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Q. May we then misplace all Words in every Sentence as · we please?

A. No, not always; but we muft in this, as in all other Things, follow the Ufe of the best Speakers.

Q. Whence comes the Word Tranfpofition?

4. From Tranfpofitio, or a Putting beyond, or out of the

natural Place.

С Н А Р. III.

Of the Ellipfis, or the Leaving out of Words in

W

a Sentence.

Hatever Words may be as well underftood when left out, as they would be if they were mentioned, may be left out in a Sentence.

* Words may be left out upon four Accounts.

I. When a Word has been mentioned juft before, and may be fuppofed to be kept in Mind, then it is often left out, As, Cæfar came, and faw, and conquered; where you need not fay, Cæfar came, Cæfar faw, and Cæfar conquered: So ye have eaten more than we, i. e. than we have eaten. This Book is the Master's, i. e. Book. Whofe Horse is this? Ours, i. e. Our Horfe.

Therefore in a Relative Sentence (a Sentence having who, which, or that, in it) the Antecedent [foregoing] Word is feldom repeated: As, I bought the Horfe which you fold, i. e. which Horfe, &c. The Wine is bad which you fent me, i. e. which Wine, &c. What Words Ifjoke, those I deny, i. e. thofe Words, &c.

II. When any Word is to be mentioned ftraight or prefently, if it can be well understood, it may be left out in the former Part. As I ever did, and ever will love you, i. e. I ever did love, &c. Drink ye White or Red Wine, i. e.

Drink ye White Wine, or, &c. The best of the Churches is Paul's, i. e. the beft Church of the Churches is Paul's Church; Or to put it into the natural Order; Paul's Church is the best Church of the Churches.

III. When the Thought is expreffed by fome other Means; as, Who is he? Pointing to a Man, you need not fay, What Man is that Man?

IV. Those Words which, upon the mentioning of o. thers, muft need be fuppofed to be meant, may be left out; as, When you come to Paul's then turn to the left, every Body knows you mean Paul's Church, and the Left Hand, therefore thofe Words need not be exprefled. The Prepofition, to, is often left out; as, Reach me the Book, for Reach the Book to me. Hand is often left out; as, turn to the Right, turn to the Left i. e. to the Right Hand, to the Left Hand, &c.

Thing, and A, are frequently left out when they may be understood: As, It is hard to travel through the Snow, i. e. It is a hard Thing, &c. It is eafy to do fo, i. e. It is an eafy Thing or A&t, &c.

The Cople, that, is oft left out in a Compounded Sentence, &c. as, I defire (that) you would write for me. I think I faw him, i. e. that I faw, &c.

The Relatives that, which, who, whom, may be omitted or left out; as, This is the Man I killed, i. e. that, or whom. Give me the Horfe you fole, i. e. which you fiole, &c. Is this the Man ye spoke of? i. e. of whom ye spoke.

Sometimes a whole Sentence is left out: For Example ; It is our Duty to pay a Refpect and Deference, as to all thofe that are virtuous and courageous, who defign for the Good and Advantage of the Government, and (who) ferve or (who) have ferved it in any of its Interefts; fo (it is our Duty to pay a Refpect and Deference) to thofe alfo who bear any Of fice or Command in the State.

I will give you an Inftance or two of Tranfpofition, and of the Ellipfis or Suppreffion together. As the delicate Ear of the Artist can quickly difcover the leaft Fault in his Mufick; fo, would we take as much Care in detecting and cenfuring our Vices, we might, from the leaft and moft trivial Matters, make feveral Obfervations that would be much to our Advantage. From the moving of our Eyes, for Example; from the merry or forrowful

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forrowful Air of our Countenances, &c. we might eafily judge what is handsome and becoming us, and what is repugnant to the Rules of our Duty. That is As the delicate Ear of the Artist can quickly discover the leaft Fault in his Mufick; So [if] we would take as much Care in detecting and cenfuring cur Vices, we might make feveral Obfervations from the leaft and moft trivial Matters, that [i. e. Obfervations] would be much to our Advantage. But I fhall give you fomething for an Example of this Prepofition, We might eafily judge what is handsome and becoming, and we might eafily judge what is repugnant to the Rules of our Duty from the moving of our Eyes, from the merry or forrowful Air of our Countenance, &c.

