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Their annual proportion to the population, as calculated on averages of five years, exhibits similar diversities in each period so surveyed ;* and if, from the general amounts of all, we extend our view more minutely into the several counties of our nation, we find the same variances in each of their averages.†

Another remarkable correspondence appears between births and deaths, announcing a grand adjusting, though invisible agency in the fact, that as in the births more males than females had been born during those thirty years, so likewise, within the same period, a greater number of males had disap

so on. In the year 1813 the deaths were nearly 18,000 fewer than in the year 1801; the population had been twelve years multiplying; then, in the next year, increased by nearly 20,000-a series of fluctuations which imply corresponding diversities in the moving causes of mortality. * Thus the average of the deaths between 1796 and 1806 was 1 in 48; between 1806 and 1810, 1 in 49; between 1816 and 1820, 1 in 55; and be tween 1826 and 1830, 1 in 51. Thus, as if the duration of life had increased with the population till 1820, and then lessened in the latter period, though the numbers continued to increase.

† Mr. Rickman has calculated the following proportions for the deaths in the different counties from 1826 to 1830. From his alphabetical order, I place them according to their rates: the highest number marking the fewest deaths or the healthiest county at that time.

Monmouth.

69

Bucks

52

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Berks

52

Rickman, ib., p. xxxii,

The whole numbers of baptisms, collected for the purposes of the

four population acts, appear to be:

8,335,866 males,

7 987 710 females.

peared. These differences between the comparative births and deaths of the two sexes are in other countries nearly similar Thus the mortality to our race is, by some powerful and ever-acting law, so regulated with relation to the nativities, that the two sexes, amid all the diversities, are always kept in the same general proportion to each other-a striking proof that death, as well as birth, is governed by established laws, actuating to a specific end, and never ravages at random. Its operations, indeed, occur on rules and principles which we have not yet descried. The mortal agencies act with differences which we are unable to elucidate; for, in the twentyone years after 1800, the mortality of England lessened more and more, and yet, in the succeeding ten years, it has, on the contrary, much increased; though at both periods the country was enlarging, both in numbers and prosperity.1

It is a remarkable fact, that although for the thirty-six years which elapsed from 1780 to 1815 the population was progressively increasing during that period, yet little or no augmentation occurred in the number of the deaths. The averages of every five years nearly approached each other; and more

So that the baptisms of males are 10,435 to 10,000 females.—Rickman, vol. 1, p. xliv,

The whole number of burials, under the returns for the four popu lation acts, were 11,588,038; of these

5,219,923 were males,
5,709,015 were females.

To which we may add those males who died abroad in the employment of war and commerce-Ib., xliv.

The years of war occasioned many of our males to die abroad, Hence, previous to the year 1821, the burials of the two sexes were in equal numbers; but Mr. Rickman justly adds, "The effect of wettled peace is now shown by the increased proportion of males who die and are buried at home."-fb.

↑ Thus the male and female births and deaths in Russia in 1834

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657,822 males,
633,176 females,

Journ, St. Pet., March, 1836.

"The mortality of the inhabitants of England appears to have sunk to its minimum in the decade preceding the population abstract of 1821; and, since that time, it seems to have risen as fast as it descended after the year 1800."- Rickman, vol. i., p. xxxv.

The several averages were

1780 to 1781

1785 to 1789

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actually died in the first year of the series, 1780, when the population was smallest, than in the last term, 1815, when the people had become so much more numerous.* The average of the whole thirty-six years was not much less than that of the last five. So that, in all this period, while the agencies of birth were kept in a steady process of a certain rate of production, those of death were made to be stationary, in order that the population might more particularly enlarge— a striking instance of the supervising attention of the regulating power.

The annual deaths varied in a similar manner on the Continent in the common course of the mortalities. One instance

of this may be cited in Prussia and Lithuania. The yearly amount here fluctuated to and fro,‡ and without any great increase, till sixty years had elapsed.

For the ten years between 1820 and 1830 the relation between marriages, baptisms, and burials, in England and Wales,

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†The general average of the thirty-six years was 193,198, being only 649 less than the average from 1811 to 1815.-Ib.

I take the first ten years of the burials in Sussmilch's Tables, and another ten years at a later period of it.

