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word Ouse, Ose, or Os water, was adopted by them, in giving a new name to the Ure, at York: they translated Tam, in the Tamer, by the word Ose, in Kamose; finally, they rendered Durolevum, Ospringe, or Os-springe; spring being a Saxon term. The uncertainty then of the place of this station, can no longer exist; nor would any have arisen, had we heretofore been acquainted with the old method of giving names.

To return to Caleva, whose site is unknown: the distance from London favours not Reading; for when the distance of this town and Speen is consi. dered, Reading will not lay claim to that honour. Coley, near this place, has been imagined to be Caleva; but Coley seems to be derived, as small streams of this name. From Speen the Itinerary distance lies near, or at Calcot. Caleva, may be derived from Cal, an hill, as in Caledonia, mentioned in a former letter; and Av water, varied Ev; and the place may be rendered, the water-bill settlement.

Reading is certainly not a transiation of Caleva, nor is it derived, as imagined, from the Saxon language. It may be derived from Read, a stream, as mentioned by former writers; or from rad, a road. Cæsar represents the country as filled with houses, and consequently the lands were all named. The word ing has been variously rendered: in is land, the n in it is generally pronounced ng. The plural of the compound word rad, or read-inges, denotes that the lands lay on the borders of Streams, or of the roads; and the name appears as ancient, as other old names given before the arrival of the Saxons. From the Roman Itineraries it appears, that the conquerors of this isle latinized our old names, but added few new ones. The Saxons found the lands named, as did the Romans, and this people also generally adopted the old denominations, altering here and there the terminations; and when they did alter the whole name, it was often by translating it in other old words, not of their own language, placing the adjec tives before the substantives, which in the old name were placed after. Thus Neason, an old name of an kill in Devon, which gave denomination to a district around it, they translated Morchard. It appears indeed that names, as originally given in the early part of the world, were continued nearly the same, for the same features of nature: and it is therefore by comparing old terms with one another, and these with the situations which they

represent, that we can find their original uses, and retrieve their meanings. To words of languages, which have undergone a variety of changes, we cannot safely refer; and from languages which contain scarcely the words, or the roots of our old terms, in their original meanings, it will prove ridiculous to hunt for etymons. The people who first gave names, formed them with judgment, and from design; few terms only, arising from our sensations, or from our perceptions of the objects around us, were, in the old languages of the world, the roots from which all other words, distinguishing the features of nature, were gradually formed. Many of these last, though derived from different sources, are now found similar in their orthography; and hence, and from our not comprehending that the roots of these words express their sense, difficulties have arisen in rendering old terms. Ambiguities arise, not from common words of the original language, for these were formed and varied, to convey common ideas only; but in the knowledge of proper names, necessarily formed for every district, and for every local purpose; the number of which exceed our ordinary conception, and whose roots only, in the common language, denote the names of places, and of natural things, we have certainly been deficient.

We have too often run to languages, which have undergone a variety of changes, to hunt for the etymologies of places. A late critic, writing on the word Liverpool, considered the natives who first gave names to our features of nature, to be savages, and at the same time supposed that this name was derived from two languages. But this was admitting, that our first inhabitants, who named the lands, were learned savages. I will neither affirm, nor deny, the learn ing of these people; but after a minute examination, I cannot admit that they resorted to more than their own language.

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A remarkable instance occurs, to point out the expediency of attending to the last-mentioned particulars. The town of Southwell, was, in Saxon times, named Tiovulfing acester. Henry of Hunting don writes the name," says an author, "Fingecester; but gives the same account of Paulinus going from Lincoln, after the foundation of that church was laid, to baptize in the Trent. I am not clear, (this author continues,) but the baptismal ceremony performed by Paulinus, might

be

be the event from which the ancient name of this place originated. I suppose it to be a compound of Roman and of Saxon, which many of our names, as well of persons, as of places, certainly are; and the words of which it is compounded to be a Saxon one, Tioli, signifying industry, whence it is in some places written, Tiolingacester; the Roman word Vulgus, the Multitude; the Saxon one, Fengan, to lay hands on; and then the Roman again, Castrum, anglicized in the word Cester, or station. Thus analysed, it signifies the place where much industry was employed, in laying hands on the multitude." Thus

far our author.

