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come ferap, fcrabble, fcrawl, &c. Exculpo, Scoop; Exterritus, ftart; Attonitus, ftoned, now funned; Stomachus, Maw, (in Saxon Maga;) Offendo, find; Obflipo, flop; Audere, Dare; Cavere, Ware, (in Saxon Gearwe ;) hence aware, beware, wary, warn, Warning, (for the Confonant of the Latins was formerly founded like our W, and the prefent Sound of our was proper to F, that is the Eolic Digamma, which had a different Sound from or Ph; and the prefent Sound of F was that of the Greeks or Ph; Ingenium, Engine, Gin; Infundibulum, Funnel; Gagates, Fett; Projectum, to jet forth; Cucullus, a Ccwl, &c.

There are likewise some more harsh Cuttings off; as, Time, from Tempus; Name, from Nomen; Dame, from Domina; (as the French, Homme, Femme, Nom, from Homine, Famina, Nomen ;) thus Page, from Pagina; Pot, from ποτήριον ; Cup, from κύπελλον ; Can, from Cantharus; Tent, from Tentorium; Pray, from Precor; Prey, from Preda; Spy, from Specio; fo Ply, from Plico; Imply, Implico; Reply, Replica; Comply, Conplico; and See of a Bishop from Sedes.

The Vowel is alfo fometimes thrown out of the Middle of the Word, to leffen the Number of Syllables; as, Aunt, from Amita; Spright, from Spiritus; Debt, from Debitum; Doubt, from Dubito; Count, from Comes, or Comite; Clerk, from Clericus; Quit, Quite, from Quietus; acquit, from acquieto; to spare, from feparo; ftable, ftabilis: Stable for Horfes from Stabulum; Palace, Place, from Palatium; rail, rowl, wrawl, brawl, rabble, brabble, from rabula: Quest, from Quæfitio; Requeft, Requifitio; Inqueft, Inquifitio; Acqueft, Acquifitio; Conqueft, Conquifitio; Clown, Colonus; Crown, Corona; Monk, Monacbus; Minifter, Monafterium; Pencil, or Penfil Penecillus; Crane, Geranius, &c.

Sometimes the Confonant, especially when it has a fofter Sound, as alfo whole Syllables are thrown out; as, round from rotundus, Roll, rotula; frail, fragilis; fure, fecurus; Rule, Regula; Tile, Tegula ; Seal, Sigillum; Stall, Stabulum; fubtile, fubtle, fubtilis; Noun, Nomen; Dean, Decanus; Holt, Hofpes; Hoftle, bofpitale; Count, Compute; Accompt, Account, accomputo; fudden, fubitantus; to foar, Juperare; Peril, Periculum; perilous, periculofus; Marvel,

Marvel, marvellous, Mirabilis; Perch, Pertica; Main, Magnus; deign, Dignor; difdeign, dedignor; feign, fain, fingo; Stain, Tingo; Paint, Pingo; Preach, Prædicare; Mean, Medianus; Mafter, Magifter, &c.

Thefe Contractions feem yet more harsh than the former, where several of them meet together in the fame Word; as Kyrk, Kyrke, Church, from xvgianòs, i. e. x Prieft, Prefbyter; Sexton, Sacriflanus; Freeze and Fresh, from Frigefco, by changing Sc into Sh, as before in Bishop, Fish, Shoot; alfo in Skiff, Scapha, Ship; refresh, Refreshment, &c. Refrigerium; Frefh, Virefco; blame, Blafphemo; Phleam, Fleam, from Phlebotomus, (an Inftrument to let Cattle blood;) Coin or Quine (a Term in Architecture, fignifying the Angle where the Walls meet) from Conjungo; Quaint, Conjunctum; Coit, Quait, Conjectum; Turn, Torqueo, Beef, Bovina; Veal, Vitulina; Vellum, Vitulina; Squire, Scutifer; Penance, Pænitentia ; SanEtuary, Sanctuarium; Alms, Awmes, French Almosne, Almône, Almoner, Alm'ner, Amner, Almory, i. e. a Repofitory of Alms, Alm'ry, Amry, and Ambry; Chafe, from Quæfitio; Purchase, Perquifitio; Mickle, Muckle, péyas,

