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noticed any improper conduct in any this too without any unnecessary deone about the house, she took notice lay. They also accustomed us, from of it very pointedly; and if she had our infancy upwards, to intrepidity, convincing proofs of it, she made it for they considered timidity and fear known to my father. In this manner as magnifying dangers; and even her household was managed with comfort, and her conduct was instructive and useful.
My father,on the contrary, possessed a fine understanding, which had been improved by a rational education.His principles were correct, and his resolutions fixed; at the same time, however, he had an irritability of feeling which arose from a warmth of character that was indissolubly united to him. He was sincere and unfeignedly noble-minded: he might be easily provoked by offence, and forgave easily when his passion had subsided.
where there were none, they so unfixed the faculties that often a very prudent man acted like a fool under their influence. From our tenderest infancy they strove to make us healthy both in body and mind; and, in order that we might not, like the generality of children, be perpetually plagued with colds, coughs, and catarrhs, we were always, as much as possible, in the open air, or else in what was pure and temperate. We were washed every day, whatever might be the state of the weather. In warm weather, this was done in a brook that flowed by our house; His partiality for my mother was in cold weather, we were dipped into very strong; his love was sincere; a large tub filled of water. Beer, his house establishment good; and wine, and brandy were never given his generosity and gratitude were to us. Our beverage was pure spring without bounds. The various duties, water, and we were not allowed to of life occasioned him much trouble drink either between or after meals. and many cares; but the impressions In the heat of summer we were alwhich they left were obliterated by lowed butter-milk, or the yelk of an the tenderness and assiduity of my egg beat up in water, and, in order mother and thus, as the soft and that our simple fare might be duly the strong, with each other mingled, concocted, we never were allowed to : produce the finest harmony of tone, be at our studies more than three so also the energy of my father's mind and the goodness of his heart, united with the tender gentleness of my mother, caused that mutual excellence whence arose that mutual happiness which was the admiration of all who knew them.
Of such parents, I, as well as two sisters and a brother, had the happiness to be born, and by such parents to be educated. Our education, indeed, was not conducted upon those new principles which have arisen since my absence from Germany. However, as both my parents were possessed of a good understanding and good morals, so they were also considered, in those times, as rational; and they united their endeavours so vigorously in this task, that they saw, with pleasure, the gradual success of their labours.
Accurately to comprehend our minds was one of their chief cares; and they strove, according to our different characters, to qualify us for corresponding pursuits in life, and
hours a day till after our eighth year. To this early education I am doubtless indebted for the vigorious constitution that I possess, and without which I could never have undergone half what I have endured, and therefore it is that I have thought it necessary to advert to it.
As my parents were constantly sedulous to unfold the qualities of our minds and bodies, and as they always took care that this unfolding should not be injurious, but applied to such purposes as might be beneficial in future, so they resolved, as we advanced in years, to procure a domestic tutor, who might complete what they had begun, and by which means they might have us under their eye. Such a one, they thought, might become our second father, our instructor in virtue, and their own friend, who would seek to form our hearts to all that was good.
They imagined that the safest way to proceed, in order to obtain such a man, would be to apply to a professor
of any university; and as there was a very near relation of ours, who was a professor at Griefswalde, my father wrote to him, told him what he wanted, and what were his intended terms, and also explained his domestic arrangements, and his present mode of educating us. We soon received an answer, in which he felicitated himself that he was so lucky as to find a young man who would completely answer my father's views.
Latin if it is meant that he should devote himself to any of the learned professions. But a teacher should not, as our's did, occupy the greater part of the day in that single pursuit.
