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formed of it. Obstructed by large banks of mud, and open at the south to the easterly winds, it does not afford to vessels that security, which they are often in need of; while the marshy nature of the soil in its environs, renders it at once unhealthy, and scarcely fit for ordinary cultivation. Hence, commodore Philip, after reconnoitring Port Jackson, was induced to abandon Botany Bay; and since that period, there has been no other establishment at it, except a kiln for the preparation of lime, which is made from the shells that abound on this part of the coast. Botany Bay, and its environs, are called by the natives, Gwea, and to this country belong the tribe of savages, called Gwea Gal, who acknowledge Bennil-long, for their chief.

Twenty five miles, or there-abouts, to the west of Sydney Town, is the town of Rose Hill, or Parramatta; which I took the earliest opportunity of visiting. The principal physician of le Naturaliste, M. Bellefin, accompanied me; a serjeant of the New South Wales regiment, acted as our guide, and was ordered by Colonel Paterson, to obtain for us such facilities as we might require, to pursue our researches. A large road leads from Sydney Town, to Parramatta; it is not paved, but is well made, and kept in good condition. It is almost every where wide enough for three carriages to pass abreast, and bridges have been thrown over such parts of it, as are interrupted by the waters; so that the traveller meets with no obstacle on his journey. Having been opened through vast forests, that were never before assailed by the axe, this grand road appears at a distance, like an immense avenue of foliage and verdure. A charming freshness, and an agreeable shade always prevail in this continuous bower, the silence of which is interrupted only, by the singing and chirp ing of the richly-plumed parroquets, and other birds which inhabit it.

The whole ground, over which you proceed to Rose Hill, is flat, with the exception of a few insignificant hillocks. In proportion, as you recede from the seashore, the soil becomes less barren, and affords great varieties of vegetation. In some parts there are large spaces between the trees, which is covered by a very fine and sweet-scented grass, that forms a beautiful verdant carpet, and affords pasturage to numerous flocks of excellent sheep. The mild temperature of the climate, the absence of all kinds of fereci.

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ous beasts, together with the particular species, and agreeable odour of most of the vegetables, have been so favourable to these useful animals, that the finest kinds of Spain and England, thrive as. well here as on their native soil. AIready the wool of these antarctic animals, is found to be superior to the rich fleeces of Asturias; and the English manufac turers pay dearer for it; because they are convinced of its superiority. This discovery will probably soon open to Great Britain, a branch of commerce as easy, as it is lucrative.

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Woods here and there open to the view, and the traveller perceives amidst them, spots which have been cleared by the settlers; and some of which are extensive he discovers on them, many pretty habitations, shaded by beautiful trees; and contemplates with pleasing emotion, these new fields, where the feeble grass. of the north rises from the decay of the powerful Eucalyptus: he discovers with delight on these distant grounds, the most useful animals of his own country; the bulls frisk about with a vigour equal, or even superior, to that of the cold meadows of Ireland; while the cow, more fecund, gives a greater quantity of milk in these mild climates, than in our's. The English horse also, appears with the same strength and spirit, that he exhibits on the banks of the Thames; while the European hog is improved, by numerous crosses, with those of the South-Seaislands; which are superior in size, as well as quality of fat and lean. All kinds of poultry have succeeded as well as the larger animals, and the farmyards are stocked with different varietics of geese, ducks, turkies, pheasants, &c. several of which are preferable to the finest of the European species.

The traveller receives additional pleasure on visiting the interior of the habita tions. Beneath their agreeable roofs, in the midst of vast forests, live in perfect tranquility, those banditti, who but a short time before were the terror of Europe, and who, familiarized with guilt, were in constant expectation of the punishment of death: here now live those numerous robbers, rogues, and pickpockets, those criminals of every kind, who in the mother-country appeared to increase in proportion to the progress of civilization. All these unfortunate wretches, who were the disgrace and odium of their country, have become, by the most inconceivable metamorphosis, la

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borious cultivators, and happy and peaceable members of their community. Indeed, murders, or robberies, are scarcely ever heard of amongst them; so that in this respect the most perfect security prevails throughout the colony; a happy consequence of laws as severe as they are beneticent.

In order to enjoy at our ease these striking scenes, M. Bellefin and I often entered the rural habitations. We were every where received in the most obliging manner; and when we observed the tender cares of the mothers towards their children, and reflected that only a few years before these very women, destitute of every tender affection and delicate sentiment, were disgusting prostitutes, the sudden revolution in their moral conduct, gave rise to reflections of the most gentle and philanthropic nature.