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How useful and neceffary this Doctrine of the Ellipfis or Suppreffion of the Words is, both for the understanding the Genius of the Latin, and that of any other Language, will eafily appear to any confidering Perfons; fince there are abundance of Expreffions which we could have no Sense of, if they were not refolved after this Manner: And though I would have nothing allowed for a Rule, without fufficient Authority; yet we may now and then, to gratify an ingenious Mind, indulge ourselves in a probable Conjecture. For Example, how would a Lad or Foreigner know how to render, I'll on, into any Language, unless he were firft informed that, I'll on, is as much as, I will go on? So it is an eafy Matter to tell a Lad that in, quid agis? Quid is Latin for what; and in, quid ita? that quid is Latin for why; and the Lad muft believe it, because the Mafter fays fo, though he finds himself puzzled to reconcile it to his own Mind, how the fame Word fhould fignify what and why: But it would be a greater Satisfaction to an ingenious Mind, if you acquainted him how or why it was to be fo conflrued: E. G. quid agis, i. e. tu, agis quid negotium? You do what Bufinefs? in quid ita fecifti, i. e. Ob quid negotium tu ita fecifii? For what Thing did you do that? For what Thing, i. e. Why? So in like Manner, I fhould have a clearer Notion of Quamobrem, if you faid it was a Compofition for Quam ob rem, i. e. Ob quam rem, for what Thing or Reaíon, than if you faid it was an Adverb, and fignified wherefore, and gave me no farther Reafon for it.

But he that has a Mind to be better acquainted with the Doctrine of the Ellipfis, as it relates to the Latin Tongue, may confult San&tius's Minerva, and the judicious Notes of the Learned Perizonius thereupon: Or else an Explanation of the Syntax in our Common Grammar, wrote by my worthy Friend the Reverend Mr. Parfel, late Mafter of Merchant-Taylor's School: Printed for Mr. Bonwick in St. Paul's-Church-Yard: In which Book the Reader will find a very rational and ingenious Account of the Rules of the Latin Syntax: And indeed the acquainting Lads with the Reasons of Things, and to let nothing pafs, before they have attained a tolerable true and juft Notion of it, would be of more Service to them towards the Exercife of their Reason, than the Knowledge of Thousands of Latin and Greek Words. And as the Knowledge of Things is far more preferable than that of Words; fo the Words will be but poorly understood, unless we are alfo inftructed in the Knowledge of the Things they are used to denote or exprefs.

Queftions relating to the Fourth Chapter.

Q. What is Ellipfis ?

A. The Leaving out of Words in a Sentence.

Q. May we leave out what Words we please in a Sentence?

A. No.

Q. Upon what Account may Words be left out?

A. I. When a Word has been mentioned juft before, and may be fuppofed to be kept in Mind, then it is oft left out.

Therefore in a Relative Sentence [or in a Sentence that relates to fome other] the Antecedent [or foregoing Word] is feldom repeated; as, I bought the Books, which [Books] be there.

II. When any Word is to be immediately mentioned, if it can be well understood, it may be left out in the former Part; as, Drink ye Red [Wine] or White Wine?

III. When the Thought is expreffed by fome other Means: As, pointing to a Man, you need not fay, Who is that Man? But who is that?

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IV. Thofe Words which, upon the mentioning of others, muft needs be fuppofed to be meant, may be left out; as, When you come to Paul's then turn to the Left; every body knows you mean Paul's Church, and the Left Hand, therefore thefe Words need not be expreffed.

Q. Whence comes the Word Ellipfis ?

A. From the Greek Word Ellipfis, an Omission, or Leaving out.

Q. Whence comes Suppreffion?

A. From Suppreffio, as it were, the Stopping or Keeping the Word out of a Sentence.

Q. Whence comes Antecedent?

A. From Antecedens, foregoing, or going before.

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Of the Points or Paufes in a Sentence.

HE Method of distinguishing the Sense, in a Sen

that is called Syntax. For in a Sentence, not only its Structure or Order is to be regarded, but alfo Diftinction. For the Ufe of Stops is not only to mark the Distance of Time in pronouncing, but alfo to prevent any Confufion or Obscurity in the Senfe, by diftinguishing Words from Words, and Sentences from Sentences. But how this Diftinction is to be, made, is not yet very thoroughly agreed upon among the Learned: For you will scarce meet with any two, even Learned Men, who fhall diftinguifh a Paragraph by the very fame Points. And indeed it is not much Matter whether we do fo or no, provided we take Care fo to diftinguish Words and Sentences, as, not to darken the Senfe, or tranfgrefs any known, easy, and plain Rule: Namely, when a Question is afked, not to make this Mark (?), and at the Ending or Conclufion of an Affertive Sentence, not to put this Mark or Point (.) Distinction of a Sentence, is either of a Sentence written, or pronounced.

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