In natural history, which has so many attractions for children, in geography, letter writing, in history, and in a correct pronunciation of our native tongue, nothing was done; in short, his repulsive manner of instruction rather frightened us from study After a few weeks, Mr. REIMANN than incited us to it. The smallest (for so he was called) arrived. As he mistake was punished with the stick promised a great deal at first, nothing or with a sound box on the ear, and of which he accomplished, so he was in this manner a whole half year received, by my parents, as the best passed cre our good parents even befriend of their children, and treated gan to suspect that their intentions as our greatest benefactor. He had respecting us were not likely to be a pleasing exterior, and a very pre- fulfilled; and who knows how long possessing manner. Perhaps both they might have reposed confidence these had deceived the professor, and induced him to recommend this man whom he probably knew nothing else of but his outside, for he was in no manner fit to pursue that rational and appropriate education which our parents had begun.
in this hireling, had they not been put on their guard, partly by his own irregular mode of living, and partly by the warning of our new parson.
Soon after the arrival of REIMANN, our parson, whose name was DIEDRICH, a young man, agreeable and To him order, cleanliness, and mo- entertaining, and a true father of his rality were wholly unknown. He flock, was put into fear, one Saturday went through his seven hours of evening, by three thieves, who had teaching mechanically, every day, stolen into his house and concealed without any concern whether his in- themselves there for some time. He structions were intelligible, whether was about thirty-four years old, and they were what we needed, or whe- unmarried. As he was man of some ther they were useful. That cu- property, and had a predilection for riosity which is so natural to every husbandry, he had purchased the farm young contemplator of the world, of on which he lived, and kept no serknowing the why and wherefore of vant but an old housekeeper who was things, never incited him to conduct our uninformed minds along a path where we might elicit truths by our own efforts, which would have thrown light upon our knowledge.
The greatest part of the day was spent in Latin; I may say laboriously spent, for the whole instruction consisted in learning words and such like. Had his mode of teaching been appropriate, I should not have mentioned this; for I am firmly convinced that the Greek and Latin languages are what no really learned man can do without, and of which the philosopher and the theologian have as much need as the physician and the lawyer. The Latin language is, and will long remain,the only door through which we must arrive at every species of knowledge. A boy must also learn
rather deaf. As there was no person therefore on whom he could rely in this affair, and as he already heard the thieves in the adjoining room where the communion plate was kept, he resolved to fasten himself into his own chamber: but when at last they attacked him, and strove to break the door open, he began to cry for help out of the window. Had he cried out thieves, and not fire, there would have been plenty of those who ran to the alarm ready to seize the depre dators; but they escaped, for every one was looking for the fire and nobody for thieves.
This unfortunate accident was followed by sad consequences to the worthy DIEDRICH, and the common people lost in him a man whom they had cause to value in every respect.
The poor and the needy mourned for him especially, for he had taught the religion of love as much in his actions as in his words. The following instance will prove this.
tionary and writings. To this great authority, I will add that of Dr. Barrow, who, in his book on education, strongly recommends the use of the k in terminations. Our excellent grammarian, Murray, says, “Many writers of latter years omit the kin words of two or more syllables;" and observes, very judiciously, that "this practice is productive of irregu Jarities, such as writing mimic and mimickry, traffic and trafficking.' Yet to this custom, "productive" as
He once visited, as he often used to do, a sick parishioner, and found him on a hard mattrass: he asked him, kindly, where the bed was which he had found him lying upon the last time he saw him? Ah! sighed forth the unfortunate, I was compelled to sell it, to bury my wife with the money: he then asked, he acknowledges it to be, "of irrewhence arose that unpleasant smell gularities," which our best gramma
in his room? The distressed invalid shewed him, that the corpse of his wife, for want of money to bury her, had been kept in the house too long, and occasioned the smell. DIED RICH, touched with pity, not only bought him his bed again, but made arrangements for the interment of the deceased, and sent him food and cordials till he was restored to health.
