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to the Pronunciation, which would have confounded all our Etymologies, and have quite deftroyed our Tongue.

Of Words which, having a different Senfe, have also a different Original.

It is obfervable that the fame Word is derived from a different Original, according to its different Senfe: For Example; To bear, fpeaking of a Burthen, and beer or bier, à Frame on which a dead Corps lies, alfo burden, come from fero; but to bear Children (whence Birth, born, Bairn, a Child) comes from pario; and Bear, a wild Beaft, if it be of Latin Original comes from Fera: So Pearch, the Name of a Fish, from Perca ; but Perch, a Measure, also the Perch, that Birds perch on, from Pertica: To fpell, i. e. to divide a Word into Syllables, comes from Syllaba, by tranfpofing the Confonants, and the b returning into p, which was in σύλληψις Spell, by which the common People fancy that the Boundaries of Fields are fo fixed and guarded, that no Body can pafs them without the Owners Leave, comes from expello; but Spell, for a Meffage, feems to come from Epiftola, whence Gofpell, as it were Goodspell, or a good Meffage, Evayyor, or Godspell, a Divine Meffage, or Epiftle. So Freefe, or Freeze, implying the Congealing of Water, comes from Frigefco; but Freefe, a Term of Architecture, from Zophorus ; and Freefe, a Sort of Cloth, perhaps from Frifia; or, it may be, this may come from Frigefco, as denoting a Cloth better than others against Cold. Thus Fresh, when you fpeak of the bleak Air comes from Frigefco, (whence refresh, from refrigero, refrejhment, refrigerium ;) but it is formed rather from Virefco, when it is meant of the Bloom of Plants, and when metaphorically ufed for alacer and recens, brisk and nerv, So to fell, to cut down (as to Fall) comes from Fallo, or rather from opáλλw, hence perhaps might Fell, cruel, be derived, and Felon, as Feller of Men; but Fell, a Hide or Skin, comes from Pellis, whence a Fellmonger: In like manner Spit, that comes out of our Mouths, comes from Sputum; but a Spit to dress Meat on, perhaps from fpica, quafi Spicatum; and Spit, that is, as much as a Spade at once digs up, or a Spadeful, comes from Spatha, as Spade it felf does. Thus Spittle, i. e.

a

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what

what we fpit, from Spuo; but Spittle, an Hofpital, from Hofpitale. So File, to file, feems to come from Polio, to polife; but a File, as a File of Pearls, a File of Papers, a File of Soldiers, comes from Filum, a Thread or Line; to set, or make one fit down, is from Sedeo, to fet or plant from Sero; Vice, Wickedness, from vitium; but a Vice, or Vise (in French Vis) comes from Vitis. A Porter of a Gate from Porta, which fignifies a Gate; but a Porter to carry a Burthen from Porto, (Portitor) to bear, or carry, &c.

* Some few Rules whereby to know when a Word is derived from the Latin, and how it may be made Latin again.

P. Moft English Words, ending in nce or cy, are derived from Latin Words in tia; Temperantia, Clementia; Temperance, Clemeny.

2. Words, in in in English, are made Latin by cafting away n; as, Quefion, Quæftio; Religion, Religio.

3. Words, ending in ty, are made Latin by changing ty into tas; as, Liberty, Libertas; Charity, Charitas.

4. Words ending in ude are derived from the Latin, by changing into e; Fortitude, Fortitudo; Gratitude, Gratitudo, &c.

5. Adjectives, which end in d, do for the most Part become Latin by the Addition of us; as, Rigid, Rigidus ; Putrid, Putridus, &c.

6. Words ending in t, n, or r between two Vowels becomes Latin by changing the last Vowel into us ; as, Mute, Mutus; Obfcure, Obfcurus; Obfcene, Obfcænus, &c.

7. Moft Words ending in nt, are made Latin by changing at into ns; as, Latent, Latens; Vigilant, Vigilans, &c. 8. Many Words ending in al by the Addition of is become Latin; as, Liberal, Liberalis; Subftantial, Subfan

tialis.

СНАР.

CHA P. III.

Of the Prepofitions used in Compofition.

A Compounded Word is, when two or

one.

more Words go to the making up of

Words in English are compounded, either with a Prepofition, or with fome other Part of Speech.

The Prepofitions are of two Sorts, Separable and Infipa rable; the Separable Prepofitions are fuch as may be ufed alone; the Infeparable are fuch as are not used in English unless in Compofition.

But we shall confider the chief Senfes of the Prepofitions, in an Alphabetical Order. We shall begin with the Englifh Prepofitions, then we shall speak of those that are Latin, and laftly of those that are Greek.

