R2 R Hence then, if consistently with this precept, R be placed for a denominator of the second member of each equation v (art. 12), and if ▲ be supposed equal to в, we shall have sin. A. cos. A sin. A cos. sin. (A+A)= That is, sin. 2A= R B And, in like manner, by supposing в to become successively equal to 2a, 3a, 44, &c. there will arise sin. A. cos. 2a+ cos. a . sin. 2a. R sin. a. cos. 3A+ cos. A. sin. 3a. sin. 3A sin. 4A sin. a . cos. 4a+† cos. a sin. 5A R R (VIII.) And, by similar processes, the second of the equations just referred to, namely, that for cos. (A+B), will give successively, Cos2 A sing COS. 2A R COS. A. Cos. 2A cos. 2a— sın. a sin. 2A (IX.) R 19. If, in the expressions for the successive multiples of the sines, the values of the several cosines in terms of the sines were substituted for them; and a like process were adopted with regard to the multiples of the cosines, other expressions would be obtained, in which the multiple sines would be expressed in terms of the radius and sine, and the multiple cosines in terms of the radius and cosines. Other very convenient expressions for multiple arcs may be obtained thus: Add together the expanded expressions for sin. (BA), sin. (B—A), that is, add to there results sin. (BA) + whence, sin. (B+A) = sin. B. cos. A cos. B Sin. A, ▲). Thus again, by adding together the expressions for cos. (BA) and cos. (BA), we have COS. (BA) + cos. (BA) = 2 cos. A. cos. B, whence, cos. (B+A) 2 cos. A . COS. B COS. (BA). Substituting in these expressions for the sine and of BA, the successive values A, 2A, 3A, &c. instead of 2A, 3A, &c. instead of в; the following series will be produced. sin. 2A-2 cos. A. sin. A. sin. 3A2 cos. A. sin. 2A sin. A (x.) sin. sin. (n 1) A sin.(n-2)A. A cos. 0 (=1). COS. A. 2 cos. A cos. 3A COS. 2A. (xi.) cos. na COS. NA = 2 cos. A cos. (n Several other expressions for the sines and cosines of multiple arcs, might readily be found: but the above are the easy, when the sine of an arc is known, to find that of its half. For, substituting for cos. A its value squared gives R2 sin2 2a=4r2 sin2 a—4 sina a Here taking sin. A for the unknown quantity, we have a quad * Here we have omitted the powers of R that were necessary to render all the terms homologous, merely that the expressions might be brought in upon the page; but they may easily be supplied, when needed, by the rule in art. 18. ratic ratic equation, which solved after the usual manner, gives sin. A = ±R2±R/R2 —sin3 2a If we make 2a = A', then will a = 14′ and consequently, the sin. A =±√√/R2±R/R2 — sin3 or sin. A = ± 1/2R2 ± 2r cos, a': (XII.) by putting cos. A for its value R-sin A' multiplying the 21. If the values of sin. (A+B) and sine (A-B), given by 2 sin, A. COS. B R ; whence, sin. (A+B) + sin. (A—B): 2 sin. B. COS. A ; whence, sin. B. COS. AR sin (A+B)—1R . Sin (A—B). . (XIV.) Cos. a . 2a 22. In like manner, by adding together the primitive ex- 2 cos. A COS. B Cos. (A+B) + cos. (AB)= ; whence, R C cos. A. COS. B=R. COS. (A+B)+R. Co§. (4—B) (XVI.) And here, when A=B, recollecting that when the arc is nothing the cosine is equal to radius, we shall have COS2 A=1R. cos. 2A+R2 (XVII.) 23. Deducting cos. (A+B) from cos.. (AB), there will remain. cos. (A—B) — Cos. (A+B) 2 sin. A . sin. B ; whence, R sin. a. sin. B=R. COS. (AB)-R. cos. (A+B) (XVIII.) When AB, this formula becomes sin2 ARR. cos. 2A... (XIX.) 24. Multiplying together the expressions for sin. (A + B) and sin. (AE), equa. v, and reducing, there results B sin. (A+B). sin. (A—B) — sin2 A—şin3 B. And, in like manner, multiplying together the values of cos. COS. (A+B). cos. (A-B) COS2 A--COS2 B. Here, since sin2 A-sin2 B, is equal to (sin. a+sin. B) X (sin. A-sin. B), that is, to the rectangle of the sum and difference of the sines; it follows, that the first of these equations converted into an analogy, becomes sin. (A B): sin. A sin. B :: sin. A + sin. B: sin. (A + B) (XX.) That is to say, the sine of the difference of any two arcs or angles, is to the difference of their sines, as the sum of those sines is to the sine of their sum. If A and B be to each other as n+1 to n, then the preceding proportion will be converted into sin. a: sin. (n+1) s— sin. na :: sin. (n+1) a+ sin. na : sin. (2n+1) ▲ . . . . (XXI.) These two proportions are highly useful in computing a table of sines; as will be shown in the practical examples at the end of this chapter. 25. Let us suppose A+BA, and A-B=B'; then the half sum and the half difference of these equations will give respectively A (A+B), and B (AB). Putting these values of ▲ and в, in the expressions of sin. A. COS. B, sin. B. cos. A, cos. A. cos. B, sin. A. sin. B, obtained in arts. 21, 22, 23, there would arise the following formula: sin. sin. 2 (A+B). COS (AB (A COS. 1 (A+B). cos / A B sin. 1 (A+B). sin (A′ — B Dividing the second of these formulæ by the first, there will be had sin. Asin. B sin. (AB) cos. (A+B) cos. ¿(A'—B′) ̊ sin. 1(A'+B′) sin. tan. Cos. and R -R COS. follows that the two factors of the first member of this equa tion, are tan. (A-B) and R equation manifestly becomes (XXII.) tan. (A-B') sin. Asin. B sin. Asin. B′ This equation is readily converted into a very useful proportion, viz. The sum of the sines of two arcs or angles, is to their difference, as the tangent of half the sum of those arcs or angles, is to the tangent of half their difference. 26. Operating with the third and fourth formulæ of the preceding article, as we have already done with the first and second, we shall obtain tan. $ Making B=0, in one or other of these expressions, there re These theorems will find their application in some of the investigations of spherical trigonometry. 27. Once more, dividing the expression for sin. (A+B) by that for cos. (A+B), there results sin. (A±B) sin. A COS. B sin. B COS. A COS. (AB) COS. A. COS, B — sin. a. sin. B then dividing both numerator and denominator of the second fraction by cos. A. cos. B, and recollecting that sin. tan. COS. R 28. We might now proceed to deduce expressions for the tangents, cotangents, secants, &c. of multiple arcs, as well as some of the usual formulæ of verification in the construction of tables, such as i sin. . |