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CHAP. III.

Of Words borrowed from the Latin.

*WE have a great many Words borrowed

from the Latin, (and indeed almost all

that are not Words of one Syllable, or that do not come from Words of one Syllable are Latin:) but the greatest Part of these the French or Italians borrowed from the Latin, and we from them.

*Nouns Subftantive, as well as Adjective, are made English from the Latin by fome little Alteration or Change in the Words, which is common to us with the French: As,

Nature comes from the Latin Word Natura, Grace, from gratia, Clemency, clementia, Synod, fynodus, ingenious, ingeniofus, ingenuous, ingenuus, Ornament, ornamentum, Vice, vitium, Infant, infans, prudent, prudens, Quiet, quies, Union, unio, Nectar, nectar, Honour, honor, Image, imago, Multitude, multitudo, Majefty, majeftas, Virtue, virtus, Poem, poema, Poefy, poefis, Phenix, Phoenix, audacious, audax, liberal, liberalis, fpecifical, fpecificus, poffible, poffibilis, implacable, implacabilis, &c. But when there happens any very confiderable Alteration, we then take the Words from the French: For from the Latin Words Bonitas, leo, eleemofyna, eleemofynarius, tempus, novus, extraneus, fons, mons, acris; are made the French Words Bonté, Liox, Aumône, Aumofnier, Tems, Neuf, Etrange, Fontaine, Montagne, Aigre; from whence come the English Words

Bounty,

Bounty, Lion, Alms, Almoner, (and Ambry, i. e. Almry) Tenfe, New, Strange, Fountain, Mountain, Eager, &c.

In our Words Chamber, tender, Cinder, which come from the Latin Camera, tener, cinis, or ciner, we have the Interpofition of the Letters b and d from the French, who write Chambre, tendre, cendre, &c.

The fame Thing may be also faid of the Words Dissemble, refemble, affemble, bumble, tremble, &c. which come from the Latin Simulo, fimilis, fimul, humilis, tremulus.

* Our Verbs that come from the Latin are formed or made from the Present Tenfe, or from the Supines, by laying afide the Termination or . Ending, and making fome other small Altera

tion.

From the Prefent Tenfe are formed Extend from extendo; fpend and exfpend, from expendo; conduce, conduco; defpife, defpicio; approve, approbo; conceive, concipio; relinquish, relinquo; diftinguifk, diftinguo; diminish, diminuo; replenish, repleo; vanquish, vinco; eftablish, ftabilio; correfpond, correfpondeo; contain, contineo; adminifter, adminiftro; govern, guberno; concern, concerno; certify, certifico; reply, replico; multiply, multiplico; fupply, fupplico, &c.

From the Supines Supplicatum, demonftratum, are formed Supplicate, demonftrate: So Difpofe, fupprefs, exempt, collect, confecrate, contra&, mix, reject, exact, afflict; come from the Supines, by throwing away the Ending, Difpofitum, fuppreffum, exemptum, collectum, confecratum, contraElum, mixtum, rejectum, exactum, afflictum, &c.

* Alms may be directly from the Saxon Aelmesse, and that from the Greek ἐλεημοσύνη. New alfo may come from the Saxon Niwe, and Cinder from the Saxon Sinder, Sindran; our modern Spelling [c for s] being taken from the French: Which Words are from Sindrian, Separare, to part, which perhaps from ovrdiarger.

Some

Some Verbs are formed both from the Prefent Tense and the Supine, but their Signification is for the moft Part fomething different; one of these we form immediately from the Latin, and the other is brought from the Latin by the Help of the French; as from Compono comes compound and compofe; from expono, expound and expose; refer and relate, from refero; confer and collate, from confero,

&c.

* There are also many Nouns and Verbs which we have brought into our Tongue, that are purely French, and which are not derived from the Latin: As,

Garden, garter, buckler, to advance, to cry, to plead, which come from the French Jardin, jartiere, bouclier, avancer, crior, plaider, &c. Though indeed there are not many Words in the French Tongue that are purely French, and which are not Originally derived from the Latin.

* But there are many Words which are for the moft Part common to us with the Germans, of which it is doubtful whether the ancient Teutones received them from the Latins, or the Latins from them, or whether they did not both receive them from the fame common Fountain.

