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Ac, AK, these initial Syllables come from the Saxon Ac, an Oak; as, Acton, i. e. a Town encompaffed with Oaks. AL, ATTLE, ADLE, come from the Saxon Ethel, fignifying Noble, Famous.

AL, ALD, come from eald, ancient; as, Aldborough, i. e. Oldborough.

BARROW, comes from Bearave, Bearuwe, a Grove.

BRAD, at the Beginning of Words, fignifies broad, spacious, &c. from the Saxon Brad, broad, large; as, Bradford, i. e. the broad Ford.

BRIG, from Bricg, a Bridge.

BRUN, BRAN, BROWN, BOURN, BURN, whether they begin or end Words, fignify a River, from the Saxon Born, Bourn, Brunna, &c. as, Brunburh, Braunfton, i. e. a Town near the River.

BURROW, BURH, BURG, come from Burg, Byrig, a Town, City, Cafle, &c. Peterborough, i. e. the Town of St. Peter, it being dedicated to his Honour: This Ending is now of

ten written

BURY, as, Edmundbury, the Town of St. Edmund.

BYE, BEE, thefe ending Syllables come from the Saxon By, Bying, a Habitation or Dwelling; as, Grimfy, Kettleby, that is a Dwelling for the Makers of Kettles, this Town being once noted for fuch Kind of Workmanship.

CAR, or CHAR, comes from Caer a City; as, Cardigan, &c.

CASTER, CHESTER, come from the Saxon Ceafter, a City, Town, or Caftle; as, Cafterford or Cafleford, i. e. a Cafle upon the Ford. And it was ufual with the Saxons to add the Terminations of Chefter, Caefter, Cafter, to the Names of Places, where the Romans had formerly erected their Caftra, Cafiles, or Forts.

CHIP, CHEAP, CHIPPING, denote that the Town, when ́ it received its Name, was a Market Town; they come from the Saxon cypan, ceapan, to buy or fell; So Chippenham, Chippingwiccomb and Cheapfide. And hence, as Bishop Gibson obferves, may come Chop; as to chop and change, also Chapman from Cypman; and perhaps Shop may have fome Relation hereupon. Hence may alfo be derived the Names of the Savedish and Danish Towns ending in Copen; as, Nj Copen, i. e. New Market.

CLIFF, or CLIVE, whether at the Beginning or Ending of a Word, fignifies a Cliff, i. e. a steep Place, a Rock, from the Saxon Clif, which comes from the Latin Clivus.

COMP, at the Beginning of Words, and Coмв at the Ending, denote the lower Situation of a Place, or a Valley, from the British Kum, which is a Word of the fame Signification; as, Melcomb Regis, &c.

COT, COTE, COAT, whether at the Beginning or Ending of the Names of Places, denote a Cote, Cottage, or little House, from the Saxon Cot, a little Houfe; whence Cotfleta, he that dwells in a Cottage. And Sheep-Cote, the Place where Sheep lie. Cotfold, a Place in Gloucestershire, is fo called from the Abundance of Sheep Cotes there.

CRAG, is a British Word, and denotes a craggy Rock. DEN, was added to the Names of Places that were fituated in Vallies or in Woods: For the Saxon Den denotes a Valley, or a woody Place. So Tenderden, Biddenden, Marden, &C.

The Syllable ER, in the Middle of the Names of Places, is a Contraction of the Saxon Wara, i. e. Dwellers, Inhabi tants; for the City which we call Canterbury, the Saxons called Cant-wara-burh. And ER at the End of a Word, denoting the Inhabitants of a Place, feems to be of the fame Original; for whom we call Londoners, the Saxons call Lunden-vara; So Marshers, i. e. the Inhabitants of the Marshes, they called Merfe-wara. Unless any one had rather derive this Ending from the Gothick Wair, a Man; as, Lundenwer, by Contraction Lundoner, Londoner, i. e. a Man of London.

Words ending in ERNE, or ERON, are derived from the Saxon Ern, Earn, a fecret Place to put any Thing in. Hence comes Ink-ern, i. e. a little Veffel into which we put Ink, for which we corruptly write Ink-Horn, as the Right Reverend Bishop Gibson has very justly remarked.

EYE, Ea, Ee, these ending Syllables differ in three Refpects, 1. Either as they come from the Saxon Ig, an Iland (G being melted into r) as, Ramfey, Marfey; whence it is plain, that, if fignifies as much as our Word land, we are guilty of a Tautology, when we fay Ramfey Ifland, Marfey Iland, ferfey land. 2. They either come from the Saxon Ea, a Water, a River, &c. Or, 3. From Leag, a Plain Field.

FLET,

FLET, Fleot, Flot, fignify a Ditch, where the Tide comes, a Gulph or Bay: Hence Fleetditch, &c.

GATE, in the Names of Places, denotes a Way, or Path ; as, Highgate, i. e. The High Way or Road, &c.

HAM, whether at the Beginning or Ending of the Word, fignifies a Houfe or Habitation, or Home, &c. as, Eastham, Westham, &c. So Hamweard, i. e. Homeward.