But we have, Tivoli in Italy, on the Tiverone. This place was originally named Tibur, from Tib or Tiv, a stream, and Ur border; Ur, in later times, was changed to Ul, and Ol, as in a variety of other words, where R hath changed to L. Fin, pronounced fing, implies little; A may imply hill, or be a letter here only used in composition; Cester is Camp. Tiovulfingacester then implies, not "the place where much industry was ployed, in laying hands on the multitude," but the Stream Border little Hill Camp; and this perfectly describes the old Roman camp at Southwell.

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I have, in my last, explained the term Biproci. The Cenimanni dwelt on the Kennett, and were denominated in this name by Lake Landers; as were those of Norfolk, &c. The Segontraci have not been rightly explained, but are derived from Segh, an bill; Gon, or Con, a lake; and Toiche country; were the Lake Hill Country Men, and dwelt on the hills at the head of the lake. The Ancalites, from An water; Cal, an hill; and Ait, a place, were the Water-hill Inhabitants. Mr. Baxter accounts these shepherds to the Attrebates; but they were, I conceive, the inhabitants in and around Caleva: for Cat in both is the same, and An water in the one, the same as do, varied to Ev, in the other.

The Attrebates have been strangely rendered. These lying on the borders of the Thames, would most likely have their name derived partly from the water which bounded them. Accordingly, from Ad water, which is as often written At, or Att; Re, which in our old names is often written for er border, (as in the river Otter, which is also written Otre, Ottre, and Autre,) and Buit, which signities the same as Ait a place; is the

name Attrebates derived, and implies the Stream Border Inhabitants.

The Cassieuchlani I shall next consider: this word has also never been rightly rendered. Much indeed has been unsatisfactorily and irrationally said upon it. Caise is Gaelic, for stream. I have in my last letters explained the word Ac, or Ach, border. Its variations to Ock, Uch, and Euch, may be easily traced from examples. From the syllable lann, we derive our word land; and hence the Cassieuchlani, will likewise imply, what they were, Stream Borderers.. The Dobuni, from dob a stream and en land, varied to an and un, are proved in a late treatise to mean the same.

In my last, I explained Speen, and now proceed on the same road; Verlucio, from Uir, Vir, or Ver, border, and Luc, a lake, or stream, was rightly rendered by the Saxons, Leckham, the first syllable of which is also stream, and Ham, a varis ation of hem, border.

Verulam, or Verolann, as well as the before-mentioned names, has never been rightly rendered. The samne fancies and absurdities are repeated in explanations of this name, as the reader will find, who examines, as in the foregoing. Ulverston is situated at the confluence of two streams: Ul is derived from Av water, changed to Au, and this to Al and Ul; so that Ul implies water in the river Ulles, in Ulles water, and in other names; Ver means, as before, border; and Ston, land. In like manner, Verul will imply the border water; and Lann, is land; Verulam, therefore, as n and m were used indiscriminately in this name, will imply the Water Border Land.

The Trinobuntes have been variously rendered, but, except in one treatise, not correctly; I wish, however, further to elucidate this term; so that hereafter, no one who may write hereon shall, against the honour of our country, amuse us with so many idle and absurd stories, as the reader may easily find in authors who have explained this and the foregoing terms. The word aighe, implies an hill; and it takes a prefix in Baighe, which also implies hill in Baighe Torr, or Baigtorr, and in many other names of hills: this last has r inserted in Braighe, or Brighe, the Gaelic for hill. In like manner, An water, takes a prefix in Can, a lake, or stream; and this has r inserted in Cran, or Crane, a stream. These words take prefixes, for the purpose mentioned in the beginning of this letter,

as

as well as to form stronger sounds, and to shorten and render less open, notwith standing the addition of a letter, the pronunciation. They also take inserted letters, for the sake of euphoniously expressing the terms into which they are introduced. But to proceed: the word an water, is often varied to in, ein, ain, &c. in names of streams. In the river Tine, this word takes the prefix t, as it does in Tain, which is also Gaelic for

water.