At length we arrived in sight of Parramatta: it is seated in the middle of a fine plain, on the banks of a river of the same name, which can be ascended by small vessels, as high as the town itself. It is not so large as Sydney Town; but contains about a hundred and eighty houses, which form a grand street, parallel with the river, and intersected at right angles by another smaller street, which, at one end, terminates with a stone bridge, and has at the other the church; the latter edifice, which is built in a rude and heavy style, was not quite finished at the time of our visit; indeed, the building is conducted with less rapidity than it might be, because the governors of the colony attach, with reason, more importance to the other branches of their administration; such as the hospitals, prisons, public manufactories, the clearing of land, the fisheries, navigation, &c. for which they reserve proper funds and disposable hands.

dred souls; nearly all of whom are employed in the cultivation of land, the rearing of cattle, and the exercise of a few of the mechanical arts. The town contains an hospital, which is well regulated and of which the principal physician is Mr. D'Arcy Wentworth, a strong prison, a house of industry for female convicts, a public school for the young girls of the colony, &c. This town is also the chief residence of the justice of the peace for the county of Cumberland, and will become in time the seat of the whole civil administration of the colony; those branches which relate to navigation, commerce, and war, being already established at Sydney.

Towards the western extremity of the grand street of Parramatta, you discover the elevation called Rose Hill, from which the town first received its name; but it was afterwards called, Parramatta; that being the appellation which the natives give to this part of the country, and which has generally prevailed amongst the English themselves. The whole eastern front of Rose Hill, which is towards the town, is a very gentle declivity, on which appears the fine garden hetonging to the government, in which many interesting experiments are made, with a view to naturalize foreign vege tables: here also are collected, the most remarkable of the indigenous plants, intended to enrich the famous royal gar dens of Kew. It is from this spot that England has, at various times, acquired most of her treasures in the vegetable kingdom; and which have enabled the English botanists to publish many important volumes. An enlightened botanical professor, who combines modesty with indefatigable exertion, had just arrived from Europe at the time of our visit, to superintend the garden of Parramatta; and the learned Colonel Paterson, to whom New South Wales is indebted for this establishment, has never ceased to take a lively interest in its suc

cess.

At one of the extremities of the great street of Parramatta, are barracks, capable of accommodating from two hundred and fifty, to three hundred infantry, They are built of brick, in the form of a horse-shoe, and have in front, a well-gra velled parade, where the troops of the garrison go through their ordinary exercises: these troops consisted, at the time of our visit, of a company of an hundred and twenty men, belonging to the New South Wales regiment, under the common weather, is not remarkable; but mand of Capt. Piper.

The whole population of Parramatta, including the garrison, and the inhabitants of the neighbouring farms, is estimated at, from fourteen to fifteen hun

The part of Rose Hill, that is opposite to Parramatta, presents an abrupt section, and forms a grand crescent, which one might, at first view, suppose to be the work of man. At the base of this singular hill, runs a rivulet, which, in com

when the inundations occur, which are so frequent and terrible in these regions, it becomes a source of disasters to the neighbouring plantations.

At the summit of Rose Hill, is the government

government-house of Parramatta, which is called the Crescent; it is simple, elegant, and well laid out, though it derives its principal importance from its situation, which overlooks the town, as well as from its meadows, its forest, and river. T ansion is generally unin. habited; through its capacity and internal regulations are such, that whenever the governor-general and lieutenantgovernor come to it for a few days, they can have every accommodation for themselves and their whole suite.

For the Monthly Magazine.
On MANGANESE in PLANTS, being the
source of RUST in WHEAT.
Na pamphlet just published, contain-

nature, (whatever their situations in life may be,) it is consistent with reason that the same knowledge, which is thought essential to one class in society, should be withheld from the other; especially when that knowledge can be obtained without much expence, or inconvenience?

Secondly, whether it is not an asper sion of knowledge to suppose that, if communicated to the poor, it would make them worse members of society?

Thirdly, if any inconvenience should ultimately arise from such a communication, whether the fault will not be found in the order of civilization, rather than in the knowledge so imparted; since every-well regulated state ought to be so founded in wisdom, as to be strengthened, rather than weakened, by the inhabitants

I ing in analysis of a carbonated chaly- of every description becoming more en

lightened?

Fourthly, because the bodies of the poor are ill fed, and ill cloathed, does it also be left destitute? Or is it abso follow of course that their minds must lutely necessary that their minds should be kept in a state of bondage, in order that their bodies may still continue so ?

