may be conveniently observed in that position.

February 12th, at 21 m. past 5 in the evening.

14th, 52

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Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites.

The eclipses of Jupiter's first and second satellites during this month are as follow, viz.


1st Satellite, 2d day, at 2 m. after 5 morning.

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2d Satellite, 13th day, at 24 m. past 2 morning.

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Mercury will be stationary on the 5th, and attain his greatest elongation on the 19th of this month; and Saturn will be in conjunction at 6 in the evening of the 27th. The Moon will be in conjunction with Mars at 44 m. past 8 in the evening of the 14th; and with the star in Libra, at 37 m. after 4 in the morning of the 26th.


[Concluded from p. 19.]

The observations on this subject which we have extracted from Dr. Halley's paper, in our last month, as well as the subject itself, which may perhaps appear abstruse to some of our readers, will be illustrated by the following diagram.

Let S, S' represent the Sun, and V, V' Venus at the beginning and end of the transit, as she would appear from the earth's centre. Also let E, E' be the corresponding positions of the earth at those times.

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Then, if the observer could be situated at C, the centre of the earth, when Venus entered on the solar disc, she would appear as a small black spot at S; and the true place of both her and the eastern limb of the Sun in the heavens would be s. But if Ꭰ

the observer were situated at any point on the earth's surface as P, the apparent place of Venus would be at v, and the apparent place of the corresponding limb of the Sun would be at p; and consequently Venus would appear to the eastward of the Sun, by a space equal to the arc up, which is the difference of the parallaxes of these two bodies. Hence the immersion of Venus would not take place so soon to an observer at P as to one at C, by the time which she would require to describe the apparent arc ep.

Now as the transit always takes place during the inferior conjunction of the planet, the motions of both Venus and the earth will then be from east to west, while the motion of the earth on its axis is in a contrary direction; consequently while Venus and the earth move in their orbits, from V to V' and from E to E', the point P, which at the commencement of the motion was west of the centre, will at the end of it be on the east of it, as at P'. Hence the observer who was supposed to be situated at C would perceive Venus just leaving the Sun's disc, and her apparent place would be s'; while to the observer at P' her apparent place would be at v', and that of the Sun's western limb at p'. The apparent distance of Venus from the Sun at the end of the transit is therefore the arc v'p', which is equal to the difference of the parallaxes of the Sun and Venus, as before. Consequently, the time of the duration as observed at the point P will be less than the absolute duration by the time which the planet would require to describe the two apparent arcs up and v'p', or twice the difference of the parallaxes of the Sun and the planet.

The absolute duration is found by calculation, in the same manner as for an eclipse of the Sun, while the apparent duration of the transit is obtained by observation. In this calculation Venus will take the place of the Moon; her apparent diameter is much less, and her motion is retrograde. All the circum

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