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MANCHESTER.

The river Teign, or Teing, is WHILE you are traversing the steep

pronounced Ting; with r, inserted as before, this would become Tring. On one of the heads of the river Thames, are the parishes of Tring, and Little Tring, derived from the water on which they border; the one being a good stream, the other a small one. You will easily perceive, Mr. Editor, that Trin, with the n pronounced hard, as ng, (which is one of the sounds of this letter, in the Gaelic, from whence this term is derived,) this word becomes Tring; that Trin, in the Trinobantes, implies stream; and that it must have been a name for this river, from the Bibroci, to its mouth. Moreover, the river Tern, is latinized Trinius, as an old name, in Baxter's Glossary.

The Trinoban'es are written by Tacitus Trinoantes: the word an is often a variation of en land, and it is even more used in old terms, than en; but to make it a stronger syllable only, it took the prefix b. The same may be said of the ending of an in t. T' and d were very frequently added after n, to strengthen the sound of the syllable. Hence Trinoant, or Trinobant, will imply the stream land; but if o shall be accounted a plural ending, or an augment in this word, the Great Stream Land, or the Land on the Streams. The plural of Trinobant, or the Trinobantes, which denotes the inhabitants, will mean the Dwellers on the great Stream Land.

Trin, or Tren, being the same in old names (for in such they used the vowels e and i, indiscriminately;) and the river Trent being formerly written Tren, as may be seen in Shayd's Archæologia, this was derived in a late work in substance, as above-mentioned. In a review of this work, the critic finding Tren, implying rapid, in the common words of the Welsh language, conceived that this adjective, or quality, (which caunot be the name of a thing) gave name to the river Tren; and he remarked that Trent

The river Ting, is pronounced as here written, in Teignmouth; but it is pronounced Tain, in Drewsteignton.

mountains of Wales, or exploring your way in the majestic wilds of Lan cashire, I still remain in London, a votary to the arts; and till the vacation excludes me for a time from their temples, I shall remain a constant devotee. You ask me for news in the world of Art. Mr. Shee has published his new poem called the Elements of Art; and when I tell you I am pleased only short of the pleasure I received when I first read what he modestly called " Rhymes on Art," you may be convinced it is in no slight degree. Of the exhibition you must already have learned much from the maga zines, which, with the newspapers, generally praise it, and I think very deservedly. The first part of the new series of the Artist has made its appearance, which I have forwarded with a few other books for your perusal, and, I trust, gratification. But to return to the sculptural antiquities of the BRITISH Museum.

Led by the Muse, my steps pervade
The sacred haunts, the peaceful shade
Where Art and SCULPTURE reign.
I see, I see, at their command,
The living stones in order stand,

And breathe through every vein.
Time breaks his hostile scythe; he sighs
To find his power malignant fled;
Ah! what avails my dart, he cries,

Since these can animate the dead?
Since wak'd to mimic life again in stone,

The patriot seems to speak, the hero frown?
Such are thy works, O sculpture! thine to show
In bardest rock, a feeling sense of woe !"

Dodsley.