Fifthly, whether, if the last queries are answered in the affirmative, the principles on which education is denied to

the poor, are not similar to those which are urged in defence of the slave-trade?

beate, lately discovered near Stow, in Glocestershire, said to be the most powerful chalybeate yet analized, the author observes, page 24, that manga nese, which is found in the ashes of all vegetables, is, as often as iron, the colouring matter of their leaves, blossoms, &c. that manganese has the power of absorbing oxygen at a low temperature, and giving it out at a higher; which is analogous to the power that plants have, of absorbing oxygen, during the absence of the sun, and giving it out when the sun shines; that the bleached appearance of plants, not exposed to the light, bears an analogy to the effects produced by oxymuriatic acid, in bleaching linens, &c. and that to this process in vegetation, he should attribute the rust in wheat, which generally happens when the straw is being changed from a green, to a straw colour, and the process is interrupted by To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the peculiarity of the weather, or the si tuation of the trees, &c.

This is a thought that deserves some attention, and if some of your chemical readers were to pay a little attention to the subject, during the present season, they might, perhaps, be able to ascertain whether this hypothesis is true or false. August 12, 1809. Your's, &c. F. F.

Sixthly, and lastly, as it appears from the information of Sir Richard Phillips, that the lower classes are sufficiently depraved without learning, whether the experiment ought not to be tried, how they may be with it? Woburn,

SIR,

Your's, &c.
W. PILGRIM.

THINK some further account should

be given of Gaudentio di Lucca, and its real author. It has been long ascribed mine, who visited Cairo, many years to Bishop Berkeley. And a friend of ago, remembered to have heard some merchants, who accompanied a caravan to that city, from a very remote part of the desart, describe a city, which in the

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. form of its government, manners of the

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people, &c. bore a strong resemblance
to that which we find described in the
romances in question. The story, there
fore, it may be presumed, is not totally
without foundation.
Your's, &c.
E. R

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

YOU

that the proposal of Dr. Harrison, of
Horncastle, for securing to persons at a
distance from the metropolis, the me-
dical attendance of men of regular edu-
cation, had met with the attention it
deserved. This country, in the lower
classes of society, is the victim of parish-
doctors, and uneducated apothecarics.
Thousands die by the ignorance, and
still more by the neglect, of these village
practitioners: and the greatest blessing
which could be conferred upon society,
would be the interference of the legis
lature, and our college of physicians,
with regard to the character and abilities
of every man, who presumes to take
charge of the health, even of the most
contemptible hamlet.
Your's, &c.

will excuse me, if I take the liberty to express my disapprobation of one part of the "Report of Diseases," for April. I remember being impressed with the same feelings on a former occasion, for a similar reason; but I cannot readily advert to the passage at this moment. Your able and ingenious reporter, whose feelings I should be sorry to hurt by the most distant appearance of illiberality, has admitted into his Report an insulated passage from the writings of Dr. Beddoes, which, I must say, seems too general to prove any thing; and which, like other enumerations of prognostics, may have a pernicious tendency in minds, totally unacquainted with the uncertainty of this branch of Nosology. Persons of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. strong imaginations, and weak constitutions, are daily injured on this account, by consulting books of domestic medicine; and it is very often no easy task to convince them, that they are not under the influence of one or more disorders, there enumerated. Such impressions, from the intimate connexion of mind and body, produce frequently the most dangerous effects, and induce many to try the whole round of newspaper spe cifics.

In the present instance, every medical man knows, that the remark of Dr. Beddoes, as applied to particular constitutions, is perfectly just and useful. But at the same time, a fondness for general positions may, and often does, injure the cause of truth: and I am persuaded, that half of your readers (if that remark were to be received without any qualification or restriction) must instantly imagine themselves to be incipient paralytics. Let any man of sedentary habits deny, if he can, that he is in the same predicament, if the observation of Dr. Beddoes be established in this general way; "strictly speaking, whoever has less feeling, or voluntary motion, than he would have had at any given period, if no noxious power had operated upon his nervous system, may be considered as an incipient paralytic."

I think your Reporter very benevolent and judicious, in cautioning all against the neglect of early symptoms: and I would add to his admonitions, by recommending, in every such case, an application to men of great practice, and established reputation. I do sincerely wish, for the cause of suffering humanity, MONTHLY MAG. No. 189.

I

SIR,

A. B. E.

BEG to correct an error in a letter signed A. B. in your Magazine for January last, where Agricola should be read for Ostorius. I fear the letter you printed from, was not so legibly written as it ought to have been.

I now wish, through your publication, to present the public with translations of some old names of stations, and divisions of the kingdom, not as yet rationally explained: should you approve of my design, Mr. Editor, I may extend my plan to all the places in Antoninus's Iti nerary, which have hitherto been mistaken, and refer your readers to such as have already been rightly explained.

