The Sanitary Review, Volume 1

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Page 12 - I have therefore little doubt that the Bath springs, like most other thermal waters, mark the site of some great convulsion and fracture which took place in the crust of the earth at some former period — perhaps not a very remote one, geologically speaking. The uppermost part of the rent through which the hot water rises is situated in horizontal strata of Lias, and Trias, 300 feet thick; and...
Page 12 - ... geyser, we should soon see a considerable cone built up, with a crater in the middle; and if the action of the spring were intermittent, so that ten or twenty years should elapse between the periods when solid matter was emitted, or (say) an interval of three centuries, as in the case of Vesuvius between 1306 and 1631, the discharge would be on so grand a scale as to afford no mean object of comparison with the intermittent outpourings of a volcano.
Page 16 - Logan, to be exhibited to the Members of the Association. We have every reason to suppose that the rocks in which these animal remains are included are of as old a date as any of the formations named " azoic " in Europe, if not older : so that they preceded in date rocks once supposed to have been formed before any organic beings had been created. 'But I will not venture on speculations respecting
Page 11 - ... the course of the present rivers and the actual shape of our hills and valleys, are they only of high antiquity when contrasted with the brief space of human annals ? May they not be like Vesuvius and Etna, which, although they have been adding to their flanks, in the course of the last...
Page 13 - Redruth in Cornwall, having about as high a temperature as that of the Bath waters, and of which, strange to say, no account has yet been published. It seems that, in the year 1839, a level was driven from an old shaft so as to intersect a rich copper-mine at the depth of 1350 feet from the surface. This lode or metalliferous fissure occurred in what were formerly called the United Mines, and which have since been named the Clifford Amalgamated Mines.
Page 13 - ... lead, and many others ; a slight trace of copper in the Bath waters being exceptional. Nevertheless, there is a strong presumption that there exists some relationship between the action of thermal waters and the filling of rents with metallic ores. The component elements of these ores may, in the first instance, rise from great depths in a state of sublimation or of solution in intensely heated water, and may then be precipitated on the walls of a fissure as soon as the ascending...
Page 12 - ... which are copiously evolved for days, sometimes for weeks, in succession from craters during an eruption. But we shall perhaps be asked whether, when we contrast the work done by the two agents in question, there is not a marked failure of analogy in one respect — namely a want, in the case of the hot spring, of power to raise from great depths in the earth voluminous masses of solid matter corresponding to the heaps of scoriœ and streams of lava which the volcano pours out on the surface.
Page 12 - These have happened during earthquakes which have been violent enough to disturb the subterranean drainage and alter the shape of the fissures up which the waters ascend. Thus during the great earthquake at Lisbon in 1755, the temperature of the spring called La Source de la Reine at Bagneres de Luchon, in the Pyrenees, was suddenly raised as much as 75° F., or changed from a cold spring to one of 122° F., a heat which it has since retained.
Page 13 - Bx)scoe, of Manchester, has been lately engaged in making a careful analysis of the Bath waters, and has discovered in them three metals which they were not previously known to contain — namely copper, strontium, and lithium ; but he has searched in vain for caesium and rubidium, those new metals, the existence of which has been revealed to us in the course of the last few years by what is called spectrum analysis. By this new method the presence of infinitesimal quantities, such as would have...
Page 12 - All this matter is now quietly conveyed by a stream of limpid water, in an invisible form, to the Avon, and by the Avon to the sea ; but if, instead of being thus removed, it were deposited around the orifice of eruption, like the siliceous layers which encrust the circular basin of an Icelandic geyser, we should soon see a considerable cone built up, with a crater in the middle...

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