(Room 6.)-No. 47 is a fine antique eagle; and 48, a triangular base of a candelabrum, the sides of which are ornamented with a griffin, a raven, and a tripod, which are among the attributes of Apollo, to whose honour, it is probable, this candelabrum was dedicated. The origin of this fabulous creature, the griffin, is supposed by Elian, in the 4th book of his History of Animals, to have taken place in India. Its general form is well known, though it differs in some representations. According to the above

named

the arts, particularly sculpture, afford to history. This antique is the front of a votive altar, with an inscription for the safe return of Septimius Severus and his family from some expedition, probably that which he made to Britain. Some parts of the inscription are effaced; these appear to have contained the name of his son Geta, which, by a severe edict of of his brother Caracalla, was ordered to` be erased from every inscription throughout the empire. This monster (Caracalla) after attempting to murder his father in Britain, succeeded him, with his brother Geta, whom historians relate to have been a very accomplished amiable young man; jealous, however, of his superiority, he stabbed him in the arins of their mother Julia, at the age of 23, and pursued his malice after death in the way this monument evinces. After wantoning in cruelty, and marrying his mother-in-law, he met his deserved fate from one of his guards, at Edessa, in 217. No. 65, is a bust of this wretch; the head only is antique.-68, is a groupe of a greyhound dog and bitch, most charmingly and naturally executed, and in the finest state of preservation-one of them is biting the ear of the other in play.-You perhaps think me tedious; and I think myself omissive, in passing so many articles, all of which are most interesting in themselves; you will therefore suffer my admiration of this extraordinary assemblage of valuables of the ancient world, and your own request of me to be explicit, to be my apology. Here are two fine busts of Jupiter Serapis, several of Roman emperors, frag

named author, its back was covered with jet black feathers, its breast with red, and its wings were white. According to Ctesias, the hinder part of its neck was covered with feathers of a most brilliant and glossy blue; it had the beak of an eagle, and very fiery eyes. Ancient authors make it inhabit only mountains and desolate places; and some say it is only a native of Ethiopia, and unless it was taken very young it was impossible to be tamed. It was supposed to be so large, that drinking cups were made from its talons, which were at least as large as a bull's horn. The sister of Charles the Fifth possessed a very handsome cup of a material resembling agate, that was said to be made from the claw of a griffin. And even Gesner speaks of a similar cup that belonged to a goldsmith ef Zurich. That it was one of the symbols of Apollo, we have the authority of Buonarotti, who, in his work on "Medaglioni Antichi," says, that the Greeks, without understanding the reason, received it for the worship of that god from the Oriental nations. Philostratus also says, in his Life of Apollonius, that the Indians constantly represented Apollo (or the sun) in a quadriga drawn by griffins. I shall, in pursuance of my former plan, only mention a few of the principal articles, leaving the rest for verbal description when you visit London. I shall therefore skip to No. 52, a fine statue of Libera (says the Synopsis) holding a thyrsus over the right shoulder, and a bunch of grapes in her left hand; at her feet is a panther. No. 55, is a statue of Ceres, of apparently early workman ship, crowned in the manner of Iris.ments of masks, and votive feet, one of 58. A sepulchral cippus, which appears to have been never used, as it is without an inscription. On the front, beneath a festoon, which is composed of fruits and foliage, suspended from the skulls of bulls, are two birds perched on the edge of a vase, out of which they are drinking, There are several sepulchral urns, and Greek funeral monuments of invaluable worth, particularly one to Deucocles, containing a basso-relievo, and eight elegiac verses in Greek. A fine statue of the infant Bacchus, (No. 13,) particularly merits attention. He appears as a boy about five years old. His head is crowned with a wreath of ivy, and the body partly covered with a goat skin. No. 64 recals to my mind such a scene of atrocity in the Roman history, as makes one shudder at the monsters the world has given birth to. This is one of the important proofs of the necessary aid which

which, No. 80, has a sandal; round it a serpent is twined, with its head resting on the summit, which terminates a little above the ancle. The serpent is the wellknown symbol of Esculapius. Why may we not suppose this votive foot to be the offering of some Roman epicure to the god of health for relief from a fit of the gout! No. 81, is an earthen vase, which has two handles at the neck, and terminates in a point at the bottom like an amphora. This is more than intrinsically valuable, from the circumstance of its having been found in the baths of Titus, with about seventy others of the same sort: all of them contained the fine African sand, with which, when mixed with oil, the Athlete rubbed their bodies before they exercised. No. 85,is a head of Sabina; and 88, is a singular groupe of an Egyptian tumbler, standing on his hands, with his feet upwards, on