that of your numerous readers, 1 am aware that I endeavour to eradicate a custom now grown so inveterate as probably to defy the force of any arguments, however strong, which may be urged in favour of its discontinuance. Of established usage as it has, in general, reason for its foundation, I would not be understood as wishing to diminish the authority: but to custom, when it is found to be arbitrary, capricious, and unsupported by reason, I cannot hesitate to refuse my allegiance, especially in writing or speaking a language. The practice to which I allude is the rejection of the final k from the words " publick, musick," &c. Dr. Johnson, from whose decisions, whether in morals or in literature, there seldom lies an appeal, says that "c, according to English orthography, never ends a word;" and he has accordingly retained the k final throughout his dic
rians have concurred in their endeavours to diminish, he has, by his practice, added the weight of his authority. But these irregularities have an operation much more extensive than that which Mr. Murray has pointed out. To this, and at the same time to the inconsistency of these writers, I wish to direct your particular attention. They do not reject the k from all "words of two or more syllables," nor from any word of one syllable: thus the advocates for " music, physic, comic, poetic," who nevertheless do not hesitate to write rock," &c. would think it absurd to "back, crack, trick, stick, clock, write " arrac, attac, barrac, ransac, bulloc, hilloc, hammoc, mattoc, haddity is not greater te obvious doc, paddoc:" yet surely the absur
in one word than in another. I will here give you a very curious specimen of orthography, evidently arising from the innovation of which I now complain. Reading, in a respectable morning paper, a long article, in which the words "traffick and trafficking" frequently occurred, I observed that the k was not only struck off from the former, but from the latter. I at first naturally supposed it to be an error of the press; but seeing both
The irregularity here would be better illustrated by substituting the word "mimicking," for, admitting "mimic" to be the correct orthography, analogy (unless indeed its authority be at once formally, as it has long been virtually, denied) requires that the k in "mimickry" be omitted, especially as, in this instance, it is not necessary to the proper sound of the word.
the words still recur in the same share in determining the actions of form, I concluded that the author, mankind. noticing the irregularity of the usual orthography, rather than restore the to the verb, determined on rejecting it from the participle, an absurdity so palpable that it is surprising it could escape even the most careless writer. Even proper names are not secure from this innovation. We already see Frederic, Dominic, Roderic, then why not Patric? It is, therefore, not improbable but we may soon see "Garric, Derric, Merric, Berwic, Warwic, Limeric, Woodstoc, Tavistoc."
As analogy and etymology are our only guides in orthography, let us not, by forsaking them and following the dictates of caprice, render ineffectual the labours of our "" great lexicographer," and of our most eminent grammarians.
If, in your opinion, these remarks are not unworthy of the pages of the Universal Magazine, the insertion of thein will greatly oblige
Your admirer and
The love of liberty is a most noble pa son, and has frequently stimulated its possessor to the most heroic deeds. In defence of it the sword has been frequently unsheathed, and not a few have preferred a premature death to the highest offices of state under the controul of an arbitrary tyrant. But our business is not to seek for extremes, but to confine ourselves to the general tenor of human life. It is hence we are to draw our conclusions; for here only can we form any just ide of man, and of the principles by which he is actuated.
The love of liberty seems to be a very prevailing passion. In this our highly favoured isle it pervades all ranks: the rich and the poor, the peer and the peasant, seem equally sensible of its value, and combine to defend it from every encroachment. The liberty of his country, of his family, of his friends, is a sacred pledge which heaven has committed to the care of every true born Briton, for which he would cheerfully submit to every privation, would readily make the most costly sacrifices, yea, would willingly spend the last drop of his blood in its defence. This is the only country where liberty is fully enjoyed, and the only place N every stage of life, man is the where we can see its genuine effects. subject of influence. In many In other countries the love of civil of his movements he is governed, liberty is, in a great measure, sublike the brute creation, by mere cor-dued; a long series of oppression and poreal or sensual impulse. In others, habits of servility have either annihisome ruling passion of the mind regulated the spirit or made it inactive. lates his conduct and directs his actions.
June 23, 1809.
Love and LIBERTY?
The inhabitants have never known its blessings, therefore do not seek the enjoyment of them; or, on the other hand, it has degenerated into a spirit of turbulent democracy, equally subversive of the rights of man.