HOLME, Howme, whether ufed alone (for there are several Places which are called the Holmes) or joined with another Word, fignify an Hill or Ifle, encompaffed with little Brooks or Rivers. So Stepbolme, Flatholme.

HOLT, whether at the Beginning of a Word, as, Holton, or at the Ending, as, Cherry-bolt, Apple-holt, is a certain Sign that that Place did formerly abound with Woods.

HYRST, Hurft, Herft, come from the Saxon Hyrft, a Wood or Foreft.

e

How, Hough, feem to denote the lower Situation of a Place. So How-gate, i. e. a Low Way much beaten, &c. Perhaps hence comes Holland, as it were, Howland, i. e. Low-land.

INGE, fignifies a Meadow, and Meadows are now called in fome Parts of England the Inges.

LADE, Lode, fignify the Mouth of a River, or the Paffage, from the Saxon Lade, a Purging or Emptying; as in Creklade, Framlade, Lechlade, &c. because thereabouts the Water empties itself into the Sea, or into fome greater

Rivers.

LEY, Lee, Leg, Lay, whether at the Beginning or Ending of a Word, come from the Saxon Leag, a plain Field, or Pasture Ground: The g being softened.

Lowe, Loe, come from the Saxon Hlewe, or Hleaw, a Hill, or Hillock; as, Houndflow, i. e. a Hill of Dogs, or Hill fit for Hunting.

MARSH, Mars, Mas, come from the Saxon Merse, a Marsh or Marby Place.

MAER, Mere, in the Names of Places, either at the Beginning, Middle, or End fignify a Marshy Place, from the Saxon Mere, a Marsh, &c.

NESSE, Or NESS, at the End of the Name, denotes the Place to be, or to be near a Promontory, called in Saxon, Naefe, Naeffe, Nefe, from its Refemblance to a Nofe.

OVER, whether at the Beginning or End of the Names of Places, denotes commonly the Situation of the Place to be near the Bank of fome River; from the Saxon, Ofer or Ofre, a Brink or Bank, as, Brownfover, &c. But if there be any neighbouring Town, that has nether prefixed to it, then you may derive that Over from the Saxon, Ufer, i. c. upper, in Oppofition to nether or lower.

PREST and Pres, as in Prefton, Prefbury, feem to come from the Saxon Preoft, a Prieft, O being thrown out, as it often happens, for Derby was formerly written Deoraby.

RIG, Ridge, feem to denote the hanging Side, or Steepnefs of a Hill, as in Lindridge, Cotheridge, Waldridge, &c. SEL, denotes the Greatness of the Thing to which it is prefixed; as, Seltun, i. e. a great Town; So Selwood, i. e. a great Wood. For Sel in the Saxon fignifies Good or Large, &c. as, Selby, &c.

STEAD, and Sted, fignify Place: Except in the Names of Towns that are nigh Rivers, when perhaps it may be bet ter derived from the Saxon Stathe, a Shere, a Bank, a Haven, &c.

STOWE, Or Stoe, from the Saxon Stowe, a Place; as, Godftowe, i. e. a Place dedicated to God.

THORP, Throp, Threp, Trep, Trop, come from Thorpe, a Village.

TUN, Ton, fignify a Town, Village, &c. This perhaps comes from the Saxon Dun, because the Towns were for merly built on Hills.

WEALD, Wald, Walt, fignify a Wood, Foreft, &c.

WERTH, Weorth, Wyrth, come from Weorthig, a Village, Street, &c.

Wic, or Wich, as in Dunwich, Harwich, comes from the Saxon Wic, which fignifies a Bank, a Shore, a Fort, &c. WIN, at the Beginning of the Names of Places, comes from the Saxon Wiz, a Battle, or Fight, and denotes that fome Battle was fought there.

Wis, denotes the Western Situation of the Place; as, Wifegothi, i. e. the Western Goths.

WYRT, Wert, Wyrd, come from Wyrt, an Herb, &c. Perhaps as Bishop Gibson conjectures, hence comes the Word Root, which ought to have been written Wrote.

PART

PART III.

W

CHA P. I.

Of the Syntax.

E are now come to speak of that Part of Grammar which treats of the right placing or joining of Words together in a Sentence called Syntax. But the Syntax or Construction of the Noun, being chiefly performed by the Help of the Prepofitions, and I having in every Chapter given an Account of what more particularly relates to each Part of Speech, there is not much left for me to say on this Head.

*The Subftantive that is, does, or fuffers, comes before the Verb: As, I am, Peter loves, the Men read: The Book is read.

Except. 1. In an Interrogative Sentence (when a Queftion is afked) where the Subftantive is put after the Verb: As, Is John at Home?

If there be an Helping Verb, then the Subftantive comes after that; as, Does Peter love? Will you read?

If there be two Helping Verbs, then the Subftantive is fet after the first of them: As, Could he have done it? Might Charles have brought it?

Except.

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