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On thee my heart centred

All bopes earth could cherish: The spoiler hath enter'd,

And thou toe must perish!

I see thy bloom wasting,
And cannot restore it;
The end now is basting,
'Tis vain to deplore it.
Conid prayers detain thee,
As pale thou art lying,
I would not enchain thee
To live, ever dying :

To linger to languish-
That life may be sorrow!
Through the night pain and anguish,
No rest on the morrow!
Oh! soon may deep slumber
In mercy steal o'er thee!
Earth can but encumber,

And heaven is before thee.

Oh loveliest! oh dearest !
When anguish oppress'd thee,
My arm still was nearest,

My prayer still hath bless'd thee;
But now all is ended'

How welcome that sighing!

My prayer has ascended!

Tis heard-she is dying!

My God! I adore thee!
Receive the freed spirit
In gladness before thee,
A crown to inherit.

Take the gem that thou gavest,
Take the flower thou dost sever;
Take the soul that thou savest-

It is THINE and for ever!

Christian Keepsake, 1837.

LETTER XVI.

Sketches of the Plans and Principles on which Population has been conducted; and of the Purposes which are effectuated by it.—It never has been injurious to Society.

MY DEAR SON,

Having gone through our statistical examinations of the natural laws and experienced course of human population, we may proceed to reason on the Divine plans concerning it for which we have laid the preceding foundation.

From the historical information which we possess of the state and transactions of the world before we were born, we are entitled to conclude that it has been, from the beginning, decided by our Creator that mankind should multiply, from the few survivers of the deluge, into their present numbers by slow and varying gradations and in separate populations. They have branched off from their original stocks and from each other into numerous distinct settlements or into migrating tribes, of which some have become nations more or less lasting. From the results we may infer that it was his intention that human nature should exist upon the earth in this condition; and should have their various transactions with each other of amity and hostility which the annals of each nation record.

It is clear, from what has taken place, that no irresistible, or unchangeable, or ungoverned law of population has ever operated or displayed itself in any part, and never in the geometrical ratio; but that, in all ages and nations, the multiplication of mankind has been permitted or conducted under special laws and to special results, peculiar, not to each territorial region, but to each aggregation of human society that has spread and settled in its habitual locality.

We perceive, from the history of each nation, that it has never been in any unceasing course or ratio of augmentation or decline, nor fixed in any stationary pause. If a stationary law had been made the permanent rule, mankind could not have multiplied from the time of its promulgation. But we perceive that they have enlarged into their present state. Therefore, no paralysis of this sort has been imposed upon them.

Neither has the resistiess law of an augmenting ratio, much less a Malthusian ratio, beer enforced unor then for then they would have soot overwhelmed the earth. &

calculable, or at least mcomprehensibic numbers & which & former letter has aliuded.

As little has any law of decime devastation or misery been infucted or human nature, io: the every tri and kingdom would have long smer gone to waste, and mankin wouk. have ceased to be a living order of bemgs . the universe many

centuries ago.

Instead of either of these laws having beer made the rule and governor of humar. l the system has manifest: beer. that all should be occasionally used that each of them, shoul act in the course of human life, but that the agenc of each should be regulated and guided by the wisdon. o ther inste tutor, so as to execute his plans and accomplist has purposes in his administration of human affairs, and u. effectuating the ends which he has designed that every nation should promote., and which the process that he is carrying on is still operating to accomplish. On this plan the populations of Euro have been sustained: often kept stationary; and rising agan by ratios never uniform, but not advancing with & measured pregression.*

others

According to these plans, he has caused some populations to grow up and decline, others to become stationary to advance; and all to undergo those alterations and vicisse tudes which it suited his great purposes that they should experience. Population has nowhere been left absolutery to 1self; he has given it room and license to vary, as numar wil and causes affected it, with the limits which he has. by his constitution of nature, presented to it. But with these inits his guidance and contro. have been always activer provedent and directing. The elements of our hit have beer al

* The slow and gradual multiplication of mankind appears in the fact mentioned in the periodical papers of the day which have just coint before me, January, 1837.