Two of these grand moving causes are the love of liberty and the love of woman. The former of these I shall define, a perfect freedom from restraint both of body and mind; but But the love of personal liberty is such a freedom as is consistent with common to every man, to whatever the laws of a mild and equitable go- nation he may belong, under whatvernment, which is absolutely neces- ever climate he may be born. A sarv to the very being of true liberty, condition of slavery or confinement -The latter principle is too well is repugnant to every faculty of the known to need any explanation. soul; and that mind must be broken Every bosom has one time or other indeed, and lost to every sense of felt the pleasing pain: the most sa- mauly feeling, who would not sacrivage heart has been subdued by the fice a hundred lives, if he possessed soft emotion. Let us then consider them, to obtain his freedom. Man the influence of each, and endeavour cannot bear restraint in any situation, to discover which has the greatest and the very appearance of it renders
irksome many an employment in which he might otherwise take delight. Look at the active youth just entered on the term of his apprenticeship: how eagerly does he long for the period to arrive when he shall have completed that term and become his own master. To this period he looks forward with anxious expectation, and blesses every revolving sun which brings him nearer the wished-for point.
ought to be called into action to support it.
But the love of liberty, however strong the passion, must yield her share in the government of the human heart to the love of woman. This passion knows no bounds, acknowledges no laws. With a mighty force it breaks through every obstacle that might intervene between the subject of it and the beloved object, and, like a rushing torrent, bears To what cause can we assign the down every thing that would impede innumerable classes of mendicants its progress. For the love of woman, that infest our streets, but to this man would forego his dearest rights, innate principle of independence and even liberty itself, and voluntarily love of liberty. The laws of this submit to the most galling yoke. The country make an ample provision for love of liberty is sometimes subdued; the wants of every individual; and instances of which may be frequently those who make vagrancy a trade, do seen among that unfortunate class of it in open violation of them, and are, mankind, the slaves. Long accusconsequently, liable to punishment. tomed to habits of servitude, and to But this is the most trifling, or rather obey the nod of their imperious masno obstacle in their way. Rather than ters, they forget their natural rights submit to confinement and restraint as men, and fully acquiesce in their within the walls of a workhouse, miserable condition. There may be where they might be warmly clothed a few noble spirits among them, and comfortably fed, they prefer a whose lofty minds no oppression can wandering life, exposed to every in- tame, nor the severest tortures can clemency of the season, with nothing subdue: yet instances have not been but hunger and rags, to such a provi- wanting of those, who, after having sion with such a restraint.--What an been emancipated from slavery, have instance do we meet with of the love voluntarily entered it again for a small of liberty in the gypsey tribe. These quantity of spirituous liquors or toelude the vigilance of every law, and bacco. But even in these breasts the trample on all the rights of man. love of woman is not subdued. She Confined to no settled place of abode, still holds her empire there, and is they range the country through, and frequently the sole directress of his pitch their camps wherever conveni- actions. ence or inclination lead them. They If we take a view of the married lay every rank of society under a kind state, we shall find another striking of contribution, and what they can- proof of the superior influence of not gain by entreaty, they procure by female attractions. When a man artifice and fraud. enters this important stage of his life, It is for liberty the labouring kind he must renounce a great portion of will toil from morning till night, and his liberty, and become the slave of sustain the heats of summer and the woman. In this condition be must colds of winter, the chill damps of renounce that freedom of mind, that morning and the scorching blaze of freedom of will, that freedom of afthe midday sun, without repining. fection, that freedom of action, which When he has finished the labour of he before possessed, and must, in a the day, and the shades of evening measure, submit them all to the diapproach, he can retire to his humble, rection of his fair tyrant. With her peaceful dwelling, with a heart un- he must consult in all his undertakfettered by any chain, and enjoy that ings; he must enter into no engagefreedom there which the nobleman ment without her approbation. Not possesses in his mansion or the king but that, where love abounds, these in his palace. Freedom, both of body sacrifices, these concessions will be and mind, is one of the rights of mutual; but still they must be made man, and every energy of the soul in order to secure the happiness of the