197,408 ditto.-Ib.

1693

16,881

1738

15,686

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stood, as nearly as can be calculated, in this proportion, on a summary of each, namely, three and three quarter births to a marriage, and two and a half deaths;* so that there arose, during that period, about one and a quarter more to every marriage than death took away, and by this propertion the English population was then naturally increasing. This would make about seven and a half births to five deaths, causing deaths to be one third less than the births in England and Wales at this period.

In Denmark in 1830 the same relations were four births and nearly three deaths to a marriage, which is a fifth less survivership than in England.4 In Brussels in 1833 the deaths were in such a large proportion that the city would in time have been unpeopled, without fresh arrivals from the country. In France in 1831 the relation was four births and three and a quarter deaths to a marriage.||

As between the sexes, a larger number of males are everywhere born than females.¶

• Mr. Rickman's summary, from 1821 to 1831, conclusive, is

Baptisins 3,753.493 Burals 2,462,907 Marriages 1,052,005-3 Pop., 486. ↑ The one and a quarter survivers from the marriages would make 1,315,118 individuals; but the population of 1831 was found to be 2,047,667 beyond that of 1821, which is 732,569 above those that proceeded from the intervening marriages. But this difference would arise from so many of the deaths of the interval falling on the population of 1921, the result of the action of death, on both new and old, in these ten years, was the 2,000,000 increase which appeared in Great Britian at their close in 1831.

The marriages were 10,774; the births 43,266; the deaths 31,294.Mr. Porter's Paper, Athen., 1836, p. 226.

In this year the marriages in Brussels were 866, the births 3983, or above four and a half to each marriage; the deaths 4277, almost five. The account, as between the sexes, evinced the birth of most males, but the death of most females.

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Ann. Long., 1834.

Thus in France during the fifteen years from 1817 to 1833 there were born

7,490,931 males,

7,041,247 females.

Annuaire Long, for 1834.

Let us now examine the proportion of a population which usually die, either every year or for any series of years.

Sir William Petty considered, that in his time, 1682, there were in England twenty-four births for twenty-three burials.* Other computations, of which he spoke respectfully, reckoned five births to four burials; and calculated that, in the country, the proportion of annual deaths to the population was 1 in 30 or 32. As a medium, he supposed that there might be about ten births for nine burials.‡

This is that moderate rate of increase which is so concordant with what appears to have actually taken place, that it is very probable that it expresses the prevailing course of nature as to human multiplication at that time.§

This

From one series of his, he said, "We have good experience that in the country but 1 in 50 die per annum."|| would come near Mr. Rickman's calculation of the present proportion being 1 in 49.¶

In our recent enumerations, we perceive that, in one county, the births and deaths were equal for one period of five years ;** but, in a later term of that duration, the baptisms

So in England, for the ten years from 1821 to 1830, the baptisms were1,917.444 males, 1,836,049 females.

Essay on Polit. Arithm., p. 13.

Rick., vol. iii., p. 486.

†There are also other good observations; that even in the country 1 in about 30 or 32 per annum had died, and that there have been five births for four burials.-Ib., p. 14.

Th., p. 15.

Sir William remarks on wars, plagues, and famines, that "the effects thereof, though they be terrible at the times and places where they hap pen, yet, in a period of 360 years, are no great matter in the whole nation. For the plagues of England, in twenty years, had carried away scarce an eightieth part of the whole nation; and the late ten years' civil wars, the like whereof had not been in several ages before, did not take away above a fortieth part of the whole people."-Ib., p. 15.

İb., p. 13.

The registered mortality in the several counties of England, from 1826 to 1830, ranges between forty-one in Middlesex and sixty-four in Cornwall. Including unregistered deaths, the mortality of England and Wales since 1820 is estimated at 1 in 49; though on another calculation it would be 1 in 45."-Rick. Pop., vol. i., p. 35. The differences between Sir W Petty, 1 in 50 and 1 in 32, may have arisen from averages taken in two different counties, as in Mr. Rickman's Middlesex and Cornwall. **This was Cambridge from 1806 to 1810, The average of both baptisms and burials was I in 30.-Ib., 32. Middlesex twice came rather near this; for in this same period it had thirty-nine births to thirty-six

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