the

the back of a young tame crocodile. No. 92, is a trophy found on the celebrated plains of Marathon. No. 94, a head of the celebrated and libidinous Valeria Messalina. No. 99, is a head of Jupiter Serapis, highly characteristic of the god. The paint with which the face was anciently coloured is still discernible. No. 100, with which this room finishes, is an exquisitely fine basso-relievo, which formerly was one of the ornamental pauncls on the triangular base of a candelabrum. It represents a female Bacchante dressed in floating drapery, through which the beautiful forms of her body are perfectly apparent. With one hand, which is held above her head, she holds a knife, and at the same time secures a portion of her robe, which is blown behind her. With the other, which is held downwards, she carries the kind quarter of a kid.

The seventh room is also devoted to Roman antiquities, the majority of which have been discovered in England. No. 1, is a beautiful groupe, representing a Faun struggling with a Nymph: the size is smaller than life, which has been assigned as one reason of its beauty, upon an hypothesis that a thing to be beautiful should be small. They are both rude figures; their limbs are entwined with the greatest skill, and evince the most perfect knowledge of the art in the sculptor. The passions of anger in the one, and fear of disappointment in the other, are well expressed. This groupe, for obvious reasons, is placed in an obscure and rather dark corner. No. 2, is a pig of lead, with the name of the Emperor Domitian impressed upon it. It was discovered in the year 1731, under ground, on Hayshaw Moor, in the manor of Dacre, in the west riding of Yorkshire, and was left by will to the Museum by Sir John Ingilby, bart. No. 3, 5, and 6, are also pigs of lead; the first, inscribed with the name of Lucius Aruconius Verecundus, found near Matlock, in Derbyshire; the second has the name of the Emperor Hadrian upon it, found in the year 1796, in a farm called Snailbeach, in the parish of Westbury, ten miles S.W. of Salop; and the other is also inscribed with the name of Hadrian, found on Cromford Moor, in Derbyshire. No. 7, is a large sepulchral cippus, with an inscription to Agria Agatha. No. 8, is a puteal or cover to a well, three feet high, and three feet in diameter. This is a cylinder of marble placed over the central diameter of a well, and orna

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(Continued from vol. xxvii. p. 438.) NOW to those of admiration, the statues of eminent per sonages, princes, and deities; of which Callistrates says, "that sciences appear animate only by the fire of the poets, and the tongue of orators, under the divine inspiration; but that the artist equally partakes of celestial guidance and supernatural emotions; and, in the expression of their works, where the enthusiasm and divine œstrum strikes the judicious mind with no less force." Statues have gained to themselves lovers, subjects, and worshippers. It appears that, for a long time, Argos and Ephesus, and other cities, had no other sovereigns than their goddesses and their temples, and that the former distinguished its years by the names of the priestesses of Juno. The passion of the young Periathian for the Venus of Gnidos, is too well-known to dwell on the circumstance here. Philostratus mentions another, in the time of Domitian, who squandered away the best part of his fortune in presents to a temple, from a delirious hope of marrying its goddess. The magistrates and people of Gnidos, countenanced this prodigious frenzy, as enhan cing the fame of their town and its deity, and drawing thither a vast resort of people. Yet this statue was not the only one which kindled these extraordinary desires. That of Good-Fortune, at Athens, had a lover of one of the best families in the city; and so violent was his passion, that, as lian tells us, the magistrates not allowing of his purchasing it, after making very splendid sacrifices and presents to this inaccessible and unalienable mistress, he stabbed himself as the last victim.

However surprising

these effects may seem, it is no less certain, that by such statues men were drawn from the worship of the Supreme

Being

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