yan [rather from the Saxon Mycel;] Much [Italian Molto, Spanish Mucho] from Multum; Oufe, Ifis; Eel, Anguilla; Ifle, Ile, Ifland, Iland, (as it were lle Land) from Infula; fo Iflet, llet, Eyght (a little Island in a River) and more contractedly Eyt (from the Saxon Ea) whence Ow ney, Ruley, Ely, &c. that is the Ile in the Oufe, Royal Ifland, and Eel Island; to fcan, from Examinare; E and O being, as ufual, thrown away from the Beginning and End, there remains Xamin, which the Saxons, who had no X, wrote Cfamin, or for the better Sound Scamin, whence Scan is contracted; as, Don, from Dominus; Noun, from Nomen; Ban, from Abominor; thus the Italians form Sciame, from Examen, a Swarm of Bees; and from Sciame, by inferting the Letter R denoting the Murmur, we derive our Word Swarm: So Store, from Thefaurus; Stool, and Stall, from Stabulum; Wet, from 'Teròs, Udus;, Sweat, Sudo; Gay, Gaudium; Joy, Focus; Joyous, Jocofus; Juice, Succus; Chair, Cathedra; Chain, Catena; Chance, Cadentia; Thunder, Tonitru; Crap, Craw, Crapula; Pull, Vella; Red, Ruber; Stanch, fquench or quench;

K 2

Bint,

fint, from Extinguo; flack, laxus: faft, feftinus; bafte baften, from feftino; where we imitate the Spanish, who change F into H; as, Hablar, from fabulari; Crow, Corvus; Crew, Caterva; else, from alias; Worth, Virtus ; forth, foras; Spice, Species; Span, Spithama ; read, recito; Aid, Adjuvo; Ay, Age, Ever, wv, Ævum; Lock, Floccus; Stress, Stringo, or Strictum; Distress, Diftri&tum ; Drefs, Addrefs, dirigo, addirigo; Prog, Progle, Prowl, from Procuro; fcrape, Jerabble, fcrawl, from excerpo; ftray, ftrag gle, extravagor; clot, or clutch, collectum; Coil, Colligo; recoil, recolligo; fwear, fevero, affevero; Shrill, Stridulus ; to Pounce, Pungere, or Puntuare; Power, Poffum, [in French Pouvoir ;] Poor, Pauper, in French Pauvre; Prize, Prebenfum; Comprife, Comprehenfum; Poife, Penfum; to Prife, praife, Pretiari; Proxy, Procurator; to Pufh, Pulfo; a Quill, Calamus; to Impeach, Impetere; a Quilt, Culcitra; to wax, augeo, auxi; to wane, vanefco, for which we now use, to encrease and decrease; Kitchen, Coquina ; Corn, Granum; a Pin, Spina, Spinula, French Epingle; Mince, Minuciare; Cramp, Crump, Crumple, Crinkle, Comprimo; Square, from Quadratum Italian Squadra, &c.

Of the Derivation of fome Proper Names.

Though many of thefe Words juft mentioned may feem to be far fetched, yet they ought not to be rejected, fince it is plain there are many Names derived from proper Names which feem as much forced, and yet there is none but who agrees in their Etymology or Derivation. As, Elick, Scander, Sander, Sandy, Sauny, from Alexander; Elizabeth, Elfibeth, Betty, Befs, from Elizabetha; Margaret, Marget, Meg, Peg, from Margareta; Mary, Mall, Moll, Pall or Poll, Malkin, Markin, Markes, from Maria; Matthew, and Mat, from Matthæus; Pat, from Martha; William, Will, Billy, Wilkin, Wickin, Wicks, Weeks, from Guilielmus, Wilhelmus, Isλeguòs, (Ital. Girolamo, French Guillaume); Richard, Dick, Hick, Dickin, from Ricardus; Robert, Rupert, 'Robin, Dobe, Hobe, Bob, from Robertus; Roger, Hodge, Hodgkin, from Rogerus ; Giles, Egidius; Auflin or Auften, Auguftinus; Jerome, Hieronymus; Ralph, Rafe, Radulphus; James, Jeames, Jemmy,