As, Wine, vinum, Sax. win, wos; wind, ventus, Sax. Wind; went, veni, Sax. wendan, windan; for to wend in old English is to Go; Way, via, Sax. Waeg; Wall, vallum, Sax. Wall; wallow, volvo, Sax. walwian; Wool, vellus, Sax. Wulle; will, volo, Sax. will; Worm, vermis, Sax. Wyrm; Worth, virtus, Sax. Weorth, Wyrth; Wafp. vespa, Sax. Waeps; Day, dies, Sax. Daeg; draw, traho, Sax. dragan; tame, domo, Sax. tamian, Sapáw: Yoke, jugum, Cuyos Earth, Sax. Earth; iga over, upper, Sax.

ofer,

ofer, vrèg am, iu

break, Sax. brecan, ¿nyvów Ay, volo. Sax. flogan; blow, flo, &c.

For it is not at all to be doubted, but that the Teutonick Language was of greater Antiquity than the Latin, neither is it to be doubted but that the Latins, who have taken å great Number of Words, not only from the Greek, efpeci ally the Eolic, but also from other neighbouring Tongues (as from the Ofcan and others, which are now fo loft, that there are hardly any Foot-fteps remaining) received also a great many from the Teutonick.

Strabo fays, that though the Nation of the Ofci was quite loft, yet their Language furvived among the Romans; Τῶν μὲν γὰρ Ὀσκῶν ἐκλελοιπότων ἡ διάλεκτα μένει παρὰ τοῖς Papaois. I. 5. and the Way that it was preferved, as he infinuates, was no other than by means of their Plays and Comedies.

ny

It is certain that the English, the German, and other Languages that are derived from the Teutonick, have maWords from the Greek, which were never received in the Latin; as, Path, pfad; ax, achs; with, mit; ford, pfurd; daughter, tochter; mickle, mingle; Moon; fear; grace; graff, to grave, to carve, to fcrape; whole, i. e. all, and whole, i. e. found, and heal; from the Greek, Πάτω, αξίνη, μετά, πόρθμα, θυγατήρ, μεγάλο, μιγνύω, μήνη, ξήρα, χάρις, γράφω, όλος, έλος, εἰλέω, &c. And fince thefe are immediately derived from the Greek, and fome immediately from the Hebrew, without the Intervention of the Latin, why may we not conclude, that several others are likewife immediately derived thence, notwithstanding that they are alfo to be found in the Latin Tongue.

But it is fomewhat furprizing, to confider how far different the Humour of our Ancestors was from this of our Days: For they were mighty careful to contract, whatever Words they received from other Languages, into one Syllable, though they were in the Original of many Syllables And to this End they not only cut off the formative Terminations, but even the Heads or Beginnings of Words, especially of those which began with a Vowel; they likewife threw Vowels out of the Middle of the Word, without having any Regard to them, and the Confonants

fonants that had but a weak Sound, they likewise rejected; retaining only thofe that were of a stronger Sound; they alfo altered and changed them, as they thought fit, for others of the fame Organ, that the Sound might be foftened: They did likewife often invert or change the Order of the Letters; that they might, when the intermediate Vowels were removed, fall the more eafily into an agreeable Sound: We alfo, in Words derived from the Latin, often fhorten the Length of the Syllable that gives them a grave Air in their own Language, to make them more conformable to the Genius of

Ours.

For Example: As from Expendo comes Spend, Exemplum, Sample; excipio, scape; extraneus, ftrange; extractum, ftretched, ftraight; ftriatum, ftreight; excrucio, to fcrew; excutio, (in Italian, fcutere, scotere) to shoot, shout, shut: Exfcorio, to fcour; excorio, to fcourge; excortico, to scratch; emendo, to mend; Epifcopus, Bishop, in Danish Bisp; HoSpitale, Spittle; Hifpania, Spain; Hiftoria, Story: "Which English Words you plainly fee are made by cutting off the Beginning and Ending of the Latin Words; as, in Theatre, from Theatrum; Orator, from Orator; Longitude, from Longitudo, &c. But in thefe Words following the Formation feems to be fomewhat more harsh; as, from Alexander, Sander; Elifabetha, Betty; Apis, a Bee; Aper, a Boar; by changing pinto b, and cutting off a in the Beginning; (but this is often restored in the Middle; as, After, a Star :) fo from Aprugna comes Brawn, by changing the P into B, and by tranfpofing the A as in Aper; fo Pignus, Pawn; Lege, Law; by changing G into W; 'Aλwπn, Fox, the Head being cut off, and the P changed into F: So from Pellis comes a Fell; Pullus, a Fowl; Pater, a Father ; Pavors, Fear; Polio, File; Pleo, Impleo, fill, full; Pifcis, a Fish; Muftum, Stum; Defenfio, Fenfe; Difpenfator, Spencer, Exculpo, scrape, (turning L into R, which were changed in yęάpw, yλúpw) and hence

* Both which Words may come from the Saxon aftrecan, freccan, and streht.

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