As our old settlements were uniformly named from their features of nature, and as we are liable from measurement only, erroneously to fix stations where they have no claims from their situations, I mean to prove some of the following from their denominations.

But first, I beg to premise, that in naming lands, streams, &c. it appears that our first inhabitants had a variety of particulars to consider. They could not denote water by a word for fire, nor a valley by a name for hill; they consequently called every part of nature by an appropriate name. But our hills were without number; and to have given them all proper and distinguishing names as heights, seems, at first sight, to have been impossible. It was necessary therefore, that a sufficient number of short syllables, or roots, beginning with a vowel, should be adopted. To form a variety of names from these, which should become proper ones, as in the

S

Qnental

Oriental languages, letters were prefixed; and augments, and diminutives were postfixed, as in the same languages; and as at present in the Spanish and Italian Janguages. With these prefixes, and postfixes, the original roots, or words, became proper names, were varied whereever necessary, and yet easily known, from their roots, to imply hill. In tine, however, these words were forgotten, even by the nations who adopted them, and their significations have been now lost for ages.

The same must be said of the names of other features of nature: and it is particularly to be noted, that in order to shorten names, it was necessary for every syllable to contain few letters, and to denote a word of itself. The common features of nature, to which we allude, are few, and the names of hills, vales, plains, rivers, &c. with those for their sides, or borders, are all we have to account for they must therefore, in description, be constantly recurring; but on account of their prefixes, and postfixes, they must occur in various forms. Their translations also must be frequently alike, and we must not expect, where only hills, plains, dales, and rivers, are described, to find particulars, the imports of which refer not to them. A settlement, named from an hill, must be translated a height in every situation, and the augment, or diminutive, when any, points out whether it be high or great, low or little. These names were originally land-marks, although they could not, from their brevity, describe every particular form of the heights.

In recent times we have considered, that settlements must have taken names from the situations of our towns; but in this we have greatly erred: settlements were formed and named, before towns were built; their whole territories were considered, and their principal natural features gave naines to the other parts.

Vindonum is a station, about which, much difference of opinion hath taken place. Vin, in Vinovium, is become Bin, in Binchester; and Vin in Vindonum is now Sil, in Silchester: but Bin, or Binn, is Gaelic for Hill; and in ny last, I proved Sil to imply Hill; and as dunum, or donum, answers to Chester, Silchester is doubtless the ancient Vindonum.

Vindomis, is another name for this place. N, was often changed to M; Vindon and Vindom are therefore the same. The ending is is derived the

same as it is in Ischalis, comes from Ais, a camp, and answers to Chester. Ischalis, as al is generally an augment, seems to be wrongly spelt it was named, from lying on the stream, Ic-el. Iv is a variation of Av water, and el a diminutive. Ise is also water, and requires el to follow, as an appropriate name for a low situation on a sinali river.

Caleva, is another station: its site is unknown, and no translation of its name seems to guide us to the original meaning. We must, therefore, have recourse to general terms. But in this we may encounter uncertainty. The different spellings of Caleva, may vary the import of the word.

Durolevum, is as yet an unknown station; and antiquaries are much divided in opinion concerning its situa tion; for the measures in the copies of Antoninus not agreeing, and no other method, but of examining the remains, which has failed, having been resorted to, we have been left totally in the dark, as to the place of this station. Bapcheld is considered the place by the Continuator of Camden: Lenham, by Camden, Lambarde, and Gale: Charing, or Sit tingbourne, by Talbot and Stukeley: Sittingbourne, by Horsley and Baxter: and Newington, by Sonner, Burton, Stillingfleet, Battely, and Thorpe. Mr. Hested, to whom much praise is due for his impartiality, seems to think Ospringe the place, although he hints, so much has been said of Newington, that his reader should be left to his option, to place it at either of these places.

In another century, nothing will surprise men so much as our old notions, that names of places are arbitrary, and describe not their situations; and they will in many cases agree, that it would have been inore rational to have examined their original imports from language, than to have measured them by the chain, or by the yard. But let us attend to the elucidation of this point, and to fixing this station. The word Dur, is water: Leim, or Leiv, often written Lim, Liv, and Lev, is Gaelic for an harbour, a spring, &c. and Am, or Um, often mean border: the name therefore implies, the Water-spring Border (settlement:) and in this territory rises a stream, which runs through it into the Swale. The Saxons, in many cases, translated old names by other Gaelic words; but in rendering this, they have drawn partly from their own stock. The

word

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