The "Moniteur" contains a table of the population of Fravor for 1896, which is stated at 33.540.902, being an increase since the last census in 1831, mentioned before, p. 72. to have been 32,560,934. of 9974

Thus one of the most civilized nations of Europe in ful peace and prosperity, has increased less than a thirty-third part in five years. consequently, at this rate, would not be doubled in a hundred and fifty years, supposing that the same augmentation continued undimuushed for all that period.

ways under his superintendence, and have always taken the course which his purposes have required. Hence every nation exhibits a special and peculiar series of result, both as to its coexisting numbers and its social state. Those which once flourished have at length disappeared, as his plans appointed; and those which are now prominent have arisen into their present multitudes and history by no fixed law or ratio whatever, but by those graduations, suspensions, alternations, and successions which each displays to the observing judg

ment.*

The Divine plans as to each particular population must be sought and studied in its particular history; and with the lights afforded by this, in the bearings and connexion of it on the transactions and states of the other nations with which it has been concerned; extending, likewise, the observation to the condition and course of the rest of the contemporary world, and of the future events which it has more remotely contributed to effect; for the plans and agencies of Providence are framed on a large scale, and with long, and expansive, and numerous consequences.

*About 200 years ago, Olaus Rudbeck, in his "Atlantica," boasted of the prolific nature of his Swedish country women. He thought this to be one of the distinguishing natural advantages which Sweden was enjoying; yet not withstanding the fact, of which he gives instances, no unusual increase has multiplied the population of Sweden. On the contrary, we see in the following series the same gradual increase which seems to have been the most general law in Europe during the last century, and which confirms the view we have taken of the real laws of population and their natural results. The Col. Carl. af Forsell, in his "Statistik von Schweden," presents this statement to us, valuable for the length and continuity of the series, being eighty years:In 1751 the population amounted to

1760

1772

1780

1785

1790

1795

1800

1805

1810

1815

1820

1825

1830

1,785,727
1,893,246

2,012,772

2,118,281

2,142,273

2,150,493

2,280,441

2,347,303

2,412,772

2,377,851

2,465,066

2,584.690

2,771,252

2,888,082

At this rate, Sweden would be 100 years in doubling its population,

if it continued in a similar augmentation

According to all these relations has the population of every society been regulated and conducted. What has been may be expected to be repeated in the principle of the direction. and will so continue, always with reference to each part and to the evolving future. We seem disparted from each other, and are in frequent competitions and alienations, never thinking that, as nations, we have any affinities with each other. But these are human feelings and prejudices. We are all members of one earthly family in the view and meaning of our Creator. We are associated together, and regarded as one race and order of beings in his mind and plans; and in these all the generations that appear and depart are likewise connected together. Our personal interest with our world and with each other cease on our individual death, as the particles of our own body separate from us to be replaced by others. But every new generation and all their individuals are, in his sight, but so many successive portions of one human nature, of one great order of human being; one expansive, growing, fertilizing, fructifying, and improving mind, existing in millions of individual frames, and acquiring in each ideas and qualities which others are without; but all still the diversified compartments of one great scheme and theatre of existence, whose final state seems likely to be the concentration, in the last populations that shall possess the earth, of all the attainments and improvements which all their branches and predecessors may have acquired. This collective concentration of the past and present, in the individual mind that chooses to lead an intellectual life, is already largely taking place; and our many scientific, literary, political, commercial, and civil associations of all sorts, are each contributing to this result. Inquisitive persons are becoming more the real little worlds, the microcosms which they have been rhetorically said to be. But what was once a mere verbal compliment to human nature is very much, even now, its actual character in many. Nor does any diminution of the aggrandizing effect seems likely to accrue to a posterity which will both emulate and surpass us. No one, indeed, can live now without enlarging in his intellectuality. We must improve, in some respect or other, whether we seek to do so or have no thought about it; such is the operation of the circumstances into which human life is thrown, and by which society is now generally affected.

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