A, is used for on, or in; as, afoot, afhore, for on Foot, on Shore; abed, adaies, anights, for in Bed, in the Days, &c. This is also oftentimes redundant or fuperfluous, at the Beginning of a great many Words; as, in abide for bide, arife for rife, awake, for wake, above, abroad, &c. *

BE, is often redundant or of no Signification at the Beginning of a great many Words; as bemoan, &c. But it fometimes is fignificant, and fignifies about; as in Befprinkle, i. e. to fprinkle about, to beftir, i. e. to flir about, to befmear, to bedawb, to bethink, i. e. to have his Thoughts about him, &c. To befiege, &c. It fignifies by or nigh; as befide, i. e. by or nigh the Side. It fignifies in; as, betimes, i. e. in time or early. It fignifies for or before; as, to befpeak, i. e. to fpeak for, &c.

Cafaubon (de Quat. Ling. p. 236.) obferves that we herein followed the Greek Cuftom. K S

For

For, fignifies Negation or Privation, i. e. it denies or deprives; as in to forbid, i. e. bid it not to be done; to forfake, i. e. not to seek it any more; to forgive, i. e, not to give or reckon it to one, &c. to forfwear, i. e. to swear the Thing not to be that is fo, &c.

* Fore, Sax, fore, Gr. wagos, ante, fignifies as much as before; as, to forefee, to fee before it comes to pass; to forebode, to tell or fay before it happens.

Mis, is always used in a bad Senfe, it denotes Defect or Error; as, Mif-Deed, i. e. an ill Deed, or not done right; fo from take, to miftake, to take it wrong or otherwife than it is; fo to mifufe, to mifimploy, to misapply, &c.

This Word comes from the Saxon Mis, and Gothick Missa, which fignifies a Fault or Defect; So to mifs fignifies to fail. In old English alfo Miffe fignifies a Fault or Mifdeed: For thi grete merci forgive my miffe, And bring me to thin endless bliffe.

Hence comes the French Prepofition Mes, and by an Apocopé Me, as in mecontent, meconnoître, to forget, or not to know, &c.

OVER, fignifies Eminency or Superiority; as, to overcome, to over-fee, to over-rule: It denotes alfo Excefs: as, over hafty, i. e. too hafty, over-joyful. This comes from the Saxon Ofer, as, Ofer-blith, i. e. Over-blith, or merry.

+ OUT, fignifies, Excefs, Excellency or Superiority in any Thing; as to out-do, to out-run, to out-go, &c.

The Negative for feems partly to flow from fore, and partly from the Greek waga Forbid, is forebid, i. e. forewarn against it. Forgive, Sax. forgifan fignified formerly both to give and forgive, like Condonare: Remitting a Debt or Penalty is a Kind of Gift. Forfake, in old English, is to deny or refuse; and is from forfeegan, i. e. foreJay or forewarn againft a Thing. Forfwear, is wag og¤Ã¡v the for made from παρα. So Forbear, παρίημι.

+ Out from the Sax. ute, utan, foris, extra, ultra. But the Compounds of this Form and in this Sense are very modern: ut-adoen, in Saxon, is to do out. But from the French outre-paffer, and the like, we have taken this Form.

UN

UN denotes Negation and Contrariety, or the not being fo or fo; alfo Diffolution or the undoing a Thing already done: For Example, Un, being prefixed or fet before Adjedives, fignifies Not; as, pleafant, unpleasant, i. e. not pleafant; So unworthy, i. e. not worthy; unfound, i. e. not found, &c. Here Un anfwers to the Latin Prepofition In. But when Un is put to Verbs, it destroys, makes void, or undoes what has been already done; as, to say, to unfay, which fignifies not only, not to fay, but to call back, and deny, what has been faid, to be faid; fo to undo, is to destroy what has been already done; to unweave, is to undo what has been already weaved: Here Un answers to the Latin Prepofition De and Re, fignifying a contrary Action; as in Detego, Depopulor, Dedoceo, &c. This is an Imitation of the Saxon On or Un, which is also compounded with Adjectives and Verbs; as, unlytel, not little, 1. e. great; fo uncnytan, to untie, &c. Thus the Scotch fay unwell, i. e. not well. But this Form of Speaking feems to have been derived from the Goths.

Ur denotes Motion upwards, or Place and Things that lie upwards. As, Upland, i. e. the upper Land, or the Land that lies high in Refpect of fome other; Upfide, i, e. the Side that is higheft. This comes from the Saxon up or uppe, which has the fame Signification as, Upland, i. c. the mountainous Part of a Country; UpariJan, to rife up.

WITH fignifies against; as, to withstand, i. e. to ftand against Sometimes it fignifies as much as from or back; as, to withhold, i. e. to hold from one; to withdraw, i. e. to draw from or back, &c. This is also an Imitation of the Saxons; as, Withstandian, to withstand; withteon, to withdraw, &c.

Of the Latin Prepositions, that are used in the Compofition of English Words.

AB or ABS, i. e. from, when it is compounded, denotes fome Excefs or Encreafing the Senfe of the Words: as, to abbor, to abufe, abfurd, &c. or elfe it fignifies. Parting or Separation; as, to abftain, to abolish, to aldicate, &c.

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