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the powder within the bag, was less than that of the gun bore. But the diameter of the gun bores was 2·02 inches; therefore, deducting the ⚫05, the remainder 1.97 is the diameter of the powder cylinder within the bag and because the areas of circles are to each other as the spaces of their diameters, and the squares of these numbers, 1.97 and 2.02, being to each other as 388 to 408, or as 97 to 102; therefore, on this account alone, the numbers before found, for the value of n, must be increased in the ratio of 97 to 102.
But there is yet another circumstance, which occasions the space at first occupied by the inflamed powder to be larger than that at which it has been taken in the foregoing calculations, and that is the difference between the content of a sphere and cylinder. For the space supposed to be occupied at first by the elastic fluid, was considered as the length of a cylinder measured to the hinder part of the curve surface of the ball which is manifestly too little by the difference between the content of half the ball and a cylinder of the same length and diameter, that is, by a cylinder whose length is the semidiameter of the ball. Now that diameter was 1.96 inches the half of which is 0.98, and of this is 0.33 nearly. Hence then it appears that the lengths of the cylinders at first filled by the dense fluid, viz. 3.45, and 5·99. and 11.07, have been all taken too little by 0:33; and hence it follows that, on this account also, all the numbers before found for the value of
first force n, must be further increased in the ratios of 3.45 5.99 and 11·07, to the same numbers increased by 0·33, that is, to the numbers 3.78 and 6.32 and 11.40.
Compounding now these last ratios with the foregoing one, viz. 97 to 102, it produces these three, viz. the ratios of 334 and 581 and 1074, respectively to 385 and 647 and 1163. Therefore, increasing the last column of numbers, for the value of n, viz. those of the 4 oz charge in the ratio of 334 to 385, and those of the 8 oz. charge in the ratio of 581 to 647, and those of the 16 oz. charge in the ratio of 1074 to 1163, with every gun, they will be reduced to the numbers in the annexed table where the numbers are still larger and more regular than before.
1372 1387 14381430
1637 1677 1766 1812
Thus then at length it appears that the first force of the inflamed gunpowder, when occupying only the space at first filled with the powder, is about 1800, that is 1800 times the elasticity of the natural air, or pressure of the atmosphere in the charges with 8 oz. and 16 oz. of powder, in the two longer guns; but somewhat less in the two shorter, probably owing to the gradual firing of gunpowder in some degree; and also less in the lowest charge 4 oz. in all the guns, which may probably be owing to the less degree of heat in the small charge. But besides the foregoing circumstances that have been noticed, or used in the calculations, there are yet several others that might and ought to be taken into the account, in order to a strict and perfect solution of the problem; such as, the counter pressure of the atmosphere, and the resistance of the air on the fore part of the ball while moving along the bore of the gun; the loss of the elastic fluid by the vent and windage of the gun; the gradual firing of the powder; the unequal density of the elastic fluid in the different parts of the space it occupies between the ball and the bottom of the bore the difference between pressure and percussion when the ball is not laid close to the powder; and perhaps some others: on all which accounts it is probable that instead of 1800, the first force of the elastic fluid is not less than 2000 times the strength of natural air.
Corol. From the theorem last used for the velocity of the 2230hd2 p+w
ball and elastic fluid, viz.
8567hn ÷log.), we may find the velocity of the elasptw tic fluid alone, viz. by taking w, or the weight of the ball, = 0 in the theorem, by which it becomes barely v
log.), for that velocity. And by computing
P the several preceding examples by this theorem, supposing the value of n to be 2000, the conclusions come out a little various, being between 4000 and 5000, but most of them nearer to the latter number. So that it may be concluded that the velocity of the flame, or of the fired gunpowder expands itself at the muzzle of the gun, at the rate of about 5000 feet per second nearly.
ON THE MOTION OF BODIES IN FLUIDS.
To determine the Force of Fluids in Motion; and the Circum stances attending Bodies Moving in Fluids.
1. It is evident that the resistance to a plane, moving perpendicularly through an infinite fluid, at rest, is equal to the pressure or force of the fluid on the plane at rest, and the fluid moving with the same velocity, and in the contrary direction, to that of the plane in the former case. But the force of the fluid in motion, must be equal to the weight or pressure which generates that motion; and which, it is known, is equal to the weight or pressure of a column of the fluid, whose base is equal to the plane, and its altitude equal the through
force of gravity, to acquire the a body must fall by the
the fluid and
that altitude is, for the sake of brevity, called the altitude due to the velocity. So that, if a denote the area of the plane, the velocity and n the specific gravity of the fluid; then the altitude due to the velocity v being the whole
resistance, or motive force m, will be aXn X
being 16 feet. And hence, cateris paribus, the resistance is as the square of the velocity.
2. This ratio of the square of the velocity, may be otherwise derived thus. The force of the fluid in motion, must be as the force of one particle multiplied by the number of them; but the force of a particle is as its velocity; and the number of them striking the plane in a given time, is also as the velocity; therefore the whole force is as v X v or v2, that is the square of the velocity.
3. If the direction of motion, instead of being perpendicular to the plane, as above supposed, be inclined to it in any angle, the sine of that angle being s to the radius 1: then the resistance to the plane, or the force of the fluid
against the plane, in the direction of the motion, as assigned
4. Also, if w denote the weight of the body, whose plane face a is resisted by the absolute force m; then the retarding
5. And if the body be a cylinder, whose face or end is a
and the retarding force f
6. This is the value of the resistance when the end of the cylinder is a plane perpendicular to its axis, or to the direction of motion. But were its face a conical surface, or an elliptic section, or any other figure every where equally inclined to the axis, the sine of inclination beings: then the number of particles of the fluid striking the face being still the same but the force of each, opposed to the direction of mo
tion, diminished in the duplicate ratio of radius to the sine of
But if the body were terminated by an end or face of any other form as a spherical one, or such like, where every part of it has a different inclination to the axis; then a further investigation becomes necessary, such as in the following proposition.
To determine the Resistance of a Fluid to any Body, moving in
sine G to radius
Putting CFxX, EF = Y, BE = 2
× 2pyz or
p n v 2 s
or the fluxion of the resistance to the body, whatever the
2. In the case of a spherical form: putting the radius ca