from

from Jacobus, (Ital. Giacomo, Spanish, Diego, French, Jaques ;) Bennet, Benedictus; Mawdit, Maledictus; Magdalen, Mawdlin, from Magdalena; Mard, Mathildis; Chriftopher, Kefter, Kit, Chriftophorus; Oliver, Nol, Oliverus ; Ellen, Nell, Helena ; Gant, or Ghent, Gandavum ; Dort, Dordrechtum; Trent, Tridentum ; Utrecht, Ultrajectum; Maeftrich, Mofæ trajectus; Lyons, Lugdunum; Ireland, Jerna, Hibernia; Rochester, Roffa; Dover, Dubris; Glocefter, Glovernia [i. e. Claudii Caftra, or the Camp of Claudius,] Lisbon, Ulifoponia; Sherry, Xeres; Tangier, Tingis ; Nimegen, Neomagus; Rouen, Rotomagus; Caen, Cadomus; Breslaw, Uratiflavia; Jew, Judæus; Jewry, Judæa; Payn, Paynim, Paganus; Heathen, Ethnicus, vinds Salonike, Theffalonica; Scandercon, Alexandretta; So Gilliflower, which the Vulgar by Miftake turn into July-Flower, as if it drew its Name from the Month of July) from Cariophillus, (Ital. Gerofil, French, Girofiée); Sperage, (which the Vulgar wreft to Sparografs or Sparrowgrass) from Afparagus or Sparagus; Parfley, Petrofelinum; Purflain, Portulaca ; Quince, Cydonium; Quiddony, Cidoniatum; Peach, Perficum; Eruke from Eruca, this fome turn to Ear-Wig, as if it took its Name from the Ear; Palfy, Paralyfis; Megrim, Hemicranium; So a Gimmal or Gimbal, i. e. a doubled or twisted Ring, from Gemellus, hence Gimbal and Jumbal are applied to other Things twifted and twined after that Manner. Hogo from Altus Guftus, (French, bault gouft or haut gout); Kickshaws, from Qualefcunque Caufe, or French Quelque Chofes. Now fince the Origin of thete and many more Words is generally agreed upon, however they have been wrefted and forced; we ought not to wonder, if our Fore-Fathers did the fame Thing by many others, efpecially if we reflect upon their Fondness for Monofyllables or Words of one Syllable; and that they might render thefe more foftly founding to the Ear, they took a very great Liberty of maiming, cutting off, leaving out, foftening, and tranfpofing as they thought fit. And they are rather to be commended than blamed for what they did, fince they reduced long Words into fhort ones, by fomewhat leffening them; as, Priest from Prefbyter, Seat from Sedile, Speed from Expedio, &c.

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But, while we are deriving thefe Words from the Latin, we would not have the Reader fancy that we owe all to the Latin, and have not many Words that came down to us pure and unmixt directly from the Saxon, Danish, Belgic, and Teutonic Languages, and their Dialects: For many of thofe Words which of old we received from the Latins, and likewife many of those which we have more lately received from them, by the Mediation or Affiftance of the French, Italian, or Spanish, with fome fmall Variation according to the Diversity and Idiom of each Dialect, are common to us with the Saxons, Danes, &c. and thence have come directly down to us, though they may be Originally Latin, Greek, or Oriental. I have often wifhed with the Learned Author of the Spectator No. 165. that as in our Conftitution there are feveral Perfons, whofe Bufinefs is to watch over our Laws, our Liberties and Commerce, certain Men might be fet apart as Super-intendants over our Language, to hinder any Words of a Foreign Coin from paffing among us, and in particular to prohibit any French Phrafes from becoming current in this Kingdom, when thofe of our own Stamp are altogether as valuable.

But whatever may be allowed to our Forefathers in fhortening the Words they borrowed from other Languages; I cannot but find fault with the Humour of fo miferably curtailing fome of our Words: In familiar Writings and Converfations, they often lofe all but their first Syllables, as in Mob, rep, pos, incog, and the like; and as all ridiculous Words make their firft Entry into a Language by familiar Phrases, I dare not anfwer for these, that they will not in Time be looked upon as a Part of our Tongue. We fee fome of our Poets have been fo indifcreet. as to imitate Hudibras's Doggrel Expreffions in their ferious Compofitions, by throwing out the Signs of our Subftantives, which are effential to the English Language. Nay, this Humour of fhortening our Language had once run fó far, that fome of our celebrated Authors, among whom we may reckon Sir Roger L'Eftrange in particular, began to prune their Words of all fuperfluous Letters as they termed them, in order to